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Title: Issues and Challenges of Choice Based Credit System: Insights from University of Kashmir
Abstract :

In a bid to revamp higher education and bring all the Universities and Colleges under a single Umbrella of grading, learning and standards in the country, the University Grants Commission (UGC) in 2014 came up with a scheme called Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) with the directive that all Universities and other higher education institutions follow this program from 2015 onwards. The main intent behind the CBCS is to have the flexibility of choosing a course by students, as observed in many European and American Universities. The University of Kashmir has already introduced this scheme in its PG courses from the academic session 2014. The CBCS is a flexible approach to learning in which students have a freedom to choose inter-disciplinary, intra-disciplinary and skill-oriented courses making education broad-based and on par with global standards. The system is based on semester pattern and entails awarding grades rather than marks. However, during the implementation of this system in higher education institutions, there are many challenges which require attention and discussion in order to put it on the right track. Therefore the objective of the present paper is to find out issues and challenges of Choice Based Credit System.

Title: A Study to Reveal the Teachersí Perspective about the Classroom Processes and Provisions related to Children with Dyslexia
Abstract :

The study was conducted with the objective of finding out the classroom process and provisions related to children with dyslexia from teachers’ perspective. This study was conducted at schools of Delhi region. Significance of the findings in relation to the wider inclusive educational ideology is discussed and suggestions are made by the investigator on the basis of the findings of the study.

Title: Use of Educational Satellite in Teacher Education
Abstract :
The universalization of education has become the top priority for developing country like India. The lack of adequate rural infrastructure and non-availability of good teachers in sufficient numbers is adversely affecting the teachinglearning process and hence the goal of quality education is far from reality. The teacher educators need to be trained professionally to face the situations in the classroom. Effective response to such a complicated challenge to educate millions with quality could be possible by satellite based ICT enabled education. ICT enabled educational delivery modes is possible only with right kind of satellite support. Thus the effort to change the national scenario in the area of education has already been initiated by (ISRO) by launching EDUSAT. The teacher training through distance mode is now an established system in India, especially after launching of dedicated satellite for education ďEDUSATĒ. National and state level agencies have been organizing various training programs for teachers through EduSat. It has solved the
problem of shortage of trained teachers, lack of quality teaching especially in the rural areas, teacher absenteeism, and uniform quality education. One must realize that to face such a complicated challenge the known traditional methods and conventional response will be far too inadequate. Thus the present article discusses the use of educational satellite (EDUSAT) for teacher orientation/ training in teacher education. This paper highlights about the EDUSAT, its uses, network configuration etc.. This paper is an attempt to describe the major programs conducted by CIET, NCERT through EDUSAT for orientation of teachers.
Title: ICT-Based Education: A Paradigm shift in India
Abstract :

Information and Communication Technologies are today playing a very important role in transforming the mode of imparting education. Education at all levels has been significantly impacted by the tremendous innovations in ICT especially in the field of telecommunications and multimedia applications. A few decades ago, technological devices like radio, television, film strips, OHP, audio and video cassettes were used to make teaching effective and enhance learning. But now a days, teaching and learning has been enhanced by a vast array of ICT based technologies in the form of interactive radio, teleconferencing, web based and satellite based services. ICT provides opportunities to access an abundance of information using multiple information resources and viewing information from multiple perspectives, thus fostering the authenticity of learning environments. The world in which we live is changing rapidly and the field of education is experiencing these changes in particular as it applies to media services. The old days of an educational institution having an isolated audio-visual department are long gone! The growth in use of multimedia within the education sector has accelerated in recent years and looks set for continued expression in the future. The present paper focuses on integration of ICTs in educational system in India and highlights on present educational scenario. This paper is an attempt to draw attention on policies implementation regarding ICT integration and effectiveness of teaching-learning environment.

Title: A Comparative study on the Teaching Competency between Novice and Veteran Teachers in the Teaching Learning Process of Secondary School of Bilaspur City Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

Education in the broadest sense of the term is meant to aid the human being in his/her pursuit of wholeness. Wholeness implies the harmonious development of all the potentialities God has given to a human person. Researcher has taken variable teaching competency on teaching of novice and veteran teacher. The teacher acquires that knowledge through his continuous efforts and learns presentation during their training which determines his effectiveness. This research study is mainly of an exploratory nature. It is a comparative study of teaching competency between the Novice teachers’ (whom are new in teaching profession with the idea of new generations & their demands & E- technology, ICT and practice of new methods and trends in teaching-learning process) and Veteran teachers’ (whom are having plenty of years of experience in the teaching-learning process and pedagogy) of Secondary school (Government and Private both with the Affiliation of CBSE) of Bilaspur city.

Title: Developing Concepts in Physics Through Virtual Lab Experiment: An Effectiveness Study
Abstract :
For physics learning, labs plays very active and significant role as it is essential to develop concepts and principles because students are continuously required to identify the hidden concepts, define and explain underlying laws and theories using high level reasoning skills. It is time and again observed that traditional real time physics laboratory has some limitations and problems in developing these concepts etc. In present given scenario of ICT, virtual lab
through computer simulation based method of teaching physics is emerging as one of the most powerful method of experimentation in lab. The present study was conducted to see the effectiveness of virtual lab for developing concepts
in physics. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Virtual Lab for studentsí understanding of concepts of physics. The findings of the present study clearly revealed that student learned concepts of photoelectric effect through virtual lab in a better way as compared to real lab. The study also suggested the use of virtual labs in physics teaching, especially for teaching of concepts.
Title: Computer Attitude of Teachers in Relation to their Level of Instruction
Abstract :
ICT is not only the backbone of the Information Age, but also an important catalyst for inducing educational reforms that could transform students from passive recipients of knowledge to pioneers of the learning process. Today, technology is an integral learning tool for promoting the social,
linguistic, and cognitive development of children of all ages. To achieve the goal of a technological revolution in education however, it is imperative that both teachers and students develop the necessary knowledge and skills sought in this digital age. The present descriptive research aimed to compare
computer attitudes of teachers employed at different levels of instruction in an attempt to discern whether the curriculum and activities included at a particular teaching stage had any influence on their computer attitudes. The findings of the study revealed the fact that primary and secondary
school teachers showed a significant difference in their computer attitudes, while those of schools and colleges were comparable in terms of each of the variables considered. These results could provide important implications for enhancing the curriculum across the different teaching stages in an attempt to bring about the necessary attitudinal changes in teachers toward the use of computers in a technology driven age.
Title: Problems and Prospects of Teaching Integrated Science in Secondary Schools in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria
Abstract :
The purpose of the work is to find out reasons for poor teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire. Data for the study were obtained by administering 360 questionnaires to 360 students. Five public secondary schools and five private secondary schools were selected. 36 students were sampled randomly from each secondary school making a total of 360. 300 questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and stanine test. The study recommended that government should employ specialist Integrated science teachers, and schools should endeavor to see that only qualified teachers are allowed to handle integrated science subject in secondary schools. Moreover,
curriculum developers should review and reduce the syllabus to a manageable size (without reducing the quality at that level) for both teachers and students.
Title: Revisiting Integrated Science Education in Rural Southern Nigeria: Perspectives on Teacherís Job Status and Satisfaction
Abstract :
The main purpose of this study was to find out the factors affecting career and professional development in science education in the rural Southern Nigeria. Five specific objectives were drawn for the study: (1) To identify the status and quality of science education teachers in these areas (2) To examine the condition of service of these science education teachers. (3) To find out factors affecting their career development (4) To explain the main factors affecting these teachers in their professionalism
(5) To propose ways of enhancing science education teachers career development. The study uses 300 post primary school science education teachers, randomly selected from 30 post primary schools in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. The researcher used questionnaire as the main instrument for data collection and also interacted with these teachers both males and females. The study indicated among others, that science education teachers in the Region faced the problem of lack of science equipment and laboratories/infrastructure in their schools due to remoteness of some of these schools, environmental problems, community oil company conflicts and socio-cultural factors that hinders science education teachers motivation consequently, the low and delayed salaries and allowances that has resulted in the low esteem and status of science education teachers job status and career satisfaction
Title: Concept Mapping as an Effective Teaching Practice in Science in Education
Abstract :
To impart instructions in science keeping in view the dynamic nature of learner, subject and environment there is imperative need to work out some constructivist approach which must focus on meaningful learning also-Concept Mapping is such response in this regard which, being a two dimensional technique for hierarchical arrangement of concepts, sub concepts and their relationship(s), represents the cognitive structure of learner with respect to the concerned concept(s) in context. Over the years, the effectiveness of concept mapping as instructional -, diagnosing-, evaluative -and nurturing tool has been positively proved.
Title: Integration of ICT in Teacher Education for Enhancing Competency Based Teaching
Abstract :
The progress of any country depends upon the quality of education offered and its practices. Indian education was well known for its Gurukul system of education in the Vedic age. Education in India has undergone various phases and stages of development starting in the Vedic age to the post-independent period. The great Indian thinkers had emphasized on developing the inner potential of individuals by reflecting on unique potential of individuals. The recent developments in technology have changed the world outside the classroom. The information technology has made learner WWWafflicted.
This is because technological developments have brought developments in two ways: First, by enhancing human capabilities by helping people to participate actively in social, economic, and political life in a society at large.
Secondly, by giving advantage to technological innovation as a means for human development due to economic progress and increased productivity. As ICT is becoming an integral element for educational reforms and innovations at secondary schools, this situation calls for an enhancement of pre-service education on ICT for prospective teachers. The present paper focuses on the use of integration of ICT into pre service level for both trainees as well as for teacher-educators.
Title: Motivational factors and teachers job attitude with respect to Herzberg motivation-hygiene theory
Abstract :

Motivation is an internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction; desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior; influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior. Motivating employees and driving their energy towards organizational goals have been a major question for managers. Many theories have been given to understand motivation, one such theory is Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which casts a new light on the content of work motivation. This paper discusses and compares effect of achievement , recognition and challenging work , increased responsibility etc on job attitude of male and female employees.

Title: Education Technology ó A Blend of Product and Idea Technology
Abstract :
Teaching-learning is a challenging job. The study comprises a flashback of educational technology in the light of present educational system. The two known types of educational technology Ė Idea and Product technology plays an integral part in teaching and learning. Both complement each other in keeping pace with the education system. The use of idea and product technology involves two trends in teaching-learning system Ė traditional and contemporary roles. The traditional system emphasizes the use of product technology. On the other hand, the present system throws light on idea technology. It has been seen that a combination of idea and product technology ensures a desirable feedback in studentsí learning. As
a result the entire teaching-learning system reflects the transformation of oneís learning philosophy from behavioral to cognitive. The introduction of contemporary principles adds to the conversion of instruction into construction in the teaching learning process.
Title: Language Learning Through Media: Role of Radio
Abstract :
Language learning is based on the mastery of the four basic skills-listening, speaking, reading and writing. The first step in learning any language is listening. All the other skills depend on how far the learner has got the opportunity to listen to the language and that too by authentic speakers of that language. As English language is not the mother tongue (MT) of any group of people in India, so children do not get much practice in listening, as a consequence their speaking skill is also adversely affected. Although new approaches to English teaching like behavioral and humanistic approaches
provide better scope for practicing these skills but English teaching in Indian schools have not been oriented according to these approaches. The need of the hour is, that our English teachers get well trained in the four basic skills so that they can be a model speaker with accurate pronunciation and accent for their students and are well prepared to use modern techniques and modern approaches to make English teaching interesting and flawless for their students and are well equipped to supplement their classroom English teaching with other medias. Radio is a powerful media at present in our country due to its economic feasibility and its wide broadcasting. It offers the possibility of extensive deployment in education because of available infrastructure and low cost of producing programmes. Radio is the electronic magic carpet that has the capacity to transport educational opportunities to faraway places impacting our social, political and cultural life. Radio broadcast and interactive radio is a very good tool that can serve to supplement class room instruction
especially of English efficiently and effectively. Radio educational programmes can provide good speakers of English to students and give them a very clear and interesting explanation of grammatical concepts. Interactive radio can help to improve speaking skill. Although Radio broadcast no doubt has its potential in education but it has not been very well accepted and adequately utilized by schools. One of the main reasons of this is that teachers are not sensitive and are not trained to integrate the radio programmes with their class room teaching. The present paper discusses the ways to utilize radio in helping English teacher trainees to master English language in an effective manner and help them to utilize the benefit of radio in English learning of their students.
Title: Curricular and Co-Curricular Dimensions of Environmental Education
Abstract :

The planet Earth is the abode of man, an intelligent creature of nature. It also houses other living beings. Man influences and is influenced by all these living & non-living creations of nature. The totality of all such subjects is usually referred to as his environment. As civilization progressed and science advanced, man started creating his own artificial environment. The consequence of this was the emergence of several serious problems for natural environment. Therefore, there was a need to create awareness in our students. A need was felt for an ‘Education about Environment’, which should form an integral part of curriculum at all levels of schooling. In recent years, Environmental Education has become a necessity for existence of human life. Various educational organizations (UGC, NCERT etc.) are engaged in making provision for the imparting of this education at various educational stages. The present paper attempts to highlight the major curricular and co-curricular dimensions of Environmental Education. It emphasizes the need to make the curriculum transaction more activity oriented, locale specific, problems and issues oriented. The paper explains the various pedagogical approaches, which can be followed for effective teaching-learning of environmental issues. The paper attempts to relate some of the well-known teaching methodologies & techniques with the teaching of environmental education. It is evident that both the curricular & co-curricular activities play major role in imparting quality education. Therefore, the paper presents the importance of some of the co-curricular activities like environmental games, songs, activities, competitions in making environmental education more interesting, effective, and active.

Title: Parents Expectation of Classroom Teaching Practices
Abstract :
Multimedia and animation may evoke misconceptions or hinder studentsí in meaningful learning. This paper focuses on parents expectation regarding the use of multimedia in primary section for developing students interest in learning, and analyze the current class room teaching practices as well as expectation of parents of ideal class room teaching to develop interest in subjects and increase learning capability of children The traditional (black board + chalk) method of teaching and learning is not providing accelerated learning process, because traditional method of teaching is text based.
Consequently, multimedia technology nowadays plays a significant role in the universal globalization of information. Total no. of respondents was 144, their wards were studying in classes 1st to 5th. Our study indicated that the automation of the parentís expectation for ideal classroom, for developing interest and improving learning capability of children. The priority of the parameters with the obtained values of the first and second moment, etc. was observed with the help of skewness. The distance learning is highly negatively skewed than the lecture. Therefore it provides the automation of the parentís expectation for ideal classroom, for developing interest and improving learning capability of children. The paper concludes that parents think multimedia and animation method of teaching make children more creative and efficient than traditional (black board + chalk) mainly in primary sections because students are so small and their thinking is too narrow. It is tough for children to understand their new teacher handwriting on black board with marker
and chalk
Title: Instructional Television Utilization for the Enhancement of Cognitive Learning Skills: Implication for the Challenges in Science Education
Abstract :
This paper focused on Instructional television utilization for the enhancement of cognitive learning skills. The study adopted a quasi experimental design with two classes comprising of forty students each for the study. Two hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. Physics achievement test was developed and validated with a reliability coefficient of 0.71. Data were analyzed using t-test statistics and results revealed that there was a significant difference in the use
of instructional television on the performance of students while there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students in the experimental group. Recommendations were made that instructional television should be used in teaching Physics due it abstract nature.
Title: Use of ICT in Teaching, Learning and Governance in Colleges
Abstract :

Education plays a very vital and strategic role in the society. It is related not only to the development of the individual and the acquisition of knowledge but also to character formation. Higher education mostly concentrate on imparting information but with the present infrastructure, class size, availability of teachers, training of teachers etc. it is difficult to achieve up to date information. ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is increasingly becoming crucial part of the education systems and its Governance. Application of ICT has brought about markedly drastic technological, Social and economical changes. These Changes have caused educational institution, administrations and teachers to reconsider their roles, teaching and vision for futures. The proper integration of ICT with teaching-learning environment and governance increases quality of education and incensement in productivity. The growing use of ICT has changed strategies employed by both teachers and students in teaching learning processes. ICT is playing an important role in bringing about qualitative change in every aspect of human life in general and that of governance of education in particular.

Title: Concerns of School in Nurturing Peace Education
Abstract :

These days we are living in a very disturbing society where violence, aggression and argument have become so common for no cause most of times. People are behaving very inhumanly. Most often these violence or conflicts occur due to misunderstanding and unknowingness of the facts. Hence, these misunderstanding and unknowingness posing new threats to our society. In this regard, learning to live with and in peace is prime concerns of peace education. Across the Education world, peace education is gaining attention in the policies and thereby, in the curriculum and syllabus of education. With the growing recognition and attention, school is being identified as a key role player in setting and facilitating peace education. In the beginning of the article meaning of peace is stated thereafter, it tries to differentiate between the concepts of Peace Education and Education for Peace. It also outlines the various role of school in setting of aims and objectives and implementation strategies of peace education.

Title: Focus Group Discussion in Qualitative Research
Abstract :

Qualitative research is a generic term for investigative methodologies described as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field, or participant observer research. There are many method of collection of data in the qualitative research method amoungst them FGD is one. Focus Group is a type of in-depth interview accomplished in a group, whose meetings present characteristics defined with respect to the proposal, size, composition, and interview procedures. This paper highlights about the different aspects of FGD

Title: Doubts Over Efficacy Of No Detention Policy For Quality In Education
Abstract :

India’s flagship programme ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ (SSA) for Universalisation of Elementary Education has enhanced enrolment rate and retention of children in school. The country has now shifted its focus from retention to quality of education for improvement in children’s learning achievements. The UN recommendation has been reinforced in the provision of the Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009, which came into effect in India on 1st April 2010, enshrining in law for the first time the rights of all Indian children aged between 06 and 14 years to free and compulsory elementary education regardless of caste, class, gender etc. The RTE act, though deserves due credit for laying down in fairly specific terms state’s responsibility towards education, it would be appropriate to examine the status and awareness on the part of schools and concerned authority to provide free elementary education to the children aging between 06 to 14 years of age ‘The No Detention Policy’ was brought in to provide elementary school children an environment free from fear, anxiety and stress to allow them learn and grow on their own pace as well as check the drop out rates. It, however, has turned out to be counter productive. It seems all is not well with the ‘no detention’ policy introduced under the RTE Act

Title: Situational Analysis of Street Children in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh: A Study
Abstract :

The present article discusses about the situation of street children in Guntur City of Andhra Pradesh. Street child is ‘any boy or girl for whom the street has become his or her habitual house or source of livelihood’. UNICEF estimated that there are 400,000 street children are living in different parts of India with vulnerable conditions. Guntur is one of the growing cities in Andhra Pradesh. The researcher has selected Guntur City for research setting and collected the data from 42 street children on their socio economic and living conditions by using the purposive sampling method. The study found that the mean ages of the respondents’ are 14 years. About 82 per cent street children stopped their studies. The major work they are doing for their livelihood is collect old papers, cooli, begging, helper, hawker, shoe polishers, seller of flowers, etc. A small percentage of street children are, as reported by key Informants, involved in theft, snatching, pick pocketing, sex work, drug business, Informer etc. The study suggests that the Street children must be provided tender care and emotional support and good nutritive diet so that they are not exposed to occupational and health hazards. Street based education system should be developed for the street children up to mainstream them with other government schools. Given the knowledge on hazards such as HIV/AIDS, early pregnancies, abortion, substance abuse, school dropout, child abuse and related rights etc. Media should publish the success stories of restoration of street children with their family members.

Title: A Study of Academic Anxiety of Secondary School Students
Abstract :

In the present study Researcher tried to Study the Academic Anxiety of Secondary School Students. Purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the School and Students were selected by stratified random sampling technique. The total sample was that of 400 students. Researcher used Survey Research method. The collected data were analyzed by using the statistical technique of t-test and Percentage. Results Shows that 18.5% of students had low academic anxiety, 75% of students had average academic anxiety and about 6.5% of students had high academic anxiety. Female students were more academic anxious than male students. Boys of government schools had more academic anxiety than boys of private schools. Girls of private schools had more academic anxiety than girls of government schools.

Title: Assessment of Basic Computer and Internet Skills among Students in Rural Areas of Prakasam District: A Study
Abstract :

This paper presents the information about the computer knowledge and internet skills of the rural youth in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. Computer knowledge and internet skills are compulsory in the present work in particularly for the rural students who are pursuing degree and post graduation. The Internet can be known as a kind of global meeting place where people from all parts of the world can come together. The government departments, private companies and nongovernmental organisations are advertising the information in their websites, blogs and job search sites. Due to lack of internet skills, communication skills, computer knowledge the rural-urban poor youth are in back to get the jobs. Very les studies are available on the present issue. Based on the situation the present article has through a light on the issue. The objective is to assess the computer knowledge and internet skills among the rural students who are above Intermediate.

Title: Sahaja: the pathway to the attainment of literacy and numeracy skill through reinforcement
Abstract :

The paper highlights the modalities of eliminating the learning gap among the learners. At the outset the learning gaps underlying literacy and numeracy skill were located among the learners of class V. Basing on the gaps a module titled ‘Sahaja’ was developed and intervention was extended using the module for a period of six weeks. On completion of intervention endline assessment was done and a comparison of the performance of the learners between baseline and endline was done and it was found that elimination of learning gap was observed to the extent of 75 %. Thus the interevention proved effective.

Title: Cloud Computing: Promoting Sharing of Resources among Educational Institutions
Abstract :

The era of technology has changed the way to impart education now days. Most of the developed as well as rapidly developing nations have now moved towards the innovative use of technology to make education less expensive and easily and equally accessible to all its citizens. Cloud computing is the combination of the internet with outsourcing of the information technology. The education systems of many countries are not aware about the potential use of cloud computing in attaining its aims of providing various resources of knowledge to the whole world at a low cost, high quality in minimum time. A little number of them is utilizing it to its optimum level. As per the need all the selected services or applications like storage, database, web services, e-mail can be approached through cloud using different devices. To make the education world aware about the potential use of cloud computing we have to understand the concept first. Thus this paper focuses on concept, features and potential use of cloud computing with special reference to education sector.

Title: A Model of Critical Peer Feedback to Facilitate EFL Writing in Online Context
Abstract :

Peer feedback in EFL writing has been regarded as time-consuming, and inefficient. An approach is to study the mental process of feedback to improve its quality. It is believed that higher-order thinking can produce high-order peer feedback in higher-level writing. In this study, “critical thinking” is explored to facilitate peer feedback and writing with higher-order thinking skills. “Critical peer feedback” is conceptualized with the integration of critical thinking and feedback in order to improve the quality of feedback. This study aims to study the process of critical peer feedback through blogs and discussion the model of critical peer feedback. A qualitative case study is conducted with six junior students majoring Business English in a Chinese university. Three models of critical thinking are transferred to the participants in the workshops. Three kinds of data including semi-structured interviews, six writing assignments and the artifacts of critical peer feedback, are analyzed by Nivivo 10. The finding reveals that the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy is more acceptable for the beginners of critical peer feedback which provides a six-step model of critical thinking. The conclusion of critical peer feedback model in online context may be significant to its further practice in various courses.

Title: Technologies for Smart Learning
Abstract :

Technology is everywhere and we depend on technology. In this digital era, the role of teacher and student has changed dramatically. Learners utilize new technologies to gain knowledge more comfortably, effectively and seamlessly. Technology is used to provide opportunities for students to apply knowledge in the real world context and engage in active participation, exploration and research. Smart learning is a new approach of learning used by teachers and students both in the classroom and outside of the classroom, in daily life. It is a new vision, where internet, laptops, smart phones, multimedia etc utilize in the process of education. Smart learning technology provides a learning platform to every learner universally. In Smart learning technology, learning is more connect to the real world; the learner is more active than teacher. M-learning, digital pedagogy, social media, MOOC, OER, Edutainment, Blended learning and flipped classroom are some of the examples of smart learning technology. This paper explains the smart learning approach, technology being used in it and its pros and cons.

Title: Effect of Persistence on Academic Performance of Socially Advantaged and Disadvantaged Secondary Students
Abstract :

The concept of social disadvantage is a broad concept. Bernstein (1960), first used the term socially disadvantaged to cover a large group of factors, for handicapped children in schools, keeping them away from fully using their potentialities, and who have parents of low educational level. The term persistence has been used to refer to subjects momentary goals as revealed by their remarks about successes and failure and their modes of attack on the problems assigned them. Persistence is an important individual social motivation, which is also related to the achievement motivation. Hoppe (1930) represents persistence as a person’s expectations, goals, claims or his future achievement in a given task. Secondary students are the young people who make choices that will have an important bearing on the rest of their lives. Persistence has been defined as an acquired behavioral tendency for continuing or pursuing an achievement goal in a face of obstacles. The focus of the present study was to analyze the academic achievement of socially advantaged and disadvantaged secondary students and the effect of persistence on their academic performance.

Title: Education with ICT for Developing Employability in Higher Education Institutions
Abstract :

Higher education institutions (HEIs) are expected to form responsible and employable citizens. But, they produced mere degree holders without having employability skills. There is a mismatch between the expectations of employers and the products of HEIs. The requirement of employability is continually changing because most sectors are connected to the global value chains and hence the skills required are often decided by the global markets. Employers place greatest importance on employee’s attitudes and basic skills over job specific skills and having an understanding of the work environment. The demand for having basic and updated knowledge and skills of information and communication technology (ICT) along with basic, higher order and affective skills within the employee is growing day by day. As such, institutions of higher education today need to focus preferably on imparting education with ICT so that basic knowledge and skills of ICT can be acquired by the students in the process of education, i.e. teaching-learning. The basic task of HEIs is to create an ICT-enabled learning environment. For this, an ICT policy needs to be evolved strategically for institutional practice including well equipped ICT infrastructure, education-industry collaboration, competence building of teachers and pedagogy-ICT integration.)

Title: School Education and Use of ICT: A Case Study of an Urdu Medium School Located in Central Dist. of Delhi
Abstract :

Today’s society is knowledge-based society. The countries would be in better state only if they would be able to get ICT leverage at greater extent. Recent National Policy on ICT for school education has very straightforward mandate to transform society into knowledge society by meaningful induction of ICT in education. Because, our millions of tiny minds are in the process of becoming citizen and potential Nation-builder whose fate is solely shaped in our classrooms. A teacher is an important agent of change and need be equipped with essential skills of ICT. This study provides an in-depth analysis of teaching and learning discourse of a three-century-old school where learners have opportunity to learn in Urdu medium. This piece of small investigation has been trying to focus over integration of ICT in many school subjects and its preferences over past practices. Besides this, study is also trying to gauge out obstacles faced by Urdu medium teachers in integration of ICT in their teaching and their immediate possible solutions, which is necessary to fulfill mandate of National ICT Policy aspirations from school education. The major findings of the study are: ICT enabled teaching simplifies complex learning, make learning permanent, easy to retain, recall, assess learning and also helpful to employ same in real life situation. Second, no previous exposure of ICT, age factor, administrative inertness, orientation of computer applications in English language were found as major obstacle to integrate ICT in teaching among Urdu medium teachers.

Title: Computers Assisted Instruction in Refining the Quality of Teaching and Learning
Abstract :

Computer is one of the strongest tools of information and communication technology. Computers are increasingly being used as CAI, CAL for imparting instruction of the learner at different levels in different subjects. Many efforts have been made to prepare CAI and studies have been conducted to see the effectiveness of CAI of various subjects. Computers plays important role in educational transactions. A teacher can make use of computer as a tool, to assist him/her in making teaching effective. CAI follows a psychological principle of learning so it is good for the slow learner as well for the bright students. The huge number of students in the classroom also hinders the teacher for paying individual attention to each student. These small students need to be explained the lesson in an attractive manner so that they can experience it. The unique combination of tutorial, interacting and visual capabilities enable computers has a beneficial effect in approaching the quality teaching and learning. Through the use of CAI the interest to learn computers can be developed among students from a very small age. A student can use a computer as an efficient tool for disciplining his own studies. He can store his own notes and can check his progress by taking tests through the question paper from the question bank stored in the computer memory. Computer programmes allow students to improve those skills by participating in classroom exercises that closely stimulate real world experience.

Title: Contents Volume 6 Issue 2
Abstract :

Contents

Title: Green IT and Computing: Tool for Sustainable Eco Systems- A Message for Healthy Sports Informatics Practice
Abstract :

Green Information Technology and Green Computing are mainly responsible for the sustainable environment and ecological atmosphere creation with computing and similar technologies such as Database, Multimedia, Networking and Communication Technology and so on. Electronic product and gadgets are very much important for their valuable role in our common life and business activities. But electronic product and gadgets are responsible for so many bad affects and causes for us or society. Harmful chemical and products and heavy carbon emission are mainly responsible for such aspects against environment. As like other fields, Green Computing is also helpful for the modern and intelligent Sports world with eco-friendliness. Though there are so many challenges and opportunities to practice Green Computing and Technology. This paper is focuses on such aspects including their main challenges and issues in very brief manner.

Title: A Study of Usage of ICT Resources by Teacher Educators in Classroom Practice
Abstract :

Gone are the days when technology was taught as a discrete subject and it was considered by teacher and parents that only computer teacher will meet all the technological needs of the students, but with the technology growing day by day and the different usage of technology, both hardware and software being different for different subjects, it has now become mandatory that each teacher should know how to apply technology in his own teaching subject, and if we want to use ICT to make teaching-learning more effective it has to be taught to teacher-trainee which could happen only when teacher educators use ICT resources in their class room practice in meaningful manner to make teaching more purposeful and to achieve cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives of the content, and this is possible only when teacher educators are aware of ICT resources and are skilled to use them. The investigator took up the present study with an intention to find out the true picture of ICT resources being used by teacher educators by knowing the extent of teacher educators using technology devices, internet, online resources and other digital devices in their daily, weekly, and monthly class room practice.

Title: Technology Supported Education for People with Disabilities
Abstract :

The development of information society affects each & every aspect of people live. The technologies which are currently available and those which are about to come, having the potential to transform the entire educational system. Students with mild learning disorder can fulfil their educational activities through computer-based technology. Now there is also an adaptive technology, which enables students those are suffering from severe disabilities to take an active participation in the classrooms with their classmates who do not have disabilities. Any item, equipment or system that helps people with disabilities is termed as assistive technology. The purpose of assistive technology to makes things possible for disabled rather than fixing them. In the present paper, there is description of technologies, which enables the disabled student to perform their educational activities in a more possible manner.

Title: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning: An Introduction
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Collaboration has always been the basic nature as well as requirement to survive on this earth. In the present scenario collaborative learning has changed its settings due to the presence of technology like computers, mobile devices online systems etc. computer supported collaborative learning is the use of computer device as a medium to establish collaboration as the central strategy in teaching-learning process. It is a great initiative to provide a rich experience in collaborative settings to enhance the learning process. To inculcate computer supported collaborative learning in our regular teaching learning practice it is necessary to modify the traditional setup and to train teachers to adopt such changes. This paper explores the theoretical concepts, basic collaborative techniques in computer supported collaborative learning environment and challenges in implementation of CSCL in teaching learning process.

Title: Big Data in Education and Learning Analytics
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Due to increasing role of computers, the internet and digital data across many forms of human endeavor is the widespread uptake of the notion of “Big data.” Researchers and educators seem to explore the potential of technology to grab, analyze and utilize huge amount of data in increasingly powerful ways. analysis of educational data is not something new in the field of education but increasing interest towards the use of learning management system, collaborative learning electronic portfolio, moodle, intelligent tutoring system, gaming, sharable content object reference model
(SCORM), e-learning, m-learning, e-assessment, virtual worlds and augmented reality has fueled research in the field of Big data and learning analytics. Learning analytics is a field related to educational data mining. It describes attempts to use digital data about student’s background and learning behaviors in online contexts to monitor and predict student performance. This paper explores the concept of learning analytics, its dimensions, approaches and applications in detail it also describes the relationship between educational data mining, academic analytics and learning analytics.
Title: Contents
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Contents

Title: Electronic Learning Technologies
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ICT today has the power to transform Education. A greater flexibility is provided through online access to learning – when, where and how to do it? Today anyone can obtain education anywhere, anytime through online education. Thus, breaking the shackles of traditional classroom and adapting to new and electronic learning Technologies empowers all learners irrespective of their diversities. This development in ICT has resulted in a learning environment called e-learning.

Title: E-Tools for Communication
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Enhanced tools for education and communication purposes have been coined with unprecedented efficacy and efficiency. Today anyone can obtain education anywhere, anytime through online education. Thus, breaking the shackles of traditional classroom and adapting to new and electronic learning Technologies empowers all learners irrespective of their diversities. This development in ICT has resulted in a learning environment called e-learning. Some of these technologies (e.g. blogs) have even livened communication and interaction among users.

Title: Role of Buddhism in the Development of Indian Education
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In India during the time of Buddha, there was a racial discrimination in the society. This discrimination was according to profession of man and according to birth. In the society there were four divisions of whom Brahman was superior. They enjoyed rights for religious training and education. But other category of people deprived of their religious and educational rights.
It should be observed that it is “the life of holiness” which Buddhism emphasizes much more than the philosophy of life, speculations concerning the mysteries of life and death and such ultimate truths. The entire system of Buddhist education must be rooted in faith (saddhńĀ)— faith in the Triple Gem, and above all in the Buddha as the fully enlightened One, the peerless teacher and supreme guide to right living and right understanding. Based on this faith, the students must be inspired to become accomplished in virtue (sńęla) by following the moral guidelines spelled out by the Five Precepts. Students should come to appreciate the positive virtues these precepts represent: kindness, honesty, purity, truthfulness, and mental sobriety. They must also acquire the spirit of generosity and self-sacrifice (cńĀga), so essential for overcoming selfishness, greed, and the narrow focus on self-advancement that dominates in present-day society.
Title: Transition to Cognitive Learning Theories
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The roots of instructional theory can be traced to early efforts by educational psychologists to develop a connection between the science of psychology and the practical application of learning theory in educational settings. Two theorists of particular importance at the turn of the century were John Dewey (1910), who envisioned a special linking science between learning theory and educational practice, and Edward Thorndike (1913), who investigated principles of learning that could be directly applied to the teaching process (i.e., the laws of effect and exercise). Thorndike developed a body of instructional design principles that included task analysis and teaching methods based on his research findings and student evaluation methods.

Title: Teach With Video Technology in Classroom
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Technology is around everything we do. Technology integration in the classroom can also support classroom instruction by creating opportunities for students to complete assignments on the computer rather than the normal pencil and paper. Technology integration in class would help students to explore more. Video technology also helps bridge the gap between the school’s artificial environment and the outside world, bringing reality into the classroom. This paper considers the use of video technology in the classroom. This paper discusses how learning are supported and enhanced by use of video technology, and how video can be used to stimulate and motivate students.

Title: Contents Vol. 8, No. 1, June 2018
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Title: Learning Styles of Undergraduate and Post-graduate Students
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The present study has been done to find out whether students studying in B.A. part II, B.A. part III and M.A. previous differ from one another on various learning styles. Sample for the study consisted of 180 students. 60 students were selected from each of the three classes. Learning Style Inventory constructed by the investigator was used to measure eleven learning styles. One way Analysis of Variance and LSD Test were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that- as compared to students of B.A. Part II and B.A. Part III, students of M.A. previous give more preference to various learning styles, students of B.A. Part III give more preference to reproducing specially verbal reproducing learning styles than students of B.A. part I, and students of B.A. part II and III have equal preferences for enactive, figural, verbal, reproducing and constructive learning styles.
Title: The Value of Anthropology to Counselors
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Social-cultural anthropology has dealt with mankind from so many different angles and with such a variety of approaches that it is understandably difficult to get a handle on what exactly an anthropologist does. Nowadays anthropology goes everywhere where people are acting and making sense of these actions. If any human grouping is fair game for anthropological study, this of course multiplies the possible fields and questions for study to an infinite degree. An unavoidable consequence of the growth of any discipline is that we find some fragmentation, with scholars divided according to schools, research issues, geographic areas of specialization, theoretical orientations. With all of this riotous diversity, as anthropological insiders we somehow—and not without difficulty—identify a common thread in the discipline in its status as the science of culture. The fact that anthropology is not widely taught as a discipline in the standard high school curricula in most countries adds to the aura of mystery and misperception among the general public. Especially through the ethnographic method, anthropology created tools for studying and understanding the seemingly strange actions and conceptions of Other peoples.
The starting point for this discussion is to take four concepts from anthropology, the study of people in cultures, and to apply these to highlight areas in counseling. The four concepts are emic, etic, culture and culture-bound. This discussion takes the notion of cross-cultural counseling and states that when a therapist and client meet there is a cross-cultural communication taking place; regardless of the racial educational or socio-economic similarities between the two parties. The author wishes to highlight some areas in counseling where greater awareness is required to create a holistic counseling philosophy and to improve the ethics, power sharing, efficacy and appropriateness of therapy.
Title: Impact of Self-assessment Exercises for Class IX Students in terms of Self-concept
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Positive self-concept along with suitable planning is essential for an individual’s thinking to enter in a specific stream for better chance of reaching destination. The emphasis is on the nature of student’s thinking to identify own strategies to improve understanding as well as self-concept. Positive concepts towards own capabilities, beliefs and efficiency can be visualized by observing own performance in simulated circumstances. From this point of view, the researcher conducted the present study. The objective was “to compare mean pre and post self-concept scores in the group treated through self-assessment exercises for class IX students”. Hypothesis of the study was “there will be no significant difference between mean pre and post self concept scores in the group treated through self-assessment exercises for class IX students”. The random sampling technique was used to select schools. Thirty eight students were exposed to self-assessment exercises after seeking permission from Son India School, Indore (M.P.). The Children’s self-concept scale developed by Dr. S. P. Ahluwalia and Dr. H.S. Singh (2012) was administered for data collection. It employed pre test- post test single group design. The collected data was analyzed by calculating the mean, SD, r and ‘t’ value. The findings indicate that the mean self-concept scores at pre and post-test stage of students treated through self-assessment exercises differ significantly. As a result, self- assessment exercises were found to be effective in terms of self-concept. In the previous researches, researchers also reported significant improvement in the academic and non scholastic performance of students after the practice of self- assessment. Self-assessment is a stepping stone to proceed in all the spheres of life. It needs not to be considered as an assessment, but instead as an essential competence for self-regulation. It is an advice for improvement without any comparisons with other pupils. It requires proper exposure which has never been provided by prior education system to develop the self-assessment skills. This paper is an attempt to bring self-awareness in the learners for transferring it to real life experiences and actual practices.

Title: Sociolinguistic Contexts in Education with Particular Reference to the Transfer of Indianisms in Indian English
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Since the arrival of English in India, it has been establishing itself toward gradual development. In its long sojourn on our native soil, English has indianised itself considerably. Under the above title of this paper, I discussed some of the features of this Indianisation. Till now a vast body of literature has been written in English. I am also concerned about the role of English, vis-à-vis the ‘Indian’ languages in the post-independence era. Since, the establishment and development of English in India, English has been used as a second language (L2) rather than as the mothertongue or a native one (L1). Hence, there are bilinguals and sometimes multilinguals responding to an Indian context. English functions in the sociolinguistic setting, used as a link language both intra-nationally and internationally and is used in Indian English writings. In fact, it has won international accolades in this field. The transfer of indianisms in Indian English involves in two ways: a translation of an Indian item and a shift based on an Indian source item. Translation is an establishing equivalent or partially equivalent formations in Indian English from the formation in Indian languages. The shift is usually an adaptation of an underlying formal item of an Indian language which provides its source.
Title: A Comparative Study of the Awareness Towards RTE Act 2009 Among the Primary Teachers
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In the present study, there is an effort to compare the awareness towards RTE Act 2009 among the primary teachers of Banda District. In this research study, 60 Teachers (20 teachers each of General, OBC and SC category) have been selected randomly. Survey method is used for this study. Self constructed ‘RTE Act 2009 awareness scale’ is used to measure the awareness towards RTE Act 2009 of the teachers of Primary schools. T-value and F-value is used to find out the significance of differences of means. And resultantly it is found that the teachers of General category are more aware about the RTE Act 2009. And the teachers of the OBC category are less aware to the teachers of General Category but more aware to the teachers of SC category. The teachers of the SC category are least aware regarding to RTE Act 2009. And in the context of the gender, the male teachers are more aware than the female teachers.

Title: Need of Value Oriented Education
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Values are affectively-laden thoughts about objects, ideas, behavior, etc. that guide behavior, but do not necessarily require it. We are covering values as part of the affective system. However, once they are developed they provide an important filter for selecting input and connecting thoughts and feelings to action and thus could also be included in a discussion of the regulatory system. Value Education refers to planned educational actions aimed at the development of proper attitudes, values, emotions and behavior patterns of the learners. Value Education is the education that is concerned with the transformation of an individual’s personality. Education for peace and for a culture of peace is being globally accepted and adopted by the nations, and more so by the education systems worldwide. The implications and imperatives need to be understood in right perspectives. In India, the social cohesion, adherence to moral and ethical values and commitment to the society have been the hallmarks of socio-cultural ethos. The need to sustain this ethos in the emerging context has been highlighted in the reports of various committees and commissions on education.

Title: Barriers to Effective Curriculum Implementation
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Teachers are central to whether a curriculum is delivered consistently, effectively, and with efficacy to enable the support of student progress and growth. Understanding the barriers to complete implementation of a new curriculum could provide education administrators with tools to address teacher concerns and could provide vital training for successful implementation. To ensure that curricular innovations are implemented with fidelity, instructional practices should be aligned to the specific learning goals provided in the curriculum. Curricular implementation encompasses different components, including the delivery of the curriculum through resources and instructional practices. To implement curricula with fidelity, instructional practices must align with the curriculum as well as support the individual needs of the students. In addition, teacher preparedness for curriculum implementation plays a vital role.

Title: Significance of Cloud Computing in Distance Learning
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As we are aware of the fact that this era is technology driven. In this era nobody can survive without the knowledge of computer. Due to computers coming the use of distance courses in learning is growing exponentially. To better support faculty and students for teaching and learning, distance learning programs need to constantly innovate and optimize their IT infrastructures. The new IT paradigm called “cloud computing” has the potential to transform the way that IT resources are utilized and consumed in education and is expected to have a large impact on educational computing during the next few years. It is a paradigm shift in terms of scalability of computing power, economy of operations, efficient use of computing resources, and green computing. It is the only possible way forward as it is going to democratize and harmonize the computing and IT based services and access. This Cloud is not only going to shower applications but also reduce & remove the dependence on the resources to run them as per need while also make all constrains of hardware ownership & software license a matter of bygone era. The paper titled “Significance of Cloud Computing in Distance Learning “is divided into four major parts, i.e. (Meaning of Cloud Computing, Cloud Deployments Models, Using cloud computing in Distance Learning, Selecting the appropriate strategies for adopting a cloud computing for any Distance institution) each part is discussed independently followed by the conclusion.

Title: RTE Act 2009 : A Boon for the Education of Deprived
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‘Education’ is the right of all. In this process the most strengthening step is RTE Act 2009 which ensures the enrollment, retention and completion of primary education of the children of the age group 6-14. The act provides special provisions for the drop-outs, 25% reserved seats in private educational institutions and Neighborhood Schools. The Act also focuses on certain minimum physical resources for a school. But it is not an easy step to take on in the progress of our nation. Some major challenges in this regard are financial challenges, lack of schools and its proper infrastructure, lack of qualified teachers, lack of quality in education, while enforcing 25% quota for deprived section, backwardness of society and many other. Therefore, for the proper execution and successful implementation the efforts of National Commission for Protection of Childs’ Rights (NCPCR) at central level, State Commission for Protection of Childs’ Rights (SCPCR) at state level and different civil societies should put together to prove the act a real boon for deprived. Thus, the research paper is an attempt to analyze the major educational provisions, challenges and role of authorities in the successful implementation of RTE Act 2009 with the special focus of educationally deprived.

Title: Empowerment of the Socially Disadvantaged Groups
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The Socially Disadvantaged Groups include the Scheduled Castes (SCs), the Scheduled Tribes (STs), the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and the Minorities. According to the 1991 Census, SCs account for 138.23 million (16.5 percent); STs 67.76 million (8.1 percent); and Minorities 145.31 million (17.2 percent). As regards OBCs, it is difficult to quantify the size of their population in the absence of the Census data. However, according to the estimates by the Mandal Commission in 1993, the OBCs constitute 52 per cent of the country’s total population. Some of them may belong to the categories of SCs and Minorities.
Title: Content Vol. 8, No. 2, December 2018
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