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Title: A Review and Situational Analysis of Thomas Cook Business Failure, A Successful Business Model for 178 Years: A Case Study
Abstract :

Thomas Cook, the world’s oldest travel brands with 19 million annual customers, operated and offered multiple services related to tourism and numerous one-stop-shops for all the travel demands. A 178 years old brand, trusted by travelers globally, and merged with My Travel group in 2007, was collapsed in 2019 due to failure to pay debts, acquiring higher costs, financial troubles, higher fuel prices and failure to meet customer demands. The study encompasses of a business review and a short analysis of Thomas Cook’s business model, reasons for failure and important lessons to be learnt.

Title: Artificial Intelligence & Cloud Computing in Environmental Systems—Towards Healthy & Sustainable Development
Abstract :

Environment is a big venture and aspects and also conveys as a field of study and practice such as Environment Science, Environment Studies, Environment Engineering, Environment Management, etc. Environmental Informatics is another important subject and emerging regarding the IT and Computing solutions in the environment. The merging of environmental areas and Informatics areas are commonly known as Environmental Informatics. Environmental Informatics is the best way for solving technology related issues with educated manpower and further, it uses various kinds of tools, techniques and sub-technologies of Computing and Information Technology in Environment, Ecology and Biological Sciences. The technologies such as Database Technology, Networking Technology, Multimedia Technology, Web Technology, Software Technology are most common and useful in Environment and Ecology related issues, activities and problem solving. In recent past other emerging technologies like Cloud Computing, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Analytics, Computational Intelligence, Human Computer Interaction, etc. are also being widely used. This paper is dedicated to basic review on Environmental Informatics including its nature, feature, and functions with special reference to the applications of Artificial Intelligence and Cloud Computing.

Title: Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and Women Empowerment: A Study in Cooch Behar District of West Bengal, India
Abstract :

Empowerment is an abstract, multi- dimensional and multi-level concept that can be both a process and outcome. It can be defined as the process of increasing the assets and capabilities of individuals or groups to make purposive choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes. A Self Help Group (SHG) is a small economically homogenous affinity group of 10 to 20 persons who come together to save small amounts regularly, mutually agree to contribute to a common fund, have collective decision making, or resolve conflicts through collective leadership and mutual discussion. The present study was undertaken in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal, India to assess the impact of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) on empowerment of women. 60 SHG members and 30 non-members were selected from 10 villages from Cooch Behar-I and Cooch Behar-II blocks of the district. A pre-tested schedule was employed to collect the relevant information by personal interview method. To assess and compare between the SHG and non-SHG groups, an Empowerment Status Index (ESI) was developed for the study with different indicators of empowerment. Indicators were selected from the recommendations of different authors. From the study it was found that the empowerment status of the SHG members was higher than the non-members and empowerment is positively correlated with the efficiency of the group.

Title: New Innovative Technologies used in Aquaculture
Abstract :

Technologies used in aquaculture have a huge role in increasing the productivity of fish farming. There are several new technologies which have revolutionized the aquaculture. Genetic tools and other reproductive technologies are being used regularly and have removed many challenges. Many problems associated with traditional aquaculture have been solved. The diseases in fish are controlled with the application of new techniques. More disease resistance, stress tolerance power have been incorporated in the fishes. Most of the diseases are now prevented successfully. A great progress has also been observed in fish feed processing. All these innovations have sustained the productivity as well as strengthened the economy of the fish farmers.

Title: Study on Socio-Economic Profile of Millet Consumers in Jodhpur District of Rajasthan and Chitradurga Districts of Karnataka, India
Abstract :

Millets are highly nutritious food and are widely cultivated in India since long. But from last few decades land under cultivation of millets is decreasing due to decrease in demand. Owning to its nutritional and health benefits the demands of millets are now increasing among urban consumers. To understand the socio-economic profile of millet consumers a study was undertaken in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan and Chitradurga district of Karnataka. It was found that most of the urban families were nuclear families, in contrast, most of the rural families were joint families. Most of the millet rural consumers in Jodhpur were medium and semi-medium farmers, whereas in Chitradurga most of the farmers were small and marginal farmers. In terms of educational qualification,most of the rural consumers in both the districts (32.5 per cent) had completed primary level of education and most of the consumers in urban areas (45 per cent) had completed secondary level of education.

Title: Information Needs of Dairy Farm Women in Nainital District of Uttarakhand
Abstract :

Dairy farming is one of the prominent enterprises, which supports the rural households by providing profitable employment and steady income. Dairy farming is an integral part of homestead farming system. In hill areas dairy farming is totally dependent on women. Many research studies have indicated that women in hill areas are unaware about many aspects. Thus, present research investigation was conducted in Jeoli, Bhaluti, Sariyatal and Kausani villages of Bhimtal block of Nainital district to assess the needs of hill women engaged in dairy farming. The study revealed that majority of respondents belonged to middle age group category and belonged to General caste. They were educated upto primary level. Majority of respondents were involved in dairy farming and farming and have 3-7 nali. All the farmers owned Mobile Phone and television. Majority of respondents have Cow, buffalo and goats. Majority of respondents were unaware about feeding schedule for milch animal, feeding schedule for young heifer, feeding schedule for pregnant animal, time and frequency of feeding, information on mineral mixture, formulation of ration, complete feed block, feeding schedule for young calves, colostrums feeding for new born calf, selection of breed, high yielding breed, pregnancy diagnosis, gestation period, suitable cross breed to their region, selection of adult of Bull or Semen, age of breedable heifer, selection of milch animal, castration of scrub bulls, care and management of new born calf, milking methods, vaccination schedule, knowledge about disease, control of external parasite, deworming practice, disinfection of shed, disposal of dead animal, treatment against contagious disease, precaution against parasitic disease, sterility treatment , Govt programme for Dairy farming etc.

Title: Sadivayal Village Development Model: A Smart Sustainable Tribal Hamlet for Community
Abstract :

Under the concept of Amrita Self Reliant Village (Amrita SeRVe) has adopted Sadivayal village, Coimbatore, one of the remote tribal villages of Tamilnadu, to develop it as first Smart Village. The village is situated 45 km away from Coimbatore District, having 46 families with an average population of 150 belongs to the Irula Community of Scheduled Tribes. Amrita SeRVe smart village focuses on how villagers utilize local resources in better ways, access to food and nutrition, education, healthcare, access to clean water and sanitation. In Amrita, SeRVe agriculture acts as a catalyst for development and capable of addressing unemployment, health, education, gender equality, and boost income. Sadivayal became our first organic agriculture certified village in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, which applies the standards set by the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP). In 2018, the village beame open defecation free (ODF). The paper highlights some of the notable Model Village efforts of India and what have been their development indicators in the backdrop of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Also, what Amrita SeRVe acheived compared to model Village initiative of Central Government: the Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana.

Title: Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against Plant Pathogenic Fungi: A Review
Abstract :

Essential oils are obtained from non-woody parts of the plants, particularly foliage, stem or hydrodistillation. They are complex mixture of terpenoids and variety of aromatic phenols, oxides, ethers, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones that determine the characteristics aroma and odour of the donor plants. Presence of volatile monoterpenes or essential oils in the plants provides an important defense strategy to the plants, particularly against herbivorous insect pest and plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi cause huge amount of yield losses due to their ability to cause serious devastating diseases to the crops. Minimizing their effect on the crops need to get a promising way of controlling them. Therefore, the use of essential oils could be a good option to tackle the challenge of fungal diseases. Essential oils are natural products that are extracted from plants by different methods. They have been used for a long history of time for different purposes. Fungicides used in disease management are expensive for resource-poor farmers andnegatively correlation with ecosystems. Nowadays there is a huge interest to use them as plant protection product to be alternative for new agro-chemicals with large antimicrobial spectrum properties. As we observed from the antifungal trials in different literature, the essential oils have a great antifungal effect on many plant pathogens and inhibited most of the tested plant pathogens in the laboratory. Thus, essential oils could be a control agent for plant fungal diseases and further investigation is required to use in the field. This review summarized that the importance, antimicrobial activity and management of fungi.

Title: Green Economy a Design for Sustainable Development of India
Abstract :

Industrial revolution turned India into a source of rare, raw materials for British industries as well as a market for their finished products. The British only concentrated on the use of production factors and mass production for earning profit and collecting wealth for selfish development and it has led to a depletion of certain natural resources, leaving the environment permanently damaged and injured. The environmental issues in India become more serious every day like that lack of environmental education, reducing fertility of agricultural land, declining water level on earth, mass deforestation, land degradation, excess use of fertilizers and chemical in food production and river contamination and pollution. Green economy is a design and remedy on sustainable development, sustainable environment and environmental balance. It is against this backdrop, the present research study analyses the state of green economy and its linkages with sustainable development, environmental sustainability with reference to India. The present study concludes that the depletion of natural resources in India was not over or excessive is a move towards a green economy in connection with the indicator of natural resource depletion. The state of sanitation facilities in India is not very much happy and satisfactory. Access to water shows for India it is good, but not better which reveals India has failed in providing drinking water, consequently economic transformation and green economy for sustainable development of India. The important and policy suggestions of the present study are; planned extensive and intensive efforts are very much necessary from India as well for the development of health, water supply and sanitation facilities. Government of India should be more active and dynamic in realizing their green economy. Participation and involvement of people should be obligatory and enhanced in undertaking various activities useful for attaining the green economy and there by sustainable development.

Title: Socio-Economic Characteristics of Farmers on Access to Agricultural Credit in Tripura
Abstract :

Institutional agricultural credit has played a significant role widespread adoption of modern production technologies and promotion of private investments on farms through its increasing as well as cheap supplyin the past. The present study was conducted in West Tripura district of Tripura to analyse the socio-economic characteristics of the borrowers in the district. 120 sample farmers were selected using multistage random sampling technique for detailed analysis. Information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics like age, sex, education level, land use, etc. by borrowers were collected by survey method using pretested schedules. From the socio-economic study of the farmer it could be observed that majority of the farmers of the state are literate, experienced and interested in the timely agricultural credit utilization and repayment. The household considered for the study in West Tripura District had the highest percentage of the male population (51.49%) than that of the female population (47.58%). Cultivation was the primary occupation for 55.82 per cent of the sample population and secondary occupation for 29.17 per cent of sample population.

Title: A Review on Effect of Copper and Iron Nanoparticle on Agricultural Crop
Abstract :

Nano materials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The conventional fertilizer is replacing by nano fertilizer due to its less quantity required for plant growth and development. Copper and Iron elements are essential micronutrient for plant. Nano Cu and Fe are playing an important role for various attributes such as growth yield, quality, and biochemical parameter. Late blight of potato caused by fungus activity of Phytophthora hence antifungal activity and phytotoxicity improved by the nano Cu. Enzymatic activity (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and lipid peroxidation) and photosynthesis component (chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids) of plant are much influenced by application of Nano Cu and Fe.

Title: Contents Vol. 6, No. 1, June 2020
Abstract :
Title: Constraints in the Adoption of Organic Farming Practices by the Farmers in Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Green revolution in India has witnessed a jump in agricultural production with the introduction of high yielding varieties of various crops and by following intensive cultivation practices with the use of fertilizers, pesticides and other inorganic inputs. Organic agriculture is a holistic food production system works with the sustainable use of locally available natural resources. The need to adopt a comprehensive approach for the promotion of organic agriculture by taking cooperation of all stakeholders, environmental friendly technologies, marketing infrastructure and financial support environmentally friendly for quality and quantity organic food production. An environmentally sustainable system of agriculture like organic agriculture will be able to maintain a resource balance, avoid over exploitation of resources, conserving soil natural quality and soil health and biodiversity. Biological research into soil and soil organisms has proven beneficial to organic farming. Varieties of bacteria and fungi break down chemicals, plant matter and animal waste into productive soil nutrients. In turn, they produce benefits of healthier yields and more productive soil for future crops. Keeping in mind the study was undertaken to assess the constraints faced by the farmers in the adoption of organic farming practices in Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu state. Results indicated that among the physical constraints, the foremost physical constraints expressed by vast majority of the respondents was inundation due to labour scarcity (80.00 per cent). Among the communication constraints, the foremost communication constraints expressed by most of the respondents where lack of training (85.00 per cent).

Title: An Analysis of Travel Behaviour of Sellers and Consumers in Rural Market Centres: A Case Study
Abstract :

The market participants are the key components, which make these market places as effective functional unit as well as a place of economic and social interaction. The behavioural pattern of market participants in these rural markets are determined by various factors such as, (i) distance, (ii) level of accessibility, (iii) size of market, (iv) specialisation of market trade in a particular commodity or commodities, (v) profitability, and (vi) economic and social relations, security, transport facilities etc. The behavioural pattern of market-place participants vary from persons to persons, and depend upon his economic status, social structure, cultural practices, local geographical situations as well as level of literacy

Title: Constraints in Production and Marketing of Vegetables in Udhampur District of Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory
Abstract :
Demand for vegetables has increased many fold for the last few years as people are now health conscious and are consuming vegetables regularly for getting health benefits as well. These vegetables are grown on high scale in various belts of Udhampur district. The present study was conducted in Chenani block of Udhampur district as the selected area is hub of quality vegetable production. Four vegetable growing villages were selected randomly and from each village 20 farmers were selected randomly to constitute a sample of 80 farmers in all. The results of the study revealed that the most of the respondents were facing the problem of lack of irrigation facilities, high labour cost and non-availability of labour during peak
period. Low prices of agricultural goods, pest disease insect problem, drought and lack of credit facilities were other problems faced by the farmers. Few of the farmers were of the opinion that latest technical knowledge and availability of good quality seedlings in sufficient quantity is lacking in the area. High cost of pesticides was the other production problem. Farmers of Bashat area in particular were facing a specific problem that is road connectivity from their fields to roadside. The fields were not well connected to the road and the link was in dilapidated conditions which force them to transport the produce through human labour which in turn increases their marketing cost resulting in decline in their profit.
Title: Crop Planning under Changing Climate Scenario
Abstract :

Climate change is very likely to affect food security at the global, regional, and local level. An attempt has been made to study the impact of climate change on crop production and productivity of different crops in Banka district of Bihar state by observing some local condition and by using some data available from district agriculture department. Climate change can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality and impact the production and quality of vegetables and legumes. Nutritionally important vegetables and legumes can be particularly sensitive to temperature increases and more vulnerable to heat stress than staple or cereal crops. By observing the last five years rainfall data, it was observed that the annual average rainfall of the district was 1182.1mm, 822.2mm, 1031.8mm, 910.3mm and 816.07 mm against the average normal rainfall i.e. 1156.3 in the year 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively. In the year 2014, a negative deviation found (-2%), afterward, 29%, 11%, 21% and 29% deviation observed in the rest of the years respectively which indicates the more uncertainty of monsoon rainfall. By observing the 19 years rainfall data, it is clearly shown that the annual rainfall trend for the district are coming out to be significant at five percent level of significance and showing a decreasing trend of annual rainfall. The main reason behind this changing rainfall pattern was climate change. So, main emphasis should be given on the farming according to weather condition of those particular areas or region.

Title: ICT Intervention for Marketing of Medicinal Plants by using E-Charak Apps and Price Analysis Method
Abstract :
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (MAPs) are botanical raw materials, also known as herbal drugs that are primarily used for therapeutic, aromatic and/or culinary purposes as components of cosmetics, medicinal products, health foods and other natural health products. They are also the starting materials for valueadded processed natural ingredients such as essential oils, dry and liquid extracts and oleoresins. There is a clear industrial demand for MAPs. The global market for botanical and plant-derived drugs is therefore expected to increase from $19.5 billion in 2008 to $32.9 billion in 2013, an annual growth rate of 11.0%, according to a 2009 study by BCC Research. National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB) is working to promote cultivation of medicinal plants and supported in a Mission mode under Centrally Sponsored Scheme of “National Mission on Medicinal Plants (NMMP)” since 2008-09 and now continuing under National AYUSH Mission (NAM), a flagship program launched by the Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India
during XII Plan period. The program is being implemented in the country through State Government designated agencies. Smartphone mobile apps in agriculture as a ICT tool of intervention in agriculture is becoming increasingly popular. Smartphone penetration enhances the multi-dimensional positive impact on sustainable poverty reduction and identifies accessibility as the main challenge in harnessing the full potential in agricultural space. The reach of smart phone even in rural areas extended the ICT services beyond simple voice or text messages. Several smart phone apps are available for agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and farm machinery. Similarly, National Medicinal Plant Board, New Delhi (India) has launched an online virtual platform www.e-charak.in and a mobile application e-charak apps to provide an online market portal for the trade of medicinal plants and their produce.
Title: Artificial Intelligence in Futuristic Agriculture: An Insight
Abstract :

India, with the highly variable and unpredictable weather condition, is faced with a severe challenge on how to manage the vast agricultural farming which is one of the most uncontained environments to manage. Computer and network technologies are widely applied in agriculture, which is a greatly encouraging field. Tremendous achievements have been made in agriculture production, research and education in developed countries at present, but there is still a long way to obtain a great development for developing countries such as India. Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that draws attention towards the creation of intelligent machines that work and reacts like humans. The principle of Artificial Intelligence is one where machine can perceive its environment and take action to address a specified goal related to that environment. Utilization of machine learning and AI will help the farmer to gain a better understanding of the field condition. It will provide information to the farmers such as the amount of rainfall and moisture required for a good crop and also estimate the best time of seed sowing. AI is the future of agriculture since it provides several ways where agricultural productivity, sustainability and profitability can be improved.

Title: Status of Child Health Care: A State Level Analysis
Abstract :

Being healthy is crucial for every human being in the world. A person in bad health cannot really live life to the fullest. There is the risk of death and handicaps caused by the most common children’s diseases namely Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Leprosy, Polio, and Measles. The study proposes to compare rates of vaccination and prenatal care among children and women who use public care for curative services using NFHS 3rd and 4th round data. We observed that the facilities given by public health care during the period of childhood disease have increased over the decade. In 2015-16, the top five states having the highest percentage coverage of childhood disease treatment were Punjab, Meghalaya, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Goa. West Bengal’s position was 6th in 2005-06 which reduced to 10th in 2015-16.

Title: Use of Mobile Phone by the farmers for Agriculture and Allied Activities
Abstract :

Agriculture and allied sector activities in India is the largest source of livelihood for the people of India. About 70 percent of its rural households still depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood, with 82 percent of farmers being small and marginal. Contribution of agriculture sector in Indian economy is much higher than the world’s average of 6.4%. As most of the people depend on agriculture in India and with a high population, it is impossible to give information to each and every farmer personally. For this reason the role of mobile phone is a good initiative in the agriculture sector. The use of mobiles in agriculture and allied sectors brought a revolution in the agricultural development. There are different mobile applications developed for the benefit of farmers. Mobile can be used to disseminate timely information regarding best cultivation practices, seed availability, cropping pattern, weather forecasts, fertilizer usage, market information, organic practices and information about vaccination, insurance alerts, livestock diseases, exotic and indigenous breeds, feeding management, livestock rearing and government schemes for agriculture and allied sector. The present study assesses the level of usage of mobile phone by the farmers for agricultural and allied activities and their purpose for usage of mobiles. The study reveals that 70 percent of farmers use mobile for production purpose in comparison to other ICT tools and most of the farmers use mobile for communication with others and to get general information. So, the role of mobile is very important in the development of agriculture sector for providing accurate and timely information to the farmers.

Title: A Research Study on Problems of Hill Farm Women in Uttarakhand
Abstract :
Women of Uttarakhand are the backbone of the development of State. Despite of growth and development of entire state, women in hill areas are suffering from various types of problems. Past researches revealed that hill farm women are suffering from various problems like depleting soil, water and other natural resources, decreasing size of farm holding, input use inefficiency, costly and scarce agriculture labour, poor access to credit and investments facilities, slow diffusion of relevant technologies, competitiveness of quality and prices in export and domestic markets etc. Present investigation was conducted in four villages named Bhaluti, Kausani, Jeoli and Sariyatal of Nainital District in the state of Uttarakhand. Data was gathered through interview schedule, group discussion etc. A total number of 50 respondents were selected for the above mentioned investigation. Results revealed that majority of the respondents belonged to middle age group category and from General caste. Majority of the respondents received formal education upto High school level and have nuclear family. Majority of respondents take farming related information from input dealers, key informants/elderly person,scientists of Bee Keeping Centre, progressive farmers, scientists of KVKs and Anganwadi workers. Majority of women were facing Constraints like lack of financial assistance, lack of technical know-how, lack of marketing skills, lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of self-confidence, mobility constraints, illiteracy or low level of education.
Title: Contents Vol. 5, No. 2, December 2019
Abstract :
Title: Awareness Level of Farm Youth on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Tools in Tiruvannamalai District of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
Indian agriculture is dominated by small and marginal farmers whose education is weak and majority of are often unable to access information that could increase yield for their crop. The government has a huge research and development infrastructure in the form of institutions such as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Agricultural Universities and Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVKs) and other institutes, but today these institutions are facing many constraints in mobility of technological staffs for transfer of technological information at the village level. There has been no significant technology innovation, which could give a fresh impetus to agricultural productivity. Insufficient extension services and poor access to information further widen the gap in the adoption of technology and lead to poor productivity levels; in fact information is critical to the social and economic activities that comprise the development process and right information at right time will play a crucial role for development of Indian agriculture. Here comes the role of ICTs, which are powerful and productive with new ideas, methods of the technology dissemination and further improving the knowledge and information among the society. In recent years, there is visible shift from the old ways to the modern ways of information delivery system. (ICT) has become a powerful tool for improving the delivery service and enhancing local development opportunities. The study was taken up in Tiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu. A total sample size of 120 farm youth were selected. The collected data were analysed with the help of SPSS software. The results indicated that majority of the farm youth (56.67 per cent) were aware the ICT tools. The remaining (43.33 per cent) were not aware the ICT tools.
Title: Problems and Prospects of Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Production in Bihar
Abstract :

Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is considered as one of the important climate resilient crops throughout the world. Bihar is one of the pioneer state in lathyrus production. A meta-analysis was conducted to know the problems and prospects of Grass pea (Lathyrus Sativus) production in Bihar. The major problems identified in production of lathyrus are people phobia on its consumption, unavailability of good quality seeds possessing low neurotoxin content and standardized lathyrus production technology etc. The major prospect of lathyrus production in Bihar is availability of 2.2 million rice fallow areas. These rice fallow areas have high potentiality for lathyrus cultivation as utera/paira crop. Government of India had lifted ban on cultivation of lathyrus and more production of lathyrus will reduce our dependence on import of other pulses.

Title: Traditional Knowledge of Plants used in Rituals by Inhabitants of Rural Himalaya
Abstract :

In rural Himalaya, local inhabitants use a range of plants to perform various ritual ceremonies round the year which makes their religious culture and folklore unique. Therefore realizing the significance of plants in cultural tradition, the present study was undertaken with the aim to document the information associated with the use of plants in different rituals. Focus group discussion and informal discussion with the local people, religious persons and aged people was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of plants used in different ritual ceremonies. The study reported 16 plant species from 14 families and 16 genera that were used during various rituals. Out of 16 plant species reported, 43.75% were trees, 31.25% were herbs and 12.5% were shrubs and 12.5% were climbers. The most frequently utilized plant part was the leaf followed by twig, rhizome/tuber, fruit and flower. Out of the total species maximum numbers of species were used during marriage followed by puja, to keep away the evil spirits from house and during fast. The present study shows that the local inhabitants of rural Himalaya have vast folk knowledge about the plants used in rituals. This information will assist in creating awareness among younger generations in present as well as future time and will help in conserving the species of cultural importance.

Title: Yield, Yield Attributes and Economics of Wheat as Influenced by Resources Conservation and Nutrient Management Practices
Abstract :
A field study was conducted during rabi season of consecutive two years i.e. 2014-15 and 2015-16 at university farm at Bihar Agricultural University, to assess the effect of resources conservation practices and nutrient management on yield, yield attributes and economics under wheat crop. The experiment was laid out in split plot design, replicated thrice with three main plot viz. Conventional tillage, Conventional tillage + 30% rice residue incorporation, Zero tillage + 30% rice residue retention and four sub plot viz. 100% of Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) through inorganic sources, 75% of RDF through inorganic sources + 25% of RDF through organic sources (vermicompost), 50% of RDF through inorganic sources + 50% of RDF through organic sources (vermicompost) and 100% of RDF through inorganic sources + mungbean as green manuring. A preferential influence was found with the resources conservation practices. The results clearly indicated that the wheat crop under zero tillage +30% residue retention (M3) produced significantly higher grain (47.44 q ha-1) and straw yield (63.55 qha-1). Among the sub plot treatments 100% RDF + green manuring (S4) recorded more grain yield (46.33q ha-1) as compared to other treatments. It was statistically at par with 100% RDF through inorganic sources. Besides this, the superiority of resource conservation practices was observed over conventional practices in terms of cost saving (` 37565 ha-1) and more efficient use of inputs. Hence, zero tillage with 30% residue retention could be an economically viable option for wheat cultivation.
Title: Whatsapp for Dairy Farmers as an Effective ICTs Tool : A Review
Abstract :
Farming is not considered as profitable occupation even though India has an Agrarian economy. An attempt has been made to explain the astounding difference in the productivity of the agriculture and livestock products depends not only on socio-economic profile characteristics but also major part of it depends on the awareness and recent information that the farmers collect from extension personnel,village level workers and from other farmers. Under Indian context due to less number of extension agents despite of consistent efforts has been made by the Government, in strengthening the extension set up but a gap still exists. Therefore, social media has emerged as an effective information delivery tool because of its high media richness, high penetration level which could surely boost the scope of traditional extension system. This article observes that it seems pertinent to rely on social media like Whatsapp as there is the dire need to decrease the knowledge gap amongst the marginal farmers by providing easy access to information and platform for discussion which can be done by involving social media in their farming practices for collecting a pool of knowledge easily at one place.
Title: Role of Mobile Phone in Agriculture and Allied Activities of Rural Household
Abstract :

In India most of the farmers are small and marginal. It is impossible for the extension personnel to provide information each and every farmer individually. For all person mobile is an essential device for communication, entertainment, etc. As the use of mobile is increasing day by day, so the farmers can easily avail the information by sitting in their homes through this device. In India, there are many mobile applications developed to utilize mobile phones in agriculture by private sector (Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited, Nokia, Airtel, Tata Consultancy Services, etc.) and public sector (Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Agricultural Universities, research institutions, State Governments, Indian Meteorological Department and others) in agricultural advisory service for agronomic practices, weather forecasts and market price. Due to the high dependency in agriculture, the role of mobile-based agro advisory is very important for agriculture. In this regard the present study focuses on the role of mobile in agriculture and allied activities.

Title: Environment and Development : A Visit to the World of Tagore
Abstract :
Environmental consideration of economic development has been attracting attention of the western intellectuals for more than half a century. From 1970 onwards we find a large number of writings that
pointed out the danger of self-destructing nature of growth of the modern society. The study published in 1972 under the title 'Limits to Growth' or its updated version 'Beyond the Limit' as published in 1992 portrayed an extremely pessimistic vision of the future of this world and predicted the cessation of growth process after a certain period of time. Thus the environmental repercussions of economic activities led the people to think about the kind of growth process that can be continued over time. The study published under the title ‘The Ultimate Resource’ envisaged an unending process of growth but this seems to an extremely optimistic vision of the real world situation. The concept of sustainable development, as it appeared in the Brunt land’s report (1987) and got widely accepted in agenda 21 of the Rio conference in 1992 seems to reconcile the concept of environment and development in a meaningful way.
Title: Liberalizing Trade in Services and Economic Growth in India During Post Reformed Period: A Quantitative Analysis using Granger Causality Test in a Vector Autoregressive Framework
Abstract :

The study seeks to examine the causal relationship, if any, between India’s services trade and economic growth, in a Vector Auto Regressive (VAR) framework during the post-liberalization period. A simple regression model is used to predict whether services trade influences economic growth for the time period 1996-97: Q1 to 2014-15:Q2. In order to examine the causal linkages between the variables, the Granger Causality Test has been conducted. Service trade plays a crucial role in developing countries where proportionately higher services export are characteristics of high-growth countries while excessive dependency on imported services is characteristic of low growth countries. Effective development planning must include strengthening of both domestic and international service sectors to reduce relative dependency on imported services while providing incentives for services exports.

Title: Development and Standardisation of Reaction Scale towards Blended Learning Approach
Abstract :
Blended learning is a pedagogical approach of incorporating the advantages of both online learning and face- to face learning. In the modern times, when technology is advancing with much greater pace, there is a need to make use of these online platform in the best possible way. But, the use of online mode alone will not serve the purpose of meaningful learning, especially when we look into the nature of different disciplines being very different. It is in this context, that we can make use of a combination of online
and face- to face learning in our teaching- learning process. With the invent of various online tools and software, there is a wide scope for incorporating online learning along with face- to face learning. The present paper is based on the development of a Reaction scale for pre- service teachers towards their usage of blended learning strategy in their internship programme (teaching practice). The paper presents an elaborate description on the steps followed for developing a Reaction scale towards blended learning along with the various dimensions taken for developing the Reaction scale and also the validity and reliability process followed for standardization of the scale.
Title: Improving Women Participation in Local Government in Ghana: An Empirical Study
Abstract :

Women involvement in decision making processes in governance for sustainable development is very critical, not only because they constitute majority of the Ghanaian population but they are discriminated and underrepresented in the socio-economic and political development activities thereby widening gender gap. This study sought to ascertain the factors responsible for low women participation in local government in Ghana. With a mixed method approach, this paper examines the underlining factor of low women participation in governance. With the feminism and notion of social gender perspective, inadequate financial resources, the perception of politics as a “dirty” game, lack of capacity and confidence on the part of women candidates among others were major factors affecting women participation in local government. To give women face lift in local government, the study recommended that government should pass a legislation aimed at reserving special quota for women and provision of special funds by NGO’s and philanthropists to support women candidates.

Title: Primary Education and Economic Development
Abstract :

Development is a purposeful change in a society that contributes to social and economic well being and advancement of its people without creating any disharmony. Development includes the fulfilment of each person’s material, spiritual and societal needs. It is a dynamic process. However development cannot take place by itself. It requires an educated, skilled and competent people. Education becomes the most important factor for development as well as for empowering people. Education provides people with knowledge and information which in turn bring about desirable changes in the way of people think, feel and act. Education also builds in people a strong sense of self-esteem, self-confidence. Therefore education is considered as a social instrument for developing human resources and for human capital formation. The Indian constitution enshrines in the directive principle of state policy compulsory primary education to all citizens. Primary education signifies the foremost and most basic education which lays the foundations for the subsequent level of education, and at the same time which at least makes a person literate and endowed with some basic knowledge of the world considered essential for his/her decent living. It is a socio economic need of a country. It is the pillar of a country by which one country can develop human resource base and man power in a modern society. Level of development can be judged in terms of extent of literacy rate. In India, shortfall in pupil enrolment and retention, especially in rural areas, in urban slums and among girls and members of scheduled castes and tribes remains a severe challenge for a long time. Our feeling is that not only the quantity but also the quality of primary education need to be emphasised if the goal is to create meaningful and capable human resources in this age of neo-liberal globalisation.

Title: The Impact of Inward FDI in China on Domestic Investment with Chinese Regular Financial Deregulation: A Quantitative Study Using Panel Data
Abstract :
This paper try to examine that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in China affects domestic investment (DI) depends on the level of financial deregulation. Using the panel data, instrumenting FDI with weather indicators (validity supported by over-identification tests), and the limited-information maximum likelihood (LIML) results recommend that both FDI and its relations with financial deregulation have a significant negative effect on DI. It indicates that in China, FDI significantly crowds out DI, and higher level of financial deregulation strengthens the crowding-out effect. Even after controlling for other growth factors, and time and province effects, the results are robust.
Title: Marketing Chains of Paddy and Vegetables: A case study in Birbhum District
Abstract :
The present paper is an attempt to gather knowledge about different types of supply chains that exit in agricultural sector. Two important products of agricultural sector paddy and vegetables have been considered for this purpose. Vegetables in the absence of cold storage facility are perishable goods, while paddy is not. It is conjectured that marketing structure and the supply chains of two agricultural products will bring different finding to different segments of their marketing chains. This study has found five supply chains of paddy market and seven supply chains of vegetable market. There are more numbers of intermediaries between farmers and final buyer in vegetable market compared to paddy. Farmers get more shares in final price from paddy compared to vegetables.
Title: An Investigation in Yield Gap and Technology Transfer of Small Millets in the Hilly Tracts of Uttarakhand
Abstract :

The study has examined the status of technology transfer and yield gap of major small millets in the Tehri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand. Stratified random sampling has been used for selection of 60 small millets growers, 20 each from high hills, mid hills and valleys. Two major small millets, viz. Barnyard Millet (Sawan) and Finger Millet (Ragi/Mandua) have been selected for the study. The study has revealed that the farmers deviated from the recommended package of practices. The farm level yield gap in both millets have been found statistically significant when tested using ‘t’ test. The yield gap between the best and average farms in Barnyard millet and finger millet was of the order of about 40 per cent. The study has suggested the strengthening of input delivery system in the area to ensure timely availability of inputs in required quantity and quality to the growers of millets at reasonable price.

Title: Contents Vol. 2, No. 2, June and December 2016
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Title: Understanding Disaster Risk Reduction: A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Eight Aila Hit Villages of Hingalganj Block, North 24 Parganas, W.B.
Abstract :
On May 25, 2005 in Indian sub-continent hit with a super cyclone, namely Aila causing soil erosion, contaminated water and loss of community assets, degraded environmental conditions many parts of India including Sundarban delta. We all know that it is virtually impossible to prevent occurrence of most natural disasters but it is possible to minimize risk and coping capacity through Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) programme. The present study is based on 8 villages in two panchayats in Aila hit areas, namely Jogeshganj and Kalitala panchayat of Higalganj Block in North 24 Paraganas in West Bengal with a view to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of people living in the area so as to develop disaster risk reduction programme in Aila heat areas of Sundarban.
Title: Agrarian Relation and Peasant Class Differentiation: A Study of West Bengal, India
Abstract :

This paper based on primary field survey deals with the economic class structures in a differentiated agrarian economy. In an attempt to study and analyse the ground situation in this post liberalization period this study undertook a detailed analysis of the structure of all relevant variables to examine the structure of investment and production taking place in West Bengal. The study stresses that the process of socio economic differentiation has not stopped and that can be captured only by a thorough economic class study of the agrarian relations of West Bengal on samples of diversely developed regions.

Title: Contents Vol. 6, No. 2, December 2020
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Title: Empowerment of Dalit Women Through Reservation Policy
Abstract :

In the post independence era many programmes and policies have been launched for the welfare of women. According to studies among the women, dalit women are exploited more in Indian society. Further the proportion of dalit women below poverty line is comparatively higher in comparison to upper caste women. There are high incidences of poverty, lack of access of resources, illiteracy, unemployment and other related issues associated with dalit women. The affirmative action policy which is implemented through constitutional provisions has empowered the deprived sections including dalit women. Recently Government of India has launched many schemes related to women which would uplift their status in society by bringing them in mainstream.

Title: Perception of Students Toward RAWE Programme
Abstract :

Rural Agricultural Work Experience Programme (RAWE) is offered in final year of the B.Sc. (Agri) degree programme which includes training, demonstration, observation, practice and participation in purposeful activities and to orient agricultural graduates for participation in various rural developmental programme. This experiential system in agricultural education has a strong potential to prepare a better agricultural technocrats with high level of skill in combination with the modern outlook and management capacity. This study was conducted with the objectives to know the students perception on RAWE Programme of GBPUA&T, Pantnagar; find out the profile of students and its relationship with their perception and to seek suggestions from students for effective implementation. The data was collected from 40 students of College of Agriculture, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar by using pre structured interview schedule. The findings revealed that majority of the students belonged to Urban background. More than half per cent of students had parents with Intermediate level followed by Graduate level and Post Graduate level. Some of the students belong to families with annual income of over 2 lakh/annum (high category). At GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, majority had medium OGPA. Cent Per cent students were using mobile phone followed by television. The Perception of the students regarding extent of achievement of RAWE is to understand rural institutions, socio economic conditions of farmers, adoption patterns and adoption gaps, farmers’ problems, farming systems and farming, improvement in diagnostic skills, provided practical training in crop production, improved communication skills, improved leadership qualities, provided opportunity to work with various Agri based institutions, developed confidence and professional competence to solve field problems. The suggestions for improvement of RAWE by students are the Time for each module in RAWE to be increased, stipend should be increased, and University should increase its credibility and accessibility among farmers.

Title: Conservation and Management of Indigenous Technical Knowledge for Livelihood Upliftment of Small and Marginal Farmers in Rural Areas
Abstract :

Indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) is the basic knowledge of rural people for social upliftment of small and marginal farmers which provide sufficient information that may help in decision making procedures. Rural communities have vast and diverse technical expertise’s of several aspects and make them capable to adopt these ITKs on the basis on their necessity to make suitable solution of various local agricultural and socio-cultural problems in managing agricultural activities. ITKs help and co-operate the rural villagers to identify the disease problems in field crops, vegetables, fruits and livestock, their management through their capabilities as evidenced by their ancestors. These practices are largely attributed upon farmers’ assumptions, economical profitability, farmers’ agreement, indig enous traditional sound knowledge, and effective/reliable outcomes. Indigenous Technical Knowledge is the local knowledge that is unique to a given society. ITK is the experienced based knowledge of a given population. There is no systematic record to describe what they are, what they do and how they can be changed, their operations, and their applications. Villagers in rural areas are more interested to adopt ITKs because of having enough agricultural tools to achieve recent agricultural as well as social developments of rural communities. They can easily adopt the traditional knowledge of agricultural operations that they had learnt since long time from their ancestors to meet national food security of the present generations. A number of ITKs are also occasionally used by the farmers in rural region of India, Out of them, some very popular ones are discussed herewith the general arguments. Hence, there is immense pressure on the people to collect, preserve, validate and adopt ITKs so as to reduce dependence on external inputs, to reduce the cost of cultivation and to propagate eco-friendly agriculture.

Title: Book Review
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Title: Contents Vol. 5, No. 1, June 2019
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Title: Health Status of Muslim Women Across States in India: A Comparative Analysis
Abstract :

The present paper attempts to analyse the health status of Muslim women compared to Hindu women across states in India and it also assesses the change in their health status over time. In India 74 per cent of Hindu women and 75 per cent of Muslim women have better health facility. The states like Kerala, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir had the higher proportion of Hindu women whereas Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan had the higher percentage of Muslim women having better health facilities. In contrary, the states like Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand had the worst health status of Muslim as well as Hindu women.

Title: Association between Yield and Attributing Traits in Brinjal
Abstract :

Though brinjal is the second major vegetable crop in India, productivity of this crop in India is much lesser than the global productivity. Hence, breeders aim at further improvement of the crop, which cannot be done by targeting yield itself, but also involves other characters that are associated with it. Thus correlation and path analysis studies were performed using twenty diverse brinjal genotypes grown in three seasons. Yield exhibited highly significant positive correlation with fruit number per plant at genotypic level, while significant and positive association at phenotypic level. Days to 50%flowering possessed significantly positive correlation with yield at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Days to first flowering had significant positive while plant height possessed significant negative association with yield at phenotypic level. Path analysis showed high direct positive effect of days to 50% flowering and number of fruits per plant on yield. Therefore, days to 50% flowering, number of fruits per plant, average weight of fruit, fruit girth and number of primary branches per plant were positively and significantly while plant height was negatively inter related among themselves indicating that simultaneous selection for these characters might bring an improvement in yield.

Title: Impact of Mass Media on Socio-Economic Conditions of Farmers in Kanpur District of U.P.
Abstract :

Mass media, the fourth pillar of democracy, plays a pivotal role in up keeping the socio-political system of a country sound and healthy. Due to the advancement of information and communication technology (ICT), the role of mass media has been multiplied to a higher order. The study was conducted by selecting farmers of Panaupurva village of Kanpur, UP. The primary data was collected directly from the 100 farmers and peasants by using random sampling technique, while the secondary data was collected from published reports of various institutions, research articles in various national and international journals, periodicals, and reports from daily news papers and information from various websites. The results revealed that greater part of rural youth were aspired for higher education through various educational aspiration programmes. The occupational aspiration level of rural youth and farmers towards farming business was also increased through various programmes conducted with the help of these electronic media, and hence, the youths prefer most localized and independent job i.e. farming. Thus, the youth have being trained better on improved methods of farming by the efforts made by the planners to maximize the economic returns and incentives which moulds the rural youth aspirations towards other agro-based enterprises like dairy, poultry,bee keeping, and small scale industry, as these will provide additional income along with agriculture for stable financial status of the rural youth. And also efforts could be made by government agencies to provide rural youth good projects with various infrastructural facilities like knowledge, credit, marketing etc.

Title: Contents Vol. 4, No. 2, December 2018
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Title: Effective Market Promotional Activities of Rashtriya Chemical and Fertilizer Ltd. in Gujarat
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to study the effective market promotional activities of Rashtriya chemical & fertilizer ltd. in Anand, Vadodara and Bharuch districts of Gujarat. Result was found that fertilizer distribution happens to the farmers through co-operatives (70%), company’s outlet (20%), agro service centre (6%) and Private Dealer (4%). The study reveals that following promotional activity is used by all existing companies in the Gujarat region of our study and mostly soil fertility test (36%) is carried out and rest are seminar (15%), slide show (2%), consistency discount (14%), quantity discount (16), farmers training (8%), rural development (2%), and social responsibility (7%). The study reveals that RCF using lots of promotional activity in Anand, Vadodara and Bharuch district. As analysed, only soil fertility testing is mostly used by all companies, but remaining promotional activities are not much in use as well as not adopted by the farmers. A total of 80 farmers and 40 dealers have been surveyed in this study. Data has been collected through a structured questionnaire adopted in this project entitled. Market survey of fertilizer in different districts will help Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd. to know the promotional activity done by RCF, and to find out different competitors engaging in promotional activity for fertilizer in Anand, Vadodara & Bharuch district available in market.

Title: Understanding Access to Housing, Drinking Water, Electricity and Sanitation by Scheduled Tribes in Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

Housing, drinking water, electricity and sanitation are important basic needs of human for a dignified living in modern era. Development and implementation of these provisions plays not only vital role for the socio-economic betterment but also secure them from important public health, pollution and security problems in tribes especially women. Tribes residing in eastern U. P. are still very poor in possession of these facilities in spite of the Government’s commitments to improve their backward status through special constitutional provision. Present article analyzes the housing, drinking water, electricity and sanitation facilities available to Scheduled Tribes in eastern U.P. and explores possible strategies for improvement. Most of ST families still live in jhuggis (43.9 per cent), only 27.12 per cent have both tap water supplies and electricity,mostly (92.15 per cent) use hand pump for drinking water out of home, 77.4 per cent of STs do not have latrine facility inside the premises and unsatisfactory sanitation in surrounding

Title: Perceived Usefulness of Training Programmes by Women SHG Members of Thanjavur District
Abstract :

The study was conducted in Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu state. It was decided to select the top three enterprises wherein more number of SHGs were involved in farming and allied activities. Accordingly two SHGs involved in paddy cultivation, two SHGs involved in dairy management and two SHGs involved in mushroom cultivation were selected based on the maximum loan utilized in the respective income generating activities. Thus, finally six SHGs comprising of 120 SHG members were selected as sample for the study. The response on perceived usefulness of the training on these technologies was obtained from the Self-Help Group women respondents as either useful or not useful. The percentage analysis was used to analyse the data. The subject matter areas of training programme should be tailor made for SHG women focused on income generating programmes, as most of the respondents perceived the training on income generation programme as not useful. The other subject matter areas need to be revised and updated to make it highly useful for the SHG women members.

Title: Role of Self-Help Group as Micro Financial Intermediaries in Narsinghpur District of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

The present study initiated “Role of self-help groups as micro financial intermediaries in Narsinghpur district of Madhya Pradesh.” In Narsinghpur district 818 SHGs are functioning and all self-help groups are credit linked to different banks & NGOs. In this district, it appears that all kinds of groups are linked to banks. So, it is felt to choose three blocks namely Narsinghpur, Kareli, & Gotegaon of this district to assess the performance of SHGs. From a block three SHGs was selected from second stage and two from third stage of SHG. Thus, the total of 15 SHGs was selected from the three selected blocks randomly, which are functioning for the last 3 years and which are linked to different commercial banks and NGOs. The second stage of groups is those working properly and meeting at the time. It is passed first grading and gets revolving fund in case of DRDA promoted the self-help groups. Third stage of groups are those working properly loan distribution and recovery is very good and are in progress stage they passed second grading and also get revolving fund and approved final fund in case of DRDA promoted the groups. The specific information on selected SHGs with respect to membership working capital, saving, year-wise loan disbursement for different activates, recovery of loans outstanding and over dues were collected from each group.

Title: Status of Food Security in West Bengal: A Study Based on NSSO Unit Level Data
Abstract :

In this paper we attempt to analyse the status of food insecurity of West Bengal on the basis of NSSO unit level data for the years 2004-05 and 2011-12. In West Bengal, 32.2 per cent people were food insecure in 2004-05 which reduced to 20.1 per cent in 2011-12. In rural West Bengal the share of food insecure people decreased from 35.4 per cent in 2004-05 to 22 per cent in 2011-12. It also decreased in urban India. Our subgroup analysis points out that across the social groups the vulnerabilities were relatively high for STs and SCs than the others. Along with the economic factors the social and demographic factors were also equally important for the food insecurity of the households. The incidence of food insecurity decreased with the increase of the years of schooling, age of the head, and per capita cultivable land of the household. The status of employment and the choice of consumption basket of the households have also played an important role for the food security.

Title: Development of Socio-economic Status Scale for Women Self-Help Group Members
Abstract :

Over the past two decades, considerable efforts have been made to increase the quantum of institutional credit for rural development in order to reduce the extent of dependence of rural households on exploitative and non-institutional sources. There is, however a general feeling that the increased flow of institutional credit has not yielded the expected results. The vast majority of rural people were not involved in the development activities because they lacked the economic based frame to intervene in the local development process. In this scenario, the challenge was to develop a village centred development strategy for the marginalised rural poor who always experienced the shortage of liquidity to respond to new investment opportunities, especially in agriculture. The strategy was to develop in such a way that people can ‘plan’ for their means and have the ‘power’ to implement their programmes. Analysing this possibility, the non-governmental organisations decided that the strategy can be made possible by putting together small groups of poor people with similar interests and other homogenous factors. The present study was undertaken with the objective to study the development of socio-economic status scale for women self help group members.

Title: Contents Vol. 3, No. 1&2, June & December 2017
Abstract :
Title: Role of Inspirational Political Leaders in Bringing Social and Political Change
Abstract :

Some of the Indian political leaders have contributed very significantly in bringing the social and political changes in society. Their life stories have proved to be inspiring for the successive generations. These personalities have worked very diligently towards social reforms and ensured progress and development of not only their regions but of nation as a whole. Through their social movements, new techniques were evolved against the social and political problems prevailing in society. Some of the leaders believed in Gandhian philosophy and advocated political decentralization for the active participation of people in political decision making. Despite of being imprisoned these leaders fearlessly served the nation wholeheartedly. These revolutionary leaders have contributed immensely in Indian politics through their revolutionary philosophy and actions

Title: Self-Help Groups and Renovation of Rural Tanks for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Study in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

The process of development of rural area is not consequently possible without proper conservation and utilization of natural resources. The resources viz., land, water, forest etc., are the main base for the development of a state. Among all the resources, tanks are the smallest water bodies established by our forefathers, in order to catch, store and distribute the water in a proper manner. The self-help group (SHG) is, thus, conceived as a sustainable people’s institution, which provides the poor with the space and support necessary for them to take effective stops towards achieving greater control of their lives in society. Managerial skills of rural women in their SHGs are relevant to better management of the natural resources like rural tanks. At this juncture, there is an urgent need to motivate self-group members to take up the resources management at local level through skill development initiatives to look after the natural resources management for sustainable environment. The present investigation is conducted in eight select villages across Cuddalore district. The villages are purely tank based regions, where paddy and sugarcane are the major crops. It is therefore concluded that rural women SHGs through their skill development promote sustainable environment in the modernization of tanks is significantly useful to achieve sustainable development in villages.

Title: Attitude of Guardians Towards Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Among Agro-Occupational Communities of West Bengal, India
Abstract :

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a comprehensive and integrated flagship programme of the Government of India (GoI) to attain Universal Elementary Education (UEE) in the country in a mission mode. Present study undertaken in three Southern districts of West Bengal to assess the attitude of the guardians towards SSA. 180 respondents were selected from 9 villages from these districts. An attitude scale was developed and administered through interview method. A comparative assessment was done between the guardians of 6-14 yr. old students of elementary education from agri-occupational and non-agri-occupational communities. The study revealed that most of the respondents have low to moderate level of favourable attitude. Although they have considerably favourable attitude regarding the provision of free educations, books and other learning materials and midday meal facilities; but their favouritism is less in case of teachers’ attitude towards students and school environment. Some other aspects like assuring household food security, job security to the poor, considering English also as a medium of instruction to attract good students should be kept in mind for all-round success through SSA.

Title: Contents Vol. 4, No. 1, June 2018
Abstract :
Title: Prevalence and Associated Factors of Road Traffic Accidents among Motorcycle Drivers of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia
Abstract :
Background: Motorcycle is a type of motor vehicle with two wheels, which is used to transport a passenger and for locomotion. Motorcycle accidents are becoming a public health problem in the developing worlds. Motorcycle injuries constitute a major but neglected emerging public health problem in developing countries. They are among the leading causes of disability and deaths, the main victims being motorcycle drivers, passengers, and pedestrians in the young reproductive age group.
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and associated factors of road traffic accident among motorcycle drivers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2019.
Title: Content Volume 7 Issue 1
Abstract :

Content Volume 7 Issue 1

Title: Role of Agriculture Education in Indian Education System
Abstract :

Agricultural education plays a significant role in boosting economy and speeding up the development process. It can create a landmark in achieving food security and sustainability. Human recourses need to be developed properly and untapped agricultural potential can be tapped by educating people about this green jewel called agriculture. Sensitization of people with awareness programs, training sessions and camps can help in improving the statistics of education required for exclusive growth of this sector. The biggest challenge faced by this sector at present is lack of education and guidance. Education does not mean just teaching, it is a way of sustainability. People who are involved in agriculture should be equipped with all the requisite skill sets to ensure maximum productivity from this sector. Farmers use technology to make advances in producing more food for a growing world. Biotechnology in agriculture is the manipulation of a living organism to improve the quality of human life through advances in crop and animal production. Many universities have come up to reorganize and strengthen the system of agricultural and allied education in India

Title: Adoption of Improved Dairy Farming Practices: A Study in Kumaon Division of Uttarakhand
Abstract :

The dairy farming has been considered as a potential means of employment and socio economic development for people in rural areas. Uttarakhand trails behind from highest milk producing states due to less growth rate in milk production, focused should be given to the improved dairy farming to increase milk production and development of dairy industry. The present study was conducted in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state. Udham Singh Nagar district was purposively selected as locale of study because it has highest milk production in Kumaon division. For the selection of block, Rudrapur and Sitarganj blocks were selected by chit method of Simple Random Sampling. Two villages were selected from each selected block by random sampling. Total 100 respondents from these villages were selected. Majority of the respondents have overall medium extent of adoption of improved dairy farming practices (29-34).

Title: Issues Related to the Management of Minor Forest Produce and Possible Solutions
Abstract :

Minor forest produce has great significance for forest dwellers in terms of livelihood dependency. These are a major source of income for people residing in scheduled and tribal areas and the areas near to it. The marketing system of MFP has resulted in the exploitation of the people who are dependent on forests for their income. There are several issues related to the management of minor forest produce like issues related to collection, procurement, processing and marketing etc. Government has taken many initiatives to deal with these issues at various levels. Some of the states like MP have prepared the roadmap to utilize and protect the minor forest produce in the larger interest of community and environment.

Title: A Study on Feminine Consciousness in Toni Morrison Novel
Abstract :

Toni Morrison’s writing style is easily distinguishable duke to her unique use of language. Her novels are easy to red, and she incorporates many different styles into her writing, such as switching the voice of narration throughout her stories for a change of perspective. Some of her most commonly used techniques are the use of descriptive analogies, important historical references, and varied sentence structure.

Title: Defence Expenditure & Human Development: Nexus revisited, a case study of India
Abstract :

In the literature, there are a few studies that analyze the relationship between defence expenditure and human development in India. This study proposed to address the relationship by incorporating annual time series data from 1991 to 2019. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound testing co-integration approach confirms the valid long-run relationship between defence expenditure and human development in India. The study finds that defence expenditure and human development are interlinked. However, the nature of the linkage is not uniform over time. It is observed that defence expenditure negatively affects human development in the short run. This is possible because, in the short run, due to budgetary constraints, there is a tradeoff between defence expenditure and developmental expenditure. An increase in defence expenditure at the cost of developmental expenditure will put pressure on unemployment and poverty, which will deteriorate the condition of the human development index of the country, but defence expenditure, affects human development positively in the long-run. Thus, policymakers should focus on this option to regulate the peace and harmony of the country by enplaning the vision, while alternating the vision and stretching on the defensive mechanism will put the nation in a black hole in the short-run.

Title: A Study of Economic Land Use Pattern Development with Special Context in Manipur
Abstract :

Economic Land Use Pattern Developed Manipur is a small but picturesque State lying between latitudes 23°50’ N to 25°41’N and longitude 92° 58’E to 94° 45’ E with an area of 22,327 Km2. Almost 90 percent of the geographical area is hills and the rest is the Manipur valley with sizeable water bodies. There are 9 districts - five in the hills and four in the valley. Tribes and communities of the State live in 2391 rural villages. The area is mainly inhabited by majority Community, the Meiteis, who today constitutes 59 percent of the total population and the uplands or hill areas are inhabited by 33 tribes belonging to Naga subtribes and the Kuki-Chins-Mizo groups along with some other tribes not strictly falling in the said groups- all summing up to 41 percent out of the total State’s population of 27,21,756. The land is rich in biodiversity and have adequate rainfall with rich and age old colorful culture.

Title: Identification of Landforms from Thoubal River Basin, Manipur
Abstract :

Thoubal River is one of the important tributaries of Imphal River, which is a part of the Chindwin River system of North East India and Myanmar. It is a rainfed river originates from Huimi in Ukhrul district of Manipur at an elevation of about 1,600 m covering an area of about 910 Km2. Geomorphological Map of Thoubal River Basin is prepared on the basis of geoenvironmental parameters in which two types of landform are identified as major landform including Hills, Valley and Floodplains and minor landforms including Alluvium Fans, Scarps, Terraces, Ox-Bow lake, Point bar and Channel bar. These landforms are utilizes in various purposes by nature and humans. Thus, the study of landforms and related processes scientifically and systematically is very important for the proper use of landforms.

Title: A Study on Social Changes among Indigenous Peoples of Hill and Valley of Manipur
Abstract :

Social change among indigenous peoples of Manipur refers to any modification in the social organization of a society in any of its social institutions or patterns of roles. It is a complex, multi-faceted, all time and universal process. Sometimes it is sudden, though often it is gradual. However, the wheel of the social change cannot be stopped. Some societies accepted social change easily while some show rigidness in acceptance. The patterns and factors of social change vary from time to time and situation to situation which can be shown in terms of the elements of time and history in relation to a given society or social phenomenon. A scientific enquiry into the specific indigenous people of Manipur reveals patterns of social change.

Title: Physico-chemical Products and Oxidation of Some Organic Compounds with Chromium Oxidants
Abstract :

In the present work, the complexed oxidation products of propane-1, 2-diol and crotonaldehyde with TBC and TAC in various molar ratio have been studied. Out of the elements present (C, H, O & Cr) carbon and hydrogen were estimated instrumentally whereas chromium was determined by volumetric analysis. The possible formulation for the different products (complexes) obtained were tried with the help of empirical formula and the infrared spectra of the complexed products. We have taken TBC and TAC as oxidants for simple organic compounds like diols and enals like propane-1, 2-diol and crotonaldehyde. The products formed were analysed on the basis of elemental analysis, estimation, spectroscopic and thermal studies.

Title: A Study the Indigenous Bankers
Abstract :

By far the largest constituent of the Indian banking and credit system is the indigenous part. This part comprises (a) money-lenders in villages, and (b) indigenous bankers in towns and cities. Indigenous bankers, however, should be distinguished from the money lenders. The distinction arises out of the following points: (i) while indigenous bankers receive deposits and deal in hundis, the money-lenders do not do so; (ii) the former finance trade and industry, the latter mainly finance consumption; (iii) the former are more careful about the purposes of their loans than the latter; and (iv) repayment is more punctual and the rate of interest is generally lower in the case of the former. Despite these differences, the similarity is very great. Both of them are unorganised, both are scattered and are to be met with all over the country, and both have adapted themselves to the customs, habits, and needs of the people with whom they are in business relations, and business of both is very often a hereditary function and is carried on as a family concern.

Title: Studies on Complex of Sn (iv, ii), Bi (iii) and Sd (iii) with substituted in Cyclohexthio-Pyrrolides
Abstract :

Bismuth is a Vth A group element of periodic table having a electronic configuration [Xe] 4f145d106s26p3. Since Bismuth is a less common element, so very few of its complexes are known till now. From electronic configuration, the possible oxidation states shown by Bismuth are +3 and +5. The electronic structure of next inert gas could be obtained by the gain of three electrons, where Bismuth has valency three and Compound has covalent nature. Here a considerable energies are involved, so, –3 oxidation state will be unstable. Moreover loss of valence electrons is similarly difficult to achieve, because of the high Ionization potential. The +5 oxidation state ion certainly does not exist. Therefore, +3 oxidation state is most stable form.

Title: The Study on Sociological Environment in Manipur
Abstract :

Physic-chemical analyses of water samples from the lake clearly reveal degradation in the water quality due to over exploitation. Besides rise in the temperature and turbidity index of water, the water is found acidic in many areas. The concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide reveals very high values while lower values of dissolved oxygen clearly indicate oxygen deficiency in the water of the lake. These values indicate clearly the highly eutotrophic and deteriorated water quality in the lake. Some of the economic plants like Trapa natans, Nymphoides, Nymphaea and Nelumbo species have become endangered. It is noteworthy that people in the vicinity of the lake have started planting Trapa and Nelumbo in the various areas of the lake.

Title: Academic Stress and Patterns of Adjustment among Tobacco users in Manipur
Abstract :

Smoking is inhalation and exhalation of the fumes of burning tobacco in cigars and cigarettes and pipes. Some persons draw the smoke into their lungs, others do not. Smoking was probably first practiced by the indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. Originally used in religious rituals and in some instances for medicinal purposes, smoking and the use of tobacco became a widespread practice by the late 1500s. Tobacco was introduced into Europe by the explorers of the New World; however, many rulers prohibited its use and penalized offenders. By the end of the 19th century mass production of cigarettes had begun, and the smoking of cigarettes became prevalent as the use of cigars and pipes declined. Despite controversy as to the effects of smoking and bans on smoking by certain religious groups, the use of tobacco continued.

Title: A Study on the Status and Family Adjustment of Working Women: A Case Status of Manipur
Abstract :

The situation, however, started changing with independence. The constitution of India, Article 16, gave equality of opportunity in the matter of public employment to women of India. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them be Ineligible for or discriminated against in respect of any employment to office under state

Title: Ideals of Religious Life in Buddhism
Abstract :

Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) was born in around the year 560 BC in the sacred area of Lumbini near the ancient town of Kapilabastu in Terai region of Southern Nepal. He was the only son of King Suddhodana and Queen Mahamaya and the only heir to the Sakya kingdom. He was brought up in Kapilabustu by his step mother, the second wife of Suddhodana, as his mother Mahamaya died after seventh day of his birth. From his very childhood he seemed to have no attraction towards his princely life and was always found in a pensive and despondent mood. He would rise early in the morning, performed his morning activities and took his bath. Then he would go a solitary place for the practice of contemplation. His father tried his best to keep him away from these by marrying him and surrounding him with luxuries. He married at the age of 16 with his cousin, Yasodhara, and a son, Rahul, was born.

Title: A Study on Impact of Fire Ecology in Daily Life of Manipur
Abstract :

Fire ecology is a scientific discipline concerned with natural processes involving fire in an ecosystem and the ecological effects, the infractions between fire and the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem, and the role as an ecosystem process. Wildfire suppression not only eliminates these species, but also the animals that depend upon them. This view is based on the outdated beliefs that ecosystem progress towards an equilibrium and that any disturbance, such as fire, disrupts the harmony of nature.

Title: A Study on the Oriental Influence on Lawrence Durrell’s Attitude to the Sketch of Spiritual and Sexual Etiolation in His Novels
Abstract :

Lawrence Durrell is one of the twentieth century writers who threw overboard the nineteenth century thrust on rationalism and materialism. In his work, he pays more attention to philosophy and religion, doing away with narrative conventions to acquaint us with the roots of personality and imagination. He is in pursuit of the nature of truth with its many faces. In his attempt to transmit the essential, he provides the readers with a cluster of ideas to be reworked. He goes on “exploding ideas” into the readers’ minds, “then curling up with cat-like unctuousness and refusing to take any blame for the consequences”.

Title: A Study on Growth of Mutual Fund Development in Indian
Abstract :

Investment is a commitment of funds in real assets or financial assets. Investment involves risk and gain. In the present dynamic global environment, exploring investment avenues are of great relevance. Investment skills developed over a period of time are considerably influenced by experience and spadework carried out to arrive at conclusions. The success of an investment activity depends on the knowledge and ability of investors to invest, the right amount, in the right type of investment, at the right time. Real assets, being tangible material things, are less liquid than financial assets. Compared to financial assets, returns on real assets are more difficult to measure accurately due to the absence of broad, ready, and active market. Financial assets available to individual investors are manifold, having different concomitant benefits to choose from. All financial investments are risky but the degree of risk and return differ from each other. An investor has to use his discretion, which is an art acquired by learning and practical experience.

Title: As Study on Plant Pathology Perspective of Fungal Genome Sequencing in Manipur
Abstract :

Plant Pathology perspective of Fungal Genome Sequencing in Manipur is a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom,

Title: Study of Benzothiazole Derivative Schiff Base Ligand With Metal Complexes of Ni (ii), Co(ii) and Cu(ii)
Abstract :

A hot ethanolic solution of two molecules of ligand L2 (0.414 g, 0.001 mol) and hot ethanolic solution (20 ml) of corresponding metal salt NiCl2 (0.1297g; 0.001 mol) were mixed up together with constant stirring. Then the mixture was refluxed for 4 hrs at room temperature. On cooling the complex of Ni(II) was precipitated. The product obtained was filtered and washed with cold ethanol and dried with ether on cooling a solid condensed product was formed which was filtered and washed with ethanol then dried with ether. A crystal from hot ethanol gave ligand L2 i.e. 2-hydroxy 1,3-bis-(benzothiazole aldimine) benzene (HBTAB).

Title: A Study on the Voting Behaviour and Attitude of Voters
Abstract :

To the deliberative process, that is, the process by which various possible options for action are proposed, discussed and their strength and weaknesses evaluated to the actual decision making mechanism by which a group chooses a course of action, and to the execution or implementation of the decisions. Usually systems with high degree of direct action by population as a whole along all three dimensions are called systems of ‘direct democracy’ system of indirect control are usually called ‘representative’, or ‘indirect’. There are various mechanisms of indirect filtering devices of various kinds to determine which agents are to fill which positions of power. Elections are one such widely used devices, purportedly giving the populace some indirect control over decisions by allowing it to chose who will make and implement those decisions. The Indian democracy is also a replica of indirect form of democracy relying solely on elections. It has remained she in its commitment to electoral democracy

Title: A Study on Plant Pathology in Integrated Pest Management in Manipur
Abstract :

Integrated Pest Management combines cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods for pest control. Cultural methods rely on a strategy to make the crop unacceptable to pests through practices like mixed cropping, crop rotation, management of trap crops to divert insects away from the main crop. Mechanical methods on the principle of soil management include tillage, mowing, cutting, mulching and organic soil coverage provide unhealthy environment for weeds and disrupt pest life cycle, and physical methods include use of pheromone traps, light traps, sticky traps etc. Biological method is a strategy of controlling insect pests and diseases using other organisms like predators, parasitoids and pathogens. Chemical methods involve use of pesticides in pest management and are used when other measures are not enough.

Title: Contents Vol. 08, No. 02, December 2022
Abstract :
Title: A Study on Potamological Profile of Sewage Fed River and its Effect on Biotic Population
Abstract :

On the other hand in the present investigation, the highest temperature noted at all the points was in June followed closely by July. However, taking an overall view of the condition it was found that during the study period maximum values were recorded at all five points from April to October with peak as started earlier in June. The minimum temperature is from November to March with minimum observed for the month of January. This can be explained due to the fact that in summer months the days are longer and the intensity of sun light is stronger while, in monsoon and winter, the days get shorter, cloudy and the sun light become comparatively weaker. This is in agreement with the study of several Indian workers on limnology.

Title: A Study on Feminine Consciousness in Toni Morrison’s Novels
Abstract :

Morrison is a fierce critic of cultural appropriation and minorities especial females, are at center. She also speaks of female friendship, biological and non-biological sisterhood, mothers and daughters. Her outlooks on life differ and they shed light on the complexities of the female psyche in society. Her women’s issue revert to history and mythology in the attempt to find roots of oppression of the female sex. So, her novels have female protagonists to comply with strictly defined gender roles. She also sympathizes blacks and claims that they are not ‘other’.

Title: An Analysis the Numerical and Differential Equation
Abstract :

Remember that, in general, the word scalar is not restricted to real numbers. We are only using real numbers as scalars in this book, but eigenvalues are often complex numbers. Consider the square matrix A. We say that A is an eigen-value of A if there exists a non-zero vector x such that Ax = \x. In this case, x is called an eigen-vector (corresponding to A), and the pair (A,x) is called an eigen-pair for A. Therefore, A and x are an eigenvalue and an eigenvector, respectively, for A. Now that we have seen an eigen-value and an eigen-vector, let’s talk a little more about them. Why did we require that an eigenvector not be zero? If the eigen-vector was zero, the equation Ax = Xx would yield 0 = 0. Since, this equation is always true, it is not an interesting case. Therefore, we define an eigen-vector to be a non-zero vector that satisfies Ax = Xx. However, as we showed in the previous example, an eigen-value can be zero without causing a problem. We usually say that x is an eigen-vector corresponding to the eigen-value A if they satisfy Ax = Xx. Since, each eigen-vector is associated with an eigen-value, we often refer to an x and A that correspond to one another as an eigen-pair. Did we notice that we called x “an” eigen-vector rather than “the” eigen-vector corresponding to A.

Title: A Review on Copy-move Forgery Detection
Abstract :

The digital images are becoming a concrete information source with the vast improvements in imaging technologies. So, it is necessary to maintain the originality and reliability of digital images which is challenging because of the advent of easy and extremely powerful and sophisticated digital image processing tools that can maliciously alter, manipulate and tamper digital images without leaving behind any noticeable sign. One of the effective way of identifying the manipulated image region known as copy-move forgery detection that recognizes the tampered region. It is performed by copying a region of the image and pasted on another region of the image in order to hide unwanted area of the image or replicate some area of the image. This paper, presents a review of various techniques of forgery detection in view of block based, keypoint based and hybrid based.

Title: A Study on Impact which Byron, Most Eurocentred of all the English Romantic Writers
Abstract :

It is interesting to note in this context that Byron did not have a very high opinion about poetry. He did not share the exalted notions that the other Romantics had about poetry in general. The other poets of the age put poetry on a very high pedestal and wove a halo of glory around it. Thus, we find Wordsworth declaring that “poetry is the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge; it is the impassioned expression which is in the countenance of all science.” Again, we find him saying that “poetry is the first and last of all knowledge; it is as immortal as the heart of man;” and that it is “ the most philosophical of all writings.” Shelley, in the same vein, is found declaring that a poem “is the very image of life expressed in its eternal truth,” that poetry is “the record of the best and happiest moments of happiest and best minds,” and that it is “at once the centre and circumference of all knowledge.” He goes so far as to say that poets are” the unacknowledged legislators of the world.”

Title: A Study on Mrs. Dalloway Novel Written by Virginia Woolf
Abstract :

The church clock that rang in the church indicates the British time. This showed the England’s culture. Clarissa likes Victorian streets so much, because at home she felt lonely and isolated. But Victorian streets are full of life and movements. This complete surrounding backs her the time when she was eighteen years old. At that time she was standing near an open window in Burton seeing the flowers. She can fell the touch of fresh breeze. Now she reminds that at that time Peter Walsh was her lover and childhood friend. Now she compare with nature to nature and man-woman relationship with lover beloved relationship. Now she was the nature of London streets with a sense of loneliness. And in Burton nature, there was only enjoyment, freedom and everything locks bright at that time. Now this nature reminds the relationship between the men and the women also. In past she was with Peter Walsh, there was no fear of lost and coming other women between them. How she attracted to Richard’s wealth, economic security and at in room. But now nature help to realized her that wealth can’t gave real happiness.

Title: A Study on the Dramatic works of George Bernard Shaw
Abstract :

For Property divides society into classes and Marriage becomes class-ridden in the society. Equality is, therefore, an essential condition for the free functioning of the Life Force. It is, however, true that the Life Force has occasionally produced the Superman, one here, another there; they are what Shaw calls “our casual Superman.’ But for all their super humanity they could not do much. Why? Here is Shaw’s own explanation : “We have been driven to Proletarian Democracy by the failure of all the alternative systems; for these depended on the existence of Supermen acting as despots or oligarchs; and not only were these Supermen not always or even often forthcoming at the right moment and in an eligible social position, but when they were forthcoming they could not, except for a short time and by morally suicidal coercive methods, impose super humanity on those whom they governed; so, by force of “human nature”

Title: A Study on Synthesis and Characterisation of AI (II) Complex
Abstract :

Aluminium is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust and is much more common. It finds varied industrial applications including food and pharmaceutical industries. It has been used as a protective in treating ulcer, fissures and silicoses. It causes potential toxicity and health hazard when ingested in excess. Aluminium toxicity has been implicated in many dreaded diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. Role of complexation can be envisaged in much of the chemistry & bio-toxicology of aluminium. Complexation of Al³+ by the donor compounds in some intermediate stage is likely and might be of single or mixed ligand type. Selectivities or specificities might also play role. Relative stability of these intermediate complexes would be helpful in unrevealing the mechanism of action and related applied chemistry of aluminium.Keywords: Aluminium, Bio toxicology,

Title: A Study on Status and Problems Elderly Age Women with Special Reference of Manipur
Abstract :

According to the Elderly age women is considered to be the Centre of affection and protection for the aged parents where-in they can be well cared by the members of the family. Most of the elderly in Manipur are looked after by their sons, mostly the youngest son. The unmarried elderly also reside in their own home with their married nephew. Every family even the nuclear family has at least one elderly as member of the household. The elderly living with one person who may be either their spouse or relative. It is also in their tradition to accommodate elderly relatives, uncles and aunts.

Title: A Study the Evaluation of Indian Banking System
Abstract :

The banking sector is the lifeline of my modern economy. Banks have always played an important role in the country’s economy. The play a decisive role in the development of the industry and trade. They are acting not only as the custodian of the wealth of the country but also as resources of the country, which are necessary for the economic development of a nation. The general role of banks is to provide financial services to general public and business, ensuring economic and social stability and sustainable growth of the economy. Bank mostly provide short term loans and in some cases medium term financial assistance also to small scale units. Most of the banks have got specialized unit in their administrative structure to take care of the financial needs of the small scale industrial units. As we know that the Agriculture is the backbone of economy of any country like India. Research is based upon the secondary data. Which provide the findings is it helpful in economic development.

Title: A Study on Evaluation of Feeding Performance and Rearing of Medium Carp, Osteobrama belangeri Found in Manipur
Abstract :

The present study the food utilization efficiency of different diets by Osteobrama belangeri showed variation. PER of diets containing 5% cp aquatic weeds are not statistically different except the diets of 5% cp Salvinia. The best percentage of growth daily weight gain and food conversion ratio (PER) were observed at the 25% of plant ingredient in diets (De Silva and Guneskar, 1989), Fagbenro (1988) observed high food conversion ratio 5.12 and 2.30 when deflated cocoa cake and fish meal were fed directly in the monosex culture of Tilapia gutinusis. No beneficial effect on fish growth and feed utilization efficiency were observed by Tacon et al. (1954) when soluvent extracted sunflower seed meal used is diets for Rainbow trout fingerlings. However, sunflower seed meal increased from 0% to 22% obtained no adverse effect on overall growth performance and feed utilization.

Title: Contents Vol. 08, No. 01, June 2022
Abstract :
Title: Women Representation in Select Indo-English and Indian English Dalit Literature
Abstract :

Toni Morrison never liked that old seventies slogan “Black is beautiful.” It was superficial, simplistic, palliative – everything her blinkered detractors called Morrison’s complex novels when the 1993 Nobel Prize transformed her into a spokeswoman and a target. No better were those blinkered admirers who invited themselves to touch her signature gray dreadlocks at signings, as though they harbored some kind of mystical power.

Title: India Look East Policy in the North East Region: A Study on Indian Foreign Policy
Abstract :

This period witnessed the end of the Cold War between the two military blocs which brought an end the bipolar to the bipolar world, which was based on confrontation of two politico-economic systems and their military expression. It also brought an end to the stability of the world based on mutual deterrence. The high risk-high stability situation has been replaced by a low risk-low stability situation. The end of Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union also brought about the reorientation of former Soviet client states, especially those in the Third World, from centralised to market economies. These global changes have precipated two consequences in the prevailing international relations. First, there is a growing interdependence between countries and second, economic and trade issues are gaining vital precedence over the political and military ones. With a shift from geo-politics and geo-strategic to geo-economics, the economic dimensions of international politics has become prominent. The world previously polarised by an ideological struggle rapidly changed into economic blocs.” With the end of Cold War and the resultant breakdown of the overarching Cold War structure that underpinned and ordered international relations, nation-states became aware of the need to re-evaluate their place in the international system. The post-Cold War phase in international relations witnessed a distinct trend towards regional integration. As a result, a large number of states from different parts of the world began to make serious attempts to constitute themselves into regions to give fresh impetus to a wide variety of cooperative ventures amongst themselves. Regional integration, in general, appeared to be an effective device to serve economic and commercial objectives of these states. In the process, old organisations were recasted and new organisations were created to suit the changing global political context. All these developments consequently brought about a change in the world policies leading to the development of a new world order and dramatically altered the basic parameters in which the operated.”

Title: A Study on Oriental Influences of Doris Lessing Novels
Abstract :

Doris Lessing (1919) is one of the most powerful and significant novelists to have emerged on the international literary scene in the last four decades. As is the case with many great novelists, Mrs. Lessing’s life is intimately linked with her art and her total novelistic development. Born of British parents in Persia, now Iran, in 1919, Lessing’s childhood was characterized by mobility and a variety of experiences. Her family moved to what was then Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, to take up farming in a small town of Banket. Within her family, Doris was a “rebelin residence”. She had a very unhappy childhood because of her parents’ psychological and financial struggles. She had no formal education after the age of fourteen. As a result, her exposure to knowledge entirely consisted of independent extensive reading of books ranging from Balzac, Stendhal, Dostoevsky to Havelock Ellis. As she herself commented later.

Title: Qualitative Study to Determine Quality of Nutrition and Health Science
Abstract :

Limitations that need to be addressed related to this study include credibility and interpretation of the success stories. The credibility and value of the success stories are based on the assumption that participants and staff submitted stories that are honest about participant progress. EFNEP staff is required to write one success story each month. There is a possibility that staff will fabricate the growth and improvement of their participants to positively reflect their job performance in order to please their superiors or provide increased job security. Another issue is that staff may assume participants are making changes since the participants were provided with adequate information and education. In actuality, participants may have made no significant modification to their lifestyle. The same concerns can be expressed about participant success stories. The researcher must assume participants are truthful about their progress. Unfortunately, participants may feel obligated to state positive change when in fact change was minimal or nonexistent.

Title: A Study the Evaluation of Indian Banking System
Abstract :

The banking sector is the lifeline of my modern economy. Banks have always played an important role in the country’s economy. The play a decisive role in the development of the industry and trade. They are acting not only as the custodian of the wealth of the country but also as resources of the country, which are necessary for the economic development of a nation. The general role of banks is to provide financial services to general public and business, ensuring economic and social stability and sustainable growth of the economy. Bank mostly provide short term loans and in some cases medium term financial assistance also to small scale units. Most of the banks have got specialized unit in their administrative structure to take care of the financial needs of the small scale industrial units. As we know that the Agriculture is the backbone of economy of any country like India. Research is based upon the secondary data. Which provide the findings is it helpful in economic development.

Title: An Analysis Towards the Development of Manipuri Language in Education
Abstract :

The research methodology followed in the present research is discussed under different headings namely -- historical and educational perspective of Manipuri language need to teach Manipuri language for the Secondary Grade student Validity and reliability of the tasks based Communicative Activities used, construction of research tools, sampling techniques, design of the study, administration of tools for pre-test and post test and the statistical techniques employed for analysis of data.