Title: Response of IBA on Rhizogenic Capacity and Shoot Characteristics of Clonal Rootstocks for Pear Abstract :
The present experiment was conducted to study the response of IBA on pear rootstocks Quince-C and BA-29 with respect to rhizogenic capacity and shoot characteristics. The finding of experiment shows that IBA application had significant effect on these clonal rootstocks of pear. IBA application @ 1000 ppm resulted in maximum rooting and root growth. The IBA treatment @ 1000 ppm was also found to be the best in terms of all shoot characteristic parameters. Higher concentrations of IBA above 1000 ppm were found detrimental.
Title: Growth Performance and Yield of Intercrops in Agri-horti-silvi System in Hill Zone of West Bengal, India Abstract :
The present investigation was conducted at Dalapchand Science Farm, Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Kalimpong, West Bengal, which aimed at analyzing the growth performance and yield of selected intercrops under one silvi, Alder (Alnus nepalensis) and two fruit trees, Mandarin and Asian pear (Citrus reticulata Blanco. and Pyrus communis) in agri-horti-silvi system. The experimental site is located at 27.06o N latitude and 88.47o E longitudes at an elevation ranging between 979.93 m. to 1257.30 m. above the mean sea level. The experiment was fitted in the randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The fruit saplings were planted at a spacing of 10m × 10m and the silvi seedlings were planted in between the two fruit trees and boundary at 2.5 m spacing during kharif season of 2011. Suitable intercrops viz. maize, rice, french bean, pea and pumpkin during kharif and potato, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard and onion during rabi season of two consecutive years (2013-2015) were grown. The result revealed that the number of plants per m2 was higher under sole crop. But, it was found reverse in case of the plant height (cm) and recorded taller plant Sunder intercropping with Alnus nepalensis + Pyrus communis followed by Alnus nepalensis + C. reticulata and in sole crop. Soil organic matter percent at (0-15cm, 15-30cm, 30-60cm) soil depth was found to significantly increase under the agri-horti-silvi situation resulting with a decrease in the soil bulk density (gmcm-3) at the end of the study. kharif and rabi intercrops yield (t/ha) were found higher in sole crop. However, in the intercropping situation higher yield were recorded when intercropped with Alnus nepalensis + C. reticulata than Alnus nepalensis + Pyrus communis.
Title: Variability in Physico-chemical Properties of Indian Olive (Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.) Grown under North Bengal Conditions Abstract :
A study was conducted during the fruiting season of Jalpai or Indian olive a minor fruit of West Bengal, so as to determine the physio-chemical properties of the fruits and evaluate the best accession. The fruits were harvested from distinct locations on North Bengal and were analysed for their bio-chemical properties. The results showed that all the different accessions possessed specific and distinct characters. The plant ACC-11 exhibited a very high value of TSS (7.07OB) followed by ACC-25 with a high TSS value of 6.9OB. ACC-24 showed high fruit weight of 20.83g compared to other accessions.ACC-30 was characterized with a highest value of total sugar (7.50%) along with high reducing sugar content (2.35%). The accession, ACC-20 not only showed high TSS value but was also distinguished with higher amount of total sugar content (6.85%). Similar trend was observed in ACC-29 where a high TSS (18.7OB), high reducing sugar (2.17%) and total sugar content (5.77%) were recorded. It can be established that the ACC-11, ACC-20 and ACC-29 accessions yieldeda superior quality of Jalpai whereas ACC-30 produces fruit with high sugar and acid content.
Title: Survey on Flora and Fauna of Bishnupur Bill (Horse Shoe Lake) and Itâ€™s surrounded Area at Berhampore in Murshidabad District of West Bengal Abstract :
In India, there are many number of Lakes, some are natural and some are man-made. These lakes are the source of Flora and Fauna. “Bishnupur Bill” a horse shoe lake is one of them. This natural lake is derived from our Holy River the Ganges. This paper provides a taxonomic inventory of plant species and animal species collected by the authors during the last two years from this ‘Bill’ and its surrounded area. This natural lake and its surrounded area have lots of Flora and Fauna from algae to mammalians. The inventory records a total of 168 species and 64 genera. The present study also investigates some exotic birds which come every year to this ‘Bill’. The present study revealed a handsome diversity of Flora and Fauna in this ecosystem. The inventory is expected to provide baseline scientific data for further studies on plant and animal diversity in this ‘Bill’, and can be used to facilitate the long-term conservation and sustainable use of plant and animal resources in this ecosystem.
Title: Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Bioactive components from different Parts of Pineapple Waste Abstract :
Waste accumulation is a serious problem in recent times as they cause serious effects to the environment. Pineapple waste is one among them and it includes the peel, core, stem and crown, which is obtained after processing and various bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, antioxidants and the protein digesting enzyme bromelain, are also present in pineapple waste. In the present study, the extraction of bioactive compounds from the pineapple peel and core was done using Ultrasound assisted extraction(UAE). The extraction conditions was optimised using the Response surface methodology by using the variables time(min), amplitude (%) and ethanol concentration. Protein samples obtained were purified using acetone precipitation and dialysis to determine the bromelain activity and protein pattern along with activity staining to confirm presence of bromelain enzyme.
Title: Effectiveness of Different Mordants and Concentrations on the Dyeing Properties of Jackfruit (Atrocarpus heterophyllus) Bark on Silk Abstract :
A study was carried out to assess the effect of different mordants and concentrations on the colouring characteristics of jackfruit bark dye on silk. Six types of mordants, viz. citric acid, alum, ferrous sulphate, aluminum sulphate, copper sulphate and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) were used, each at 1, 2 and 3% of weight of the fabric (o.w.f.). The material liquor ratio was maintained at 1:40. The Hunterlab colour scale was used to analyse the variations in colour and intensities. The results indicated that the maximum change in colour with respect to the undyed silk fabrics was for 2% alum treated samples with the ΔE* value of 27.08±0.29. However, the values were not significantly different from the samples treated with FeSO4 mordant at 2% and 3% levels, CuSO4 mordant at 2% level and alum at 3% level. The change in chroma (ΔC*) value was maximum for the alum (2%) mordant (24.44±0.2). The analysis on colour fastness with respect to washing, rubbing and sunlight also indicated that all mordants and concentrations used in the study excepting 1% alum offered adequate fastness characteristics. The unmordanted samples exhibited moderate fastness. In view of the colour fastness with respect to washing, rubbing and exposure to light, the jackfruit bark dye can be applied on silk with any of the selected mordants at 3% level.
Title: Effect of Zinc and Iron Ferti-Fortification on Growth, Pod Yield and Zinc Uptake of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 at Agronomy field unit, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Raichur to study the effect of zinc and iron ferti-fortification on growth, pod yield and zinc uptake of groundnut genotypes. The soil of the experimental site was deep black, clay in texture with pH 8.4, deficient in DTPA extractable zinc and iron. Three groundnut genotypes in main plots and seven micronutrient treatments comprising of one control and three each of zinc and iron as soil, foliar and both were assigned in the sub-plot in a split-plot design replicated thrice. Results revealed that the groundnut genotype ICGV-00351 recorded significantly higher plant height and leaf area at harvest (40.05 cm and 5.40 dm2 plant-1, respectively), pod yield (2656 kg ha-1) and Zn uptake by kernels, haulm and total (59.29, 130.46 and 189.75 g ha-1, respectively) when compared to other genotypes. Among the micronutrients soil (25 kg ha-1) and foliar (0.5 %) application of ZnSO4 recorded significantly higher plant height and leaf area at harvest (42.09 cm and 6.30 dm2 plant-1, respectively), pod yield (2656 kg ha-1) and Zn uptake by kernels, haulm and total (67.42, 153.61 and 221.03 g ha-1, respectively) when compared to other treatments.
Title: Status of White Fly, (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) in Vindya Plateau Abstract :
The white fly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous insect pest and infested/ harbored on many crops/ trees/ fruits/ vegetables and cause economic damage. The studies were conducted during 2014, 2015 and 2016 using one hundred and twenty three new plant species belonging to twenty four families including forty three crops, sixteen fruits plants, twenty one vegetables, eight flowers, eleven weeds, eighteen trees, two spices and one each from ornamental, aromatic, medicinal and creeper at the College of Agriculture, Ganj Basoda (MP). The research revealed that maximum (35%) host plants were damaged from crops followed by vegetables (17.1%), tree (14.6%) fruit plant (13%), weeds (7.3%), flower (6.5%), and rest of the plant categories i.e. Spices, ornamental, aromatic plants, medicinal and creeper were the least preferred by white fly for infestation and multiplication. Maximum (34) host plants were found damaged in fabaceae family followed by cucurbitaceae (14), Malvaceae (8), Solanaceae (8), Moraceae and Euphorbeaceae (6) and Asteraceae and Brassicaceae (5). The rest of the families were found least preferred. The higher per cent of damaged crops was observed in the Fabaceae family (27.6%) followed by cucurbitaceae (11.4%), Poaceae (8.1%), Malvaceae and Solanaceae (6.5%), Asteraceae and Moraceae (4.9%). Infestation was found less than five percentage in rest of the families. The average maximum population intensity i.e. 39 individual/leaf was observed in Malvaceae family followed by Solanaceae (35.7 individual/leaf), Amaranthaceae (28.5 individual / leaf), Solanaceae (35.7 individual/leaf), Caricaceae (28.4 individual/leaf), Cucurbitaceae (23.4 individual/leaf) and Bracicaceae (21.4 individual/leaf), Compositae (19 individual/leaf), Chenopodiaceae (14.5 individual/leaf), Euphorbiaceae (12.1 individual/leaf), Lamiaceae (11.4 individual/leaf) and Poaceae (10.5 individual/leaf). The rest of families noted less than ten individual per leaf.
Title: Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Banana Shrikhand Abstract :
Moisture desorption and adsorption phenomenon in banana Shirkhand were investigated at 100C, 250C and 400C. The isotherm plots obtained exhibited sigmoid shape at all the three temperatures and are classified as type-II. The equilibrium moisture content rose gradually at the lower water activities followed by a steep rise at the higher water activities. The effect of temperature was more pronounced on the desorption isotherm than an adsorption isotherm. Between the three models (GAB, BET and Caurie) tested for predicting the sorption data, GAB gave the best fit at all the three temperatures as indicated by % RMS and R2 values. Properties of sorbed water viz; number of adsorbed monolayers, density of sorbed water, bound or non-freezable water and surface area of sorption were calculated for adsorption and desorption process from Caurie equation. The isosteric heat of sorption was calculated using the Clausius-Clapyron equation. Sorption isosters for each moisture contents are also been reported.
Title: An Economic Analysis of Net Returns from Major Crops in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka under Different Valuation Approaches Abstract :
The economic distortions introduced by systems of subsidies, incentives for inputs, products, services, mis-allocation of resources and inefficiency can affect the economically optimal crop pattern. Present study explored the analysis of net returns under different valuation approaches viz., market price approach, economic price approach and natural resource valuation approach in central dry zone of Karnataka. A total of 90 structured questionnaires were used to gather the data necessary for analysis. Results reveal that, net returns were positive based on all the three approaches of market prices, economic prices and natural resources valuation without inclusion of cost of water, except in ragi. The more reduction in the net returns at economic prices was observed in case of paddy under borewell irrigation, indicating that the distortion was more due to subsidies on fertilizers (` 8883 per crop) and energy for pumping irrigation water (` 7930 per crop). The net returns from groundnut under natural resource valuation was higher (` 10,450) without considering the value of ground water, when compared to the net returns at economic prices because of inclusion of nitrogen value in net returns from the crop (` 1107). The net returns were negative with inclusion of water cost in all the crops except irrigated groundnut. This shows that, due to prohibitive cost of groundwater, the net returns are not remunerative for crops like paddy, maize and ragi.
Title: Effect of Different Row Spacing, Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Yield Attributes, Productivity and Economics of Tef (Eragrostis Tef) Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three rows spacing, four levels of N and P2O5 fertilizer rates and their interaction on growth parameters, yield and yield components of tef during meher cropping season of 2015 at the research farm of Ambo University. Treatments were: three level of row spacing viz. 10cm, 20cm and 30cm and four levels of N and P2O5 fertilizer rates (50/50,60/60, 70/70 and 80/80kg of N/P2O5 ha-1) with application of DAP as basal dose and Urea after 21 days of sowing. Highest growth parameters recorded were 10.9 for effective tillers for 80/80 kg N/P2O5 ha-1 with 10cm row spacing, 111cm in plant height, 37cm in panicle length at 50% flowering, 45cm in panicle length at 90% maturity for 80/80 kg N/P2O5 ha-1 with 20cm row spacing plant-1 respectively. Highest yield and yield components recorded were 3766.7 kg ha-1, 7350 kg ha-1, 11166.7 kg ha-1 and 34% in treatment of 80/80 kg N/P2O5 ha-1 with 10cm row spacing for grain yield, straw yield, biomass yield and harvest index respectively. Yield components were affected significantly by treatments with highest results observed in their interaction effects, where increments were 41.7% kg ha-1, 113.21% kg ha-1, 35.28% kgha-1 and 55.45% kg ha-1 for grain harvest index, yield, straw yield and biomass yield respectively from 80/80kg of N/P2O5 with 10cm spacing. Economic partial budget analysis shows that with 80/80 kg of N/P2O5 ha-1 fertilizer rate at 10cm row spacing resulted in maximum relative net return of ETB 50178ha-1 followed by ETB 48017 ha-1 for 70/70 kg of N/P2O5 ha-1 and ETB 38121 ha-1for 60/60 kgN/P2O5 ha-1.
Title: Effect of System of Crop Intensification Practices on Productivity in Greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) Abstract :
Field experiment was conducted during three consecutive seasons (Kharif 2010, 2011 and 2012) at Wetland farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to evaluate the System of Crop Intensification (SCI) practices on the growth and yield of Greengram. The experiment consisted of six treatments in the combination of maintaining two seedlings (one and two) and three spacing levels (20 × 20 cm, 25 × 25 cm, and 30 × 10 cm) which were tested in the Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Three seasons’ pooled data revealed that the maximum growth characters such as plant height, LAI and DMP at 20 DAS, 40 DAS and at harvest stages were recorded in control (30 × 10 cm with two seedlings). The yield attributes such as number of clusters hill-1, number of pods hill-1 and number of seeds pod-1 were higher in the single or the double seedlings maintained at 25 × 25 cm spacing level. Significantly higher grain yield (1091and 1060 kg ha-1) was recorded in 25 × 25 cm spacing level with both the single and the double seedling maintained plots respectively, when compared to the other combinations. The same trend was noted with Harvest index too. Haulm yield also varied significantly and a maximum of 1486 kg ha-1 was observed in the control (Double seedlings sown at 30 × 10 cm spacing level).
Title: Impact of KVK Interventions on Socio-economic Status of
Beneficiary Households in Dharwad District Abstract :
The government and non-government agencies have started many projects and programmes with an aim to eradicate poverty, unemployment and enhance income among the rural poor. The turning point and giant leap in this direction came with the establishment of Farm Science Centre or Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) by ICAR in 1974. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), the light house for rural people, is an innovative science based institution, which undertakes vocational training of farmers, farm women, and rural youths, conducts on-farm research for technology refinement and organizes frontline demonstration to promptly demonstrate the latest agriculture technologies to the farmers as well as the extension workers. The study was conducted in Dharwad district of Karnataka and KVK, Dharwad was purposively selected. Further, a sample of 40 respondents who were influenced by the three most important income and employment enhancing interventions namely household enterprise, vermicomposting and seed production were selected randomly. Thus, the total sample consisted of 120 respondents. It was clear that before the KVK intervention, majority of the respondents were under the low category of socio-economic status. These selected KVK interventions made farmers to generate adequate income, by acting as a subsidiary source of income. This led to the transformation of respondents from low socio-economic status to the medium category
Title: Irradiation as an Alternative Method for Postâ€“harvest Disease Management: An Overview Abstract :
Considering the high economic worldwide loss due to the post-harvest decay of fruit and vegetables, and the frequent development of pathogen isolates that are resistant to synthetic fungicides, there is a need to develop more eco-friendly alternatives for controlling post-harvest diseases. Irradiation (Gamma and UV-C) is one such physical method which is promising, but when used separately is not as effective as fungicides. Therefore, to improve its effectiveness and persistence, irradiation method can be combined with other complementary control measures such as sodium carbonate, heat treatment, chemicals, cold storage and bio-control agents as apart of integrated disease management strategies. Low doses of UV radiation, particularly UV-C have proven to be effective in delaying ripening and senescence, diminishing decay and even in increasing the content of beneficial compounds owing to its germicidal properties. It mainly inactivates microorganisms, especially pathogens by creating damage in the genetic material (DNA) of the cell. These methods can be efficiently used to delay the ripening of fruits, to inhibit germination, improve nutritional quality, minimize insect infestation and deactivate viruses. Short shelf life of mushroom can be extended by inhibiting cap opening and browning, stalk elongation, reducing the level of microbial contamination and finally by increasing the concentration of vitamin D2 significantly, without causing any adverse effect on its taste. This review deals with the information of maximum benefit which can be achieved from irradiation technology, and when combined with other chemical and physical methods with integrated strategy will provide synergistic effects for post-harvest disease control.