Title: Estimation of Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV), Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV), Heritability and Genetic Gain for Yield and its Components in Rice Landraces of Odisha Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out to study genetic variability in sixty-four low land rice genotypes (including fifty-five landraces of Odisha) for twelve traits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the studied characteristics. Flag leaf area, effective tillers per plant, filled grains per panicle, 100-grain weight and harvest index had moderate to high phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) estimates suggesting that these traits are under the influence of genetic control and less affected by the environment. In the present study, all the characters exhibited a high degree of heritability and among those flag leaf area, number of filled grains per panicle, 100-grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant had high genetic advance indicating the presence of additive gene effect and hence selection based on phenotypic performance for these traits would be effective. Filled grains per panicle and flag leaf area followed by 100-grain weight and harvest index are important characters having high heritability, genetic advance as well as high coefficient of variation which should be considered while selecting for high yield.
Title: Water Scarcity- Challenging the Future Abstract :
The latest world water development reports (UN-Water, 2009) observe how the various global crisis reported recently- in climate change, energy, food security, economic recession and financial turbulence-are related to each other and have impacts on water. Water Scarcity is a growing threat to our global economy, society and even to the survival of human beings. The crisis that we face today is mainly due to water pollution especially in the field of agriculture. Pollution can be anything from oil, to carcasses, to chemicals and to fecal matter, whatever the cause it majorly affects the global population. The world is moving towards a direction where water is becoming costly hence not affordable by the majority of people. As far as India is concerned it is gifted with many water bodies but due to improper management and unscientific industrial development. We are staring at the increase in the death of rivers. Erratic development plans mean our future generation is in major threat, sustainable development plans mean our future generation is saved from such major threat, sustainable development is the hour of need. Apart from government policies, the change needs to come from the grass-root level. This paper deals with water use and savings for the future. It also highlights the importance and threats of water scarcity and the challenges that will be faced by future generations.
Title: Anti-Nutritional Factor of Vegetables and their Effect on Human Body- A Review Abstract :
Vegetables are well known for their nutritional and medicinal property but some of them contain certain components that are not desirable for human consumption. They are designated as anti-nutritional factors. Plant essentially use these compound as defense mechanisms against Herbivorous, insect pest, pathogens, etc., however, many of them are likely to the human being on consumption. Many popular vegetables cope like tomato, potato, spinach contain toxic compounds capable of apoptosis. Some are again neurotoxin like Choline-esterase inhibitor in pumpkin. Few vegetables even contain HCN which is capable to block the ATP synthesis. In this review, the major anti-nutritional factor in the vegetables and their impact on the body is being discussed.
Title: Optimization of Spacing, doses of Vermi-compost and Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid on Growth, Flowering and Soil Health of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. â€œGuldastaâ€ Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted during the year 2018-2019 to study the effect of spacing (50×50, 50×60 and 50×75), dose of vermi-compost (0, 5.0 and 10.0 ton/ha) and foliar application of salicylic acid (0, 100 and 200 ppm) on the growth, flowering and soil health of chrysanthemum. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with twenty seven treatments and three replications. Significant improvement in growth and flowering characters was recorded with closer spacing (50×50 cm) except plant spread, number of flowers/plant, weight of individual flower, diameter of flower, shelf life and stalk length while, plants grown at wider spacing had maximum available NPK in post harvested soil. Gradual increases doses of vermicompost for 0 to 10.0 ton/ha significantly improved plant growth, flowering and yield attributing traits alongwith higher availability of NPK in post harvested soil. Among the foliar spray of salicylic acid, salicylic acid (100 ppm) significantly produced good plant growth and flower yield except induced early flowering and 50% flowering however, control showed maximum availability of NPK in post-harvested soil. Among the combined combinations, maximum flower yield/plant was recorded with treatment combination T26 (S3+VC2+SA1) and treatment combination T8 (S1+VC2+SA1) resulted in maximum flower yield/plot and flower yield/ha during course of study
Title: Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale - A Promising Tree for Domestication Abstract :
Haldina cordifolia is a multipurpose tree species spread over moist deciduous forests in India. It possesses high timber quality suitable for flooring, paneling, railway carriages and construction works. It is also being used for medicinal purposes like curing of ulcer, malaria and abdominal disorders since ancient era. Though many phyto-chemicals and pharmacological compounds have been identified from this tree species, the species has not been domesticated so far. A detailed review on the status of this species is presented in this paper.
Title: Application of Molecular Markers and their Utility in Genetic Studies of Floricultural Crops: A Review Abstract :
Understanding the genetics of floricultural germplasm represents a value added component of managing collections. Molecular approaches collectively represent a potential goldmine of important information that can be applied to programmes of genetic improvement. The development and utilization of molecular markers for the exploitation and identification of plant genetic diversity is one of the most key developments in the field of molecular genetics studies. Molecular markers are popular tool, due to their stability, cost-effectiveness and ease of use for a variety of applications in the field of molecular genetics. To know the role of molecular markers in genetic studies of floricultural crops, a number of molecular marker techniques have been reviewed by many researchers in worldwide. However, all these reviews were meant for researchers with advanced knowledge of molecular markers and their utility in limited aspects under floricultural crops. This review presents an overview of different marker technologies and their variants with a comparative account of their characteristic features and applications especially diverse molecular techniques used in assessing plant genetic diversity, inter-relationship between the genotypes, genetic purity, DNA barcode, tagging of important genes, development of linkage maps, marker assisted selection and application of molecular markers in tissue culture of floricultural crops. Altogether, the characteristics and types of markers with their applications and some recent advancement in genetic studies of floricultural crops are discussed.
Title: Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites in Wheat Grain (Triticum Sp.) Grown in Humid South Eastern Plain Zone of Rajasthan (India) Abstract :
Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption, globally. In India, wheat is qualitatively a major source of macromolecule, energy and fiber for human community nutrition since long time hence, preferably used as a staple food grain for society and also used as major source of fodder for animal feeding. The health benefits of whole grains are linked to the existence of secondary bioactive metabolites including phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols. Flavonoids have the properties like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiallergic, antithrombotic, antiviral and anticarcinogenic activities. Quercetin is one with an average of daily consumption of 25 mg to 40 mg. Kaempferol used as an antioxidant. Quantification data revealed that the total flavonoid content (free + bound) was observed highest and lowest in durum genotypes of HD 4728 (1.75 mg/gdw) and Raj 6560 (0.92 mg/gdw), respectively and in aestivum genotypes Raj 4037 (1.38 mg/gdw) and HI 1544 (0.72 mg/gdw) gave similar trend. Regular daily intakes of whole grain products are associated with reduced risk of several diseases. The objective of this study was identification and characterization of secondary metabolites i.e. flavonoids in Triticum sp.
Title: Development of Power Weeder for Line Sown Paddy Crop Abstract :
Weed is the main menace in paddy cultivation and its eradication from the paddy field is difficult and time consuming process. Traditional method of hand weeding is time consuming and labour intensive. Another method of weed control, through chemical method by weedicides is simple and fast method but is restricted due to its adverse effects on both environment as well as human beings. To overcome this, mechanical method by self – propelled weeders can replace this constraint. A power weeder was designed and developed for upland paddy and is tested for its field performance. The machine depicted satisfactory performance for weeding at both 20 and 45 DAS and fuel efficient (0.63 to 0.7 lh-1) with weeding efficiency as 74.20% and 85.90% for weeding at 20 and 45 DAS respectively. The machine showed satisfactory result by less plant damages of 3.75 and 8.26% at 20 and 45 DAS respectively. The field efficiency of weeder at 45 DAS was 8.5% more than that of 20DAS.
Title: Effect of Crop Geometry and Age of Seedlings on Productivity and Nutrient Uptake of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) Abstract :
Crop geometry is an important factor to achieve higher production by better utilization of resources and in turn higher production of photosynthates. The ideal crop geometry can assure healthy and uniform stand in the main field and ensure higher productivity. Proper age of seedlings has a tremendous influence on the tiller production, grain formation and other yield contributing characteristics. In view of the above, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season (June to October) of 2018 at Bagusala Farm (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to find out the effect of crop geometry and age of seedlings on yield attributing characters, yield and nutrient uptake of finger millet (cv. Vakula) in sandy loam soil. The experiment revealed that transplanting of 20 days old seedlings at 25 cm x 25 cm spacing registered superior performance in expression of yield attributes like effective tillers m-2, number of grain ear head-1, number of fingers ear head-1, test weight and length of the fingers; grain and straw yield and nutrient uptake. It may be concluded that to obtain higher productivity of finger millet during kharif season in sandy loam soils of south Odisha, 20 days old seedlings may be transplanted with a spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm.
Title: Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Productivity, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn)
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2018 at Bagusala Farm, of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to study the effect of integrated nutrient management in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) on yield attributes, productivity and nutrient uptake under south Odisha conditions. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with ten treatments and replicated thrice. The treatment combinations are T1, control,T2, FYM @ 4 t ha-1, T3 FYM @ 8 t ha-1, T4, 100% RDF (40:20:20 - N: P2O5: K2O kg ha-1), T5, 50% RDF + 4 t FYM, T6, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM, T7, FYM 4 t ha-1+ Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T8, FYM 8 t ha-1 + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T9, 50% RDF + 4 t FYM + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T10, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1. Application of 100% RDF resulted in the highest yield components like number of effective tillers m-2, number of grains ear head-1, number of fingers ear head-1, test weight and length of fingers which remained statistically at par with the application of chemical fertilizers along with the FYM and Azospirillum (T10). The highest grain yield, straw yield and biological yield were achieved from the treatment with 100% RDF which was followed by application of 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum (T10) and 75% RDF + 2 t FYM (T6). However, the lowest values yield attributes and yields were recorded in control (no nutrients). Total nutrient (NPK) uptake by finger millet differed and it was found that application of 100% RDF recorded significantly higher nutrient uptake than other treatments. The lowest uptake of N, P and K was recorded in absolute control treatment.
Title: Effect of Intercropping Summer Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with Legumes on Yield Attributes and Productivity of Crops
Intercropping of Sunflower with Groundnut and Blackgram in different cropping patterns showing effects on yield attributes in sole crops and intercrops. In view of this a experiment was conducted during summer season (February to June) of 2018 at Bagusala Farm (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi. Effect of intercropping summer sunflower with legumes on yield attributes and productivity. 9 treatments of sole, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 ratios of sunflower1 crop with groundnut2 and blackgram3 were tested in RCBD design with three replications. The experiment revealed that superior performance in expression of yield attributes like significantly increased the yield attributes like Number of pods/capitulum per plant, Number of seeds per pods/capitulum, Number of seeds per plant, Seed weight per plant (g), 1000 seeds weight (g), Seed yield (kg/ha), Biological yield (kg/ha). It may be concluded that to obtain higher productivity of crops which are having higher productivity during summer season in sandy loam soils.
Title: Performance of Traditional Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties under System of Rice Intensification during Kharif Season in South Odisha Conditions
A field experiment was carried out at the Bagusala Farm, of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha during the kharif season of 2018. Four traditional rice varieties namely, V1, Red rice (kondo dano), V2, Manipuri black rice, V3, Balami and V4, Dudheshwar were taken into consideration and the treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The traditional rice variety Dudheshwar got highest values of growth attributing characteristics, yield attributes and yield of rice. The highest grain yield (6560.25 kg ha-1) and straw yield (10632 kg ha-1) were achieved by treatment V4-Dudheshwar. In terms of net return and benefit: cost ratio, the variety Manipuri black rice is resulted in higher profitability as compared to other traditional rice varieties.
Title: Effect of Mulching and Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Agro Chemicals on the Growth and Yield of Summer Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Under Limited Water Resources Abstract :
Moisture stress is a limiting factor to achieve potential yield of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under limited water resources and mulching is one of the suitable measures to mitigate the problem. Further, pre-sowing soaking of seeds with chemicals can facilitate growth, physiological and metabolic activities and thus enhance crop productivity. An experiment was conducted at Bagusala Farm of MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) during summer season of 2018 to study the effect of mulching and pre-sowing seed treatment with agro chemicals on growth and productivity of summer sesame. The experimental soil was sandy loam in texture with a pH of 6.1, 0.73% organic carbon and 230, 32.1 and 346 kg ha-1 of available N, P and K, respectively. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design (SPD), with two factors, namely, mulching (main plot) and seed soaking with agro-chemicals (sub-plot). In main plot three treatments of mulching were taken, namely, M0, no mulching, M1, paddy straw mulching and M2, plastic mulching, however, four seed soaking treatments, viz., P1, water soaked, P2, 200 ppm potassium chloride (KCL), P3, 400 ppm potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and P4, 400 ppm disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) were considered in sub-plot. Thus 12 treatments combinations were replicated thrice in 4m × 3m plots. Sesame variety ‘Gauri’ performed well with plastic mulching as it recorded significantly better growth and higher yield than paddy straw mulching and no mulching. Among seed soaking treatments, it was noted that pre-sowing seed soaking with either of 400 ppm of Na2HPO4 or 400 ppm of KH2PO4 exhibited superiority to other treatments to obtain higher productivity. Moreover, plastic mulching and seed soaking with either of Na2HPO4 or KH2PO4 combination resulted in higher net return and benefit: cost ratio.