Title: Genetic Analysis of Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Bread Wheat Abstract :
Ten wheat genotypes were crossed in diallel manner excluding reciprocals. The crosses along with parents were analysed for combining ability and significant variation was found amongst genotypes for various yield and yield contributing traits. ANOVA revealed that mean square for general combining ability was significant for all the traits studied except for spike length. Mean square for SCA was also non significant for spike length while for all other characters it was significant. Out of total 45 crosses 5, 8, 4, 7, 8, 3, 3, 11, 11, 13, 8 and 11 crosses showed significant SCA effects in desirable direction for days to 75% heading, days to maturity, flag leaf area, number of productive tillers per plant, plant height, spike length, number of spikelets/spike, number of grains/ spike, 1000 grain weight, biological yield/plant, grain yield/plant and harvest index, respectively. Two cross combinations viz., HD 2967 × NIAW 1594 and KFA/2*KACHU × WH 1187 were identified as good crosses due to them having higher per se performance and significant SCA effects for three yield and yield contributing traits so these crosses presents an opportunity for commercial exploitation either in form of hybrid varieties or as base material for selection of potential homozygous lines from transgressive segregants for improvement of yield levels of bread wheat.
Title: Response of Different Plant Growth Regulators on Fruit Yield of Brinjal Abstract :
The experiment was conducted at Instructional cum Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Biswanath College of Agriculture (AAU) Biswanath Chariali, Sonitpur district of Assam during 2014-15 in order to study the response of plant growth regulators on physiogical and fruit yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cv. JC -1. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with ten treatments replicated three times. The details of treatment comprised of GA3 (25, 50 and 100 ppm), IAA (25, 50 and 100 ppm), NAA (25, 50 and 100 ppm) and control (distilled water). During the period of investigation the growth regulators showed significant response on physiological and yield attributing characters of brinjal. The result revealed that the maximum leaf area index (2.82) was recorded under GA3 at100 ppm (T3) while GA3 at 50 ppm (T2) recorded the highest (802.40 g) total dry weight per plant at harvest. However, the highest leaf chlorophyll content index (44.50) was recorded under treatment with NAA at 50 ppm (T8). Foliar application GA3 at 50 ppm (T2) exhibited significantly higher total number of flower per plant (38.49), number of fruit per plant (18.56) and fruit yield (1.58 kg plant-1 and 377.00 q ha-1). It may be concluded from the experiments that GA3 proved to be the best in improving the physiological and yield attributing parameters in brinjal.
Title: Agrobiodiversity, Composition and Functional Characteristics of Homegardens in Bhimtal Block of Nainital District, Uttarakhand, India Abstract :
Present investigation was carried out to access the agrobiodiversity, composition and functional characteristics of homegardens in bhimtal block of Nainital district, Uttarakhand during 2011-12. The study was carried out in three villages diversified in respect to elevation and agroecological situations viz., Amritpur (520 mts) at low hill, Jeolikote (1219 mts) at mid hill and Ghorakhal (2000 mts) at high hill in Bhimtal block of district Nainital. In these villages a total of 22 respondents of different economic status in each village with a total of 66 respondents were selected and interrogated for the information related to the study. It was found that 80.30 per cent household practicing homegardening and the tree species, fruit tree species (Malus domestica, Citrus sinensis, Psidium guajava), sacred groves species (Ficus roxburghii, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos), timber, fuel wood and fodder tree species (Grevia optiva, Toona ciliata, Mangifera indica, Citrus aurentifolia) were contributed as 33.33, 38.09, 11.90 and 40.74 per cent respectively.
Title: Molecular Characterization among Susceptible and Resistant Ridge Gourd Cultivars to Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita through ISSR Markers Abstract :
The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is the main nematode pest with host range more than 3000 plant species causes vast damage worldwide. The knowledge of genetic diversity in a crop species is essential for its improvement. Microsatellite sequences are especially suited to distinguish closely related genotypes in crop like ridge gourd. Several susceptible and resistant ridge gourd cultivars to root-knot nematode were identified on the basis of artificial screening and the present investigation was under taken for purity discrimination and characterize of these cultivars at molecular level taking ISSR markers. Standardized reported procedure was followed in order to conduct the experiment. The phylogenetic tree constructed by UPGMA method generated two main clusters i.e., cluster-I and cluster - II. The cluster I was further sub-divided into sub-cluster IA and IB. The cluster I consisted of three varieties (Aneeta, Aarti and BSS-1009), while cluster II consisted of two varieties (Harsha and Priya). Sub-cluster IA consisted of one variety (Aneeta), while Sub-cluster IB consisted of two varieties (Aarti and BSS-1009). Polymorphic per cent ranges from 13.16 per cent (between BSS-1009 and Aneeta ) to 43.18 per cent (between Aarti and Harsha). This study showed that ISSR markers produced specific DNA fragments for the identification of ridge gourd varieties. The knowledge acquired through this investigation may play a pivotal role in the application of molecular markers in ridge gourd improvement programmes.
Title: GGE Biplot Based Stability Analysis of Durum Wheat Genotypes Using Statistical Package GGEBiplotGUI Abstract :
The investigation was aimed to identify stable genotypes of durum wheat which can perform consistently under multiple environments. The experiment was conducted in Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi 2015-16. In the present investigation seven released varieties of durum wheat were evaluated on four environments (timely vs late sown, irrigated vs drought) in randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data was collected from randomly selected five plants of each genotype and used to carry out GGE biplot analysis using the R software and GGEBiplotGUI package. Analysis of variance revealed significant genetic variability among the genotypes. Significant variability was also observed due to both environment and GEI. The four environments were grouped into three major groups. Both irrigated environments were grouped together and were more alike for genotypic comparisons. Genotype WHD 948 was the most stable genotype in all the environments.
Title: Pesticides Use Pattern and Handling Practices among Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Growing Farmers of Parsa District of Nepal Abstract :
Pesticide is one of the major inputs for commercial vegetable farming in Nepal. The study examined pesticides use pattern and farmers’ knowledge, perception, awareness about pesticides and the handling practices. The study is based on survey data consisting of 150 samples collected randomly from Parsa district of Nepal. The results show that 54.7% of the cucumber farmers used pesticides as control measure of insect and fungus in Parsa district. Out of which insecticides was found to be applied more i.e.68% followed by the fungicides i.e. 22.33% of total application volume sprayed. Regarding toxicity level farmers were found to use Moderately Hazardous Pesticides (II). The research identified that farmers do 2 times spray as mandatory frequency of application however, nearly half of farmers were found to spray pesticide four to five times. Regarding their knowledge 53% of farmers found to read label on pesticide bottle/packages. More than half (57%) of the farmers has found to receive Integrated Pest Management (IPM) training but only 7% practiced alternative pest control measures. Regarding the disposal only 6% found to bury the empty bottles, packages after use and others throw the containers anywhere. The results show that, in Nepal, pesticide was mostly applied for the vegetable farming. If area under vegetable farming increases by 1% the probability of the pesticide application by household is increased by the 22%.
Title: Screening of Bhendi Accessions (Abelmoschus esculenthus [L.] Moench) against the Fruit Borer, Earias spp. (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera) Abstract :
The study on screening of bhendi accessions against fruit borer (Earias spp.) infestation was conducted by evaluating 55 numbers of IC entries with 6 different varieties/hybrids as a local standard check to assess their performance in naturally infested field conditions in augmented block design with three replications. The identified resources of accessions further subjected to the artificial screening to cross verify their reaction against the incidence of sucking insect pests, viz., leaf hopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Out of 55 IC accessions screened, the entries viz., IC 27821-A, IC 42531, IC 22237-C, IC 42485-B, IC 43743, IC 43746-D, IC 45728 and IC 45804 were found to be the best tolerant sources for the management of fruit borer, Earias spp. with the cross resistance to leaf hopper and whitefly. The results on the artificial screening indicated that the identified tolerant sources were registered the minimum leaf hopper index (<3.5) and whitefly population (<2.0/leaf) when compared with the susceptible checks like Arka anamika, Parbhani kranti, Punjab 8 and Punjab padmini. The tolerance nature of the identified entries by recording < 30 per cent fruit damage with the trichome density of > 80/cm2 is in tune with the tolerant checks i.e., CO 4 and Arka abhay. Hence, the present investigation conclude that, these identified 8 accessions can be utilized in further breeding programmes to develop varieties/hybrids resistant to major insect pests of bhendi with good phenological traits.
Title: Diversity, Distribution and Varietal Preference of Fruit Fly, Bactrocera spp. in Mango Ecosystem Abstract :
Mango is the second major fruit crop cultivated in India, it is known as “King of fruits” owing to delicious quality of fruit with richness in vitamins and minerals and has a socio economic significance in international market. It is attacked by many insects and mite pests; the yield and quality aspects of the mango are highly inflicted by fruit flies and make it unmarketable and inconsumable. The varied agro climatic conditions prevailed in tropical and subtropical regions makes them to spread all over the country. The documented information in a particular area on the population dynamics of fruit flies is essential to take preventive measures and to implement suitable management strategies. Keeping this in mind, the experiment on its species diversity, distribution pattern with its varietal preference of fruit flies in mango ecosystem was undertaken by using methyl eugenol based parapheromone traps during 2017-18 at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tiruchirappalli. The major diversity of species registered in mango ecosystem is viz., Bactrocera caryeae (Kapoor), B.dorsalis (Hendel) and B.correcta (Bezzi). The activity of fruit fly is maximum in the month of August and September with the mean catch ranges from 27.00 to 57.00 flies/trap/week. The poor activity of fruit flies in mango orchards was registered in the month of November to February with the least trapped population of < 3.0 flies/trap/week. Considering the varietal preference, the prevalence of B.correcta both in rumani and PKM 1 varieties is comparatively less when compared with the B.dorsalis and B.caryeae. The correlation analysis results revealed that, the fruit fly incidence is positively correlated with maximum, minimum temperature and negatively correlated with morning, evening relative humidity (RH) and rainfall.
Title: Incidence and Severity of Early Blight of Tomato in Peshawar, Mardan and Malakand Divisions and Variability Amongst the Isolates of Alternaria solani Jones and Mart Abstract :
An extensive survey for incidence and severity of early blight of tomato was conducted in Peshawar, Mardan and Malakand Divisions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province after flower formation and fruit setting during 2012. The survey points were 3-5 km apart from one another. At each location fields were assessed in “X” shaped pattern. A high incidence of the disease (40%) was recorded at Jahangira District Nowshera, whereas the lowest disease incidence 4.9% was recorded at Taru Jaba in Peshawar Division. In Mardan Division high incidence of the disease was recorded at Galadher 38.6% in District Mardan whereas the lowest at Jalbai 3.3% in Distrct Swabi. A similar disease incidence was found at Osaki and Nasafa locations in District Dir (L). Conversely, high incidence of the disease was recorded in Ghalegai (20%) in District Swat Malakand Division. In terms of the disease severity Jahangira (8.66%) in District Nowshera was the most severely infested area closely followed by Basher Mian Kaly (7.98%) and Shabqadar (7.66%). In general, isolates collected from Peshawar and Mardan Divisions were more virulent than those collected from Malakand Division by exhibiting rapid growth on PDA medium as well as producing high number of spore’s ml-1. Isolates collected from Shabqadar measured 33 mm in diameter with 28000 spore ml-1 and proved virulent by producing high disease severity (27.6%). Conversely, isolates collected from Talash (Malakand Division) showed minimum growth (22 mm) with least number of spores ml-1 and disease severity of 16.44% only. Regression analysis showed a simple linear relationship between growth parameters and virulence and as expected virulence increased with increase in colony diameter and spore concentration of the pathogen. Results are indicative of segregation in population structure of the pathogen and may correlate with the different environmental conditions prevalent in the central part of the province
Title: Integrated Farming Systems for Sustainable Agriculture in Raigad District of Maharashtra Abstract :
An integrated farming system comprises the crop production, livestock, horticulture crops and fisheries etc. The status of these combinations depends on the prevailing modal of these systems in a particular area. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the existing major integrated farming systems with internal cost adjustment, return, income and employment in the farming systems. The present study was conducted in Raigad district of Maharashtra during year 2015-16. A total sample of 120 households was selected. Out of seven farming systems six systems were found livestock based systems, viz; FS-I: Crops + Vegetable, FS-II: Crops + Dairy, FS-III: Crops + Poultry, FS-IV: Crops + Vegetable + Dairy, FS-V: Crops + Poultry + Dairy, FS-VI: Crops + Vegetable + Goat and FSVII: Crops + Vegetable + Orchard + Dairy. The total cost of farming system was minimum in FS-I and highest in FS-V. On per farm basis employment generated was minimum in FS-I (267.76 man days) and maximum in FS-V (758.82 man days).
Title: Growth, Productivity and Quality of Bt and non-Bt Cotton Hybrids (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as Influenced by Environment Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of environments (timely sown and late sown) on crop phenology development, yield and fibre development of Bt and non-Bt cotton hybrids viz., G cot hy 8 BG II (Bt), G cot hy12 (non-Bt), NCS 145 BG II (Bt), DHH 263 (non-Bt), Ankur 3028 BG II (Bt) and LHH 144 (non-Bt) commonly grown in different ecological zones of the country. Results revealed that timely sown crop produced significantly higher seed cotton yield (14.80 q/ha) than the late sown crop (8.00 q/ha) due to petite crop canopy, lesser number of sympods, bolls and lower boll weight per plant. The maximum seed cotton yield was recorded with Ankur 3028 BG II (14.72 q/ha) which was significantly superior to all other Bt as well as non-Bt cotton hybrids. Further, LHH 144 (12.94 q/ha) and G cot hy 8 BG II (12.88 q/ha) recorded significant edge over rest of the hybrids. Among the rest of the hybrids, G cot hy 12 (10.81 q/ha), DHH 263 (9.09 q/ha) and NCS 145 BG II (7.99 q/ha) followed significantly diminishing order in seed cotton yield. The higher yield in Ankur 3028 BG II, LHH 144 and G cot hy 8 BG II was mainly attributed to higher sympods, boll number and boll weight per plant. The fibre length was also significantly more in timely sown crop as compared to late sown crop. Among the hybrids, Ankur 3028 BG II registered significantly more fibre length than rest of the hybrids.
Title: Performance Evaluation of Tubular Maize Sheller under Frontline Demonstration Abstract :
The study was conducted to assess the performance of tubular maize sheller under Frontline Demonstration programme during 2016-2019 under Kohima district of Nagaland. Maize sheller developed by CIAE was compared to farmers practice of bare hand maize shelling using the finger tips and thumb pressing. The demonstrated result revealed that the performance level of tubular maize sheller (31.36 kg/hr) was double that of farmers practice (13.11kg/hr) in a given time which had increased the shelling capacity by 140%. Shelling efficiency under demonstration remain as high as 99.69%. The average cost of operation per quintal in tubular maize sheller was found to be ` 171.58 over farmers practice (` 423.70) which saved the operation cost of farmers by 60 %. The farmers attitude towards the demonstrated tool was also noted and it was observed that 100% were in agreement that no special training was required for handling the tool, it avoided injury to fingers during use, reduced drudgery and that the tool to be women friendly. It also revealed that majority were in agreement that it saves time and energy (98.66), avoids irritation of eyes, nose mouth during shelling (98%) followed by convenient to use and operate (97.33%). It was also suggested that 4% percent of the farmers were in agreement to the statement that the tool requires modification.
Title: Effect of Irrigation Regimes and Staggered Transplanting on Growth and Yield of Summer Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in South Odisha Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Bagusala, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha during summer season, 2018-19. The soil of experimental field was sandy clay loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction (pH 6.4) low in available nitrogen (208 kg/ha) and high in both phosphorus (139 kg/ha) and potassium (390 kg/ha). The field experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications and 12 treatments combination. The treatments were comprised of three water regimes assigned in main plot (Continuous ponding, continuous soil saturation and saturation after hair crack) and four transplanting dates in sub plots (Transplanting on 23rd and 31st January, 6th and 13th February). The experimental results revealed that irrigation treatments failed to exhibit significant effect on growth parameters like plant height, tillers/clump, LAI, dry matter production and CGR until the peak crop growing period up to 60 DAT excepting plant height at 60 DAT. Crop growth parameters except LAI were significantly influenced by irrigation regimes at harvest. Irrigation regimes had the remarkably effect of grain yield and WUE but it had no significant effect on straw yield. Irrigation with continuous ponding produced the highest grain yield (4.57 t/ha) which was at par with continuous soil saturation (4.30 t/ha). The WUE was significantly increased with saturation after hair (49.62 kg/ha/cm). Dates of transplanting significantly reflected all the crop growth parameters throughout the crop growing period. Transplanting on 23rd January significantly recorded the highest grain yield (4.72 t/ha) and maximum straw yield was obtained in 31st January (7.99 t/ha) being at par with 23rd January (7.63 t/ha). Significantly the highest WUE was obtained in transplanting date of 23rd January (47.09 kg/ha/cm).
Title: Growth, Productivity, Nutrient uptake and Economics of Hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Precision Nutrient Management Abstract :
The field experiment was carried out at the farmer’s field in Chella Kamarpara village, Chella G.P, Chella Mouza of Illambazar Block, Birbhum, West Bengal which is situated at 23o 37.374’ latitude and 87o37.170’E longitudes with an average altitude of 58.9 m above mean sea level under sub-humid, sub-tropical belt under the prevailing climatic conditions of West Bengal during the Kharif season of 2013. The experiment consisted of the five levels of nutrient management i.e., N1: State recommendation (150:75:75), N2: Nutrient expert (NE) recommendation (120:34:51), N3: Farmers practices (80:40:40), and N4: Basal application of 50:75:75 with split N application on basis of LCC (leaf colour chart), N5:control and two level of varieties viz. V1: Sona and V2: Rajkumar, the total number of treatment combinations are ten, which were replicated thrice and was laid out in factorial randomized block design (FRBD). To evaluate the effect of nutrient management on the growth, productivity and economics of hybrid maize cultivation. Nutrient management has played an important role in achieving sustainability of grain production. The chemical fertilizer consumption coupled with their limited production, fertilizer cost, soil health and pollution have given rise to interest in precision nutrient management tools. It was the found that the Growth, productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by precision nutrient management which was significantly affected by different level of nutrient management and varieties. Whereas, LCC based application of fertilizer gave better result than all other treatment but it was also statistically at par with Nutrient expert based recommendation.
Title: Effect of Drip Fertigation on the Productivity of Hybrid Rice Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TRRI), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Aduthurai to standardize lateral spacing, plant row spacing, fertilizer levels and source of fertilizers on the productivity of hybrid rice under drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted in strip plot design with replicated thrice. Main plot treatments were two lateral spacing (80 and 100 cm) with two plant row spacing (uniform row spacing and modified row spacing). In 80 cm lateral spacing, uniform row spacing of 20 × 10 cm and modified row spacing of 7.5 × 20 × 25 × 20 × 7.5 cm were adopted. In case of 100 cm lateral spacing, uniform row spacing of 20 × 10 cm and modified row spacing of 7.5 × 15×15×25×15×15×7.5cm were adopted. In sub plots, combination of two fertilizer levels (75 and 100% RDF) and two sources of fertilizers (common fertilizers – urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash and water soluble fertilizers – urea, mono ammonium phosphate and sulphate of potash) were used for fertigation. Short duration hybrid CORH 3 was used.
Results revealed that lateral spacing at 80 cm with modified row spacing (7.5 × 20 × 25 × 20 × 7.5 cm) produced significantly taller plants (76.1 cm), more number of leaves per hill (74.9/hill) and tillers population (625 per m2), higher root growth parameters at maximum tillering stage viz., root length (18.5 cm), root volume (13.1cc) and root dry weight (6.2g), higher yield attributes like productive tillers (453/m2), number of filled grains per panicle(124.9) and higher grain yield of 5055 kg/ha than lateral spacing of 100 cm with modified row spacing. Fertigation with different levels and sources of fertilizers revealed that application of 100 % recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) as water soluble fertilizer produced significantly higher growth, yield parameters and grain yield of 4230 kg/ha over 75% RDF. However, it was comparable with 100 % RDF as conventional fertilizers.
Title: Energetics of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) Cultivation as Influenced by Integrated Nutrient Management Abstract :
Finger millets ((Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) is one of the important small millets cultivated in India under subsistence farming in drylands. Though it is low demanding crop energy involvement is there in profitable raising of finger millet. Increase in energy use in agriculture production at a faster rate in India because of mechanization and enhancing chemical usage. To study the energy use in finger millet cultivation, a field trail was conducted at Bagusala Farm of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and ten treatments. The treatment comprises of T1: control, T2: FYM @ 4 t ha-1,T3: FYM @ 8 t ha-1, T4: 100% RDF (40:20:20 kg ha-1 of N: P2O5: K2O), T5: 50% RDF + 4 t FYM, T6, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM, T7: FYM 4 t ha-1 + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1, T8: FYM 8 t ha-1 + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1, T9: 50% RDF + 4 t FYM + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1 and T10: 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum@ 5 kg ha-1. The results revealed that all the energy parameters except energy productivity were significantly influenced by different treatments. The highest maximum energy input, gross energy output, net energy and energy intensity in term of economics were recorded maximum with application of 100% RDF and maximum energy use efficiency and energy productivity was noticed with application of FYM 8 t ha-1 + Azospirillum.
Title: Yield Analysis of Oilseed Crops under Front Line Demonstration Programmes in Medium and High Land Farming Situations of Birbhum District Abstract :
The present study is based on the analysis of yield obtained from the Front Line Demonstration Programmes (as Demonstration is one of the most time-tested method in Extension Education) on Oilseed Crops (viz. Sesame, Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed) organized by the Rathindra KVK in Medium and High Land Farming Situations of Birbhum District and comparative yield analysis over the Birbhum District Average and the West Bengal State Average. The study revealed that the FLD Programme on Sesame; Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed produced an average yield higher than the Birbhum District Average and also higher than the State Average consistently over the years (as mentioned in the Paper) with the one and only exception in the Rabi Season of 2017-18, when the State Average Yield of Rapeseed and Mustard was higher than the Average yield achieved in the Rathindra KVK FLD Progtramme. The Study also pointed out another important fact that the Birbhum District average yield of Sesame; Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed were consistently and significantly lower than the state Average with only bright and positive exception in the case of Linseed (the Birbhum District Average Yield of Linseed was higher than that of the state average in both the years of 2016-17 and 2017-18) showing a huge un-tapped potential for production of Linseed in the District. The study further showed us that the positive yield gap achieved by the FLD Programme on Sesame, Rapeseed and Mustard and Linseed over Birbhum District Average Yield and at same time over the West Bengal State Average Yield was consistently and significantly higher in the specified time period with the only exception in the Rabi Season of 2017-18, when the State Average Yield of Rapeseed and Mustard was slightly higher (by 0.25 q / ha) over the average yield obtained from Rathindra KVK FLD Programme.
Title: Applications of Environment Biotechnology in Aquaculture-Review Abstract :
This paper explains all the chances of environmental biotechnology techniques useful in aquaculture and reviews its various areas together. Biotechnology has played a vital role in boosting production in the aquaculture sector. Considering the number of issues which deteriorate the ecological conditions in an aquaculture system, the field of environmental biotechnology has shown new possibilities to enhance the terms. Since the environment turns to be a vital segment in the survival of aquatic flora and fauna its day by day deterioration via pollution and toxic substances are need to be checked. The distinct role of environmental biotechnology within the sector of aquaculture emphasized finding the opportunities to contribute with new solutions and directions in remediating the contaminated environments, minimizing future waste release and creating pollution prevention alternatives.
Title: An Assessment of Critical Loads of Acid Deposition in Kanpur Region, India Abstract :
The present load of sulphur (161.1 Eq ha-1 yr-1), nitrogen(49.9 Eq ha-1 yr-1) and ammonium (176.8 Eq ha-1 yr-1) were calculated from wet and dry deposition from Kanpur region consisting of seven sampling sites located at IIT, Vikas Nagar, Panki, Arya Nagar, Rama Devi, Gola Ghat and Phoolbagh for the year 2014-2016. The values for critical load of sulphur and nitrogen for soil with respect to Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus) were calculated. The methodology involved the Steady State Mass Balance (SSMB) method. The values of actual acidity calculated were also compared with the RAINS-Asia model and was found to be lower for this area.
Title: Effect of Crude Oil Spillage on Chemical Properties of Soils of Moran and Duliajan Oil Fields of Assam Abstract :
Crude oil spillage is a regular phenomenon in the oil drilling sites and due to raining and flooding the spilled oil spread to the nearby cultivated field causing soil pollution and considerable reduction in the crop yield. Therefore, present investigation aimed to study the effect of crude oil spillage on chemical properties of soils of two major oil fields in Assam, India viz. MFN oil field, Moran and Kathalguri, HYR, Duliajan oil field. Five soil samples were collected in triplicates at an interval of 50 m from three directions (E, W& S) from the spilled areas upto 200 m horizontally and one sample from each direction was collected from adjacent unpolluted areas i.e. beyond 200 m as control. Standard analytical procedures were followed to determine soil pH, EC, organic carbon, total petroleum hydrocarbon, available nutrients, and exchangeable elements. Results revealed pH of the soils remarkably dropped towards spillage point making the soil strongly acidic in nature whereas the organic carbon content increased near the point of spillage in both oil fields. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was recorded maximum at spillage point in both Moran and Duliajan oil fields and was negligible beyond 200m. The available N and P2O5 were low near the spillage point and substantially increased with distance. Conversely, available K2O, exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ significantly increased near the spilled point.