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IJAEB - Volume 8 - Issue 4

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Title: Genetic Analysis and Character Association in Different Genotypes of Onion (Allium Cepa L.)
Abstract :
studied which was highest for total bulb yield among all traits under study. High PCV and GCV higher were observed for B grade bulbs, unmarketable bulb yield (q ha-1), marketable bulb yield (q ha-1), total bulb yield and bulb yield plant-1. High heritability supplemented with high genetic advance as a percentage of the mean was manifested by bulb yield plant-1 and total yield (q ha-1). The association study resulted that the advantages of upgrading onion genotypes through simultaneous selection for equatorial diameter, followed by polar diameter, the number of leaves plant-1 at 90 DAT, neck thickness, plant height at 90 DAT and TSS. Path coefficient analysis revealed that polar diameter had highest positive direct effect followed by plant height at 60 DAT, TSS, plant height at 90 DAT, the number of leaves plant-1 at 90 DAT and polar:
equatorial diameter were the most important traits contributing towards bulb yield plant-1. Direct selection of equatorial diameter, neck thickness, days to maturity, the number of leaves plant-1 at 30 and 60 DAT and plant height at 30 DAT should be avoided instead of indirect selection. The highest production observed in genotype OSR-1344 and Agrifound Light Red. Low incidence percentage of
stemphyliumblight was found in genotype ON14-06 incidence percentage of thrips was found in genotype ON14-15. Considerable variability was observed among the genotypes for foliage character, bulb shape, bulb colour and bolting tendency. Foliage color in green onion and shape and colour of onion bulb are most important characteristics to help customers in choosing cultivars in the market.
Title: Transformation of Tomato with Cry2ax1 by Biolistic Gun Method for Fruit Borer Resistance
Abstract :
Tomato ( Solanum esculentumL.) is an important vegetable crop cultivated throughout India. The crop is extensively damaged by alepidopteran insect, Helicoverpa armigeraHubner (fruit borer). To mitigate this problem, an attempt was made to generate transgenic tomato plants resistant to fruit borer. The regeneration protocol being pre-requisite for any transformation studies, 1.0 mg L-1 BAP (Benzyl amino purine) in combination with 0.2 mg L-1 IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) was standardized as shoot regeneration media for tomato cv. Pusa Ruby using leaf explant. The highest callus initiation (100%) and an average number of shoots (3.9) were obtained in the above media. Rooting was observed at 2.0 mg L-1 of IBA(Indole-3-butyric acid) with a highest average number of roots (1.06). The transformation system has been established by Biolistic Gun method using plant binary vector pCAMBIA2300 mobilized into the Agrobacteriumstrain LBA4404 carrying cry2AX1under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. The callus of tomato was bombarded twice from three different distances between tissue and macro carrier assembly. The highest transformation efficiency (75%) was obtained at distance 9 cm and transformants were screened using 50 mg L-1 of kanamycin. Out of 72 explants bombarded, only six explants developed completely but only two putative transformed plants were successfully hardened in the greenhouse. The integration and expression of the cry2AX1 gene in transformed plants were confirmed by PCR and Quantitative ELISA. The cry2AX1 protein accumulated in leaf quantified by ELISA has recorded 38.9 and 79.9 ng ml-1 respectively compared to 129 ng ml-1 of protein sample in positive control. 
Title: An Overview on Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and its Genetic Diversity
Abstract :
Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual, self-pollinated species with a genome size of ~ 370 Mb. Flax provides raw materials for food, medicine and textiles and hence it has been of great importance to human culture and development. Linseed oil is well-known for its health benefits mainly attributed to its high content of omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (55-57%). Consumption of grounded seeds adds nutritional benefits because flax seeds are also a rich source of lignans, having anticancer properties. India contributes
to almost 20% of world’s linseed production and governs linseed production among the Asian countries whereas, the scenario is just reverse in case of fibre flax. In the last decade, the fibre industry has devoted some effort to develop high-value products from linseed stems with applications in the pulp, technical fibre and biofuel industries. Therefore, understanding its genetic diversity is important for the continued improvement of this crop and as well as for its utilization as a truly dual purpose crop. Diversity analysis based on morphology alone has a significant limitation in the fact that it is highly influenced by the environment, to overcome this problem; molecular characterization can play an important role. However, systematic studies regarding the genetic diversity of flax in India are meagre. Hence, in-depth studies based on both morphological and molecular markers will help in better conceiving the genetic diversity
of flax germplasm
Title: Genetic Variability Analysis in F3 Populations of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L
Abstract :
Nine crosses involving foliar diseases viz., late leaf spot and rust susceptible (as female) and resistant (as male) parents in F3 generation were studied for mean performance and variability parameters. Susceptible female parents viz., CO 7, ICGV 00350, TMV 2, TMV Gn 13, VRI 2 and resistant male parents viz., COG 0437, GPBD 4, VRI Gn 6 were involved in these crosses. Among the crosses, the cross VRI 2 × GPBD 4 recorded higher mean performance for yield characters viz., pod yield per plant (g) and kernel yield per plant (g), and lower mean performance for disease score viz., late leaf spot and rust. It also recorded high PCV and GCV values coupled with high heritability and high genetic advance as per cent of the mean for all the traits studied. Hence based on low performance, variability, heritability and genetic advance (as a
per cent of mean) for pod yield, kernel yield and foliar disease resistance, the cross VRI 2 × GPBD 4 is adjudged as superior. Considering the progeny wise performance, the progeny #1 and #2 of the cross VRI 2 × GPBD 4 could be selected due to the superior mean performance for yield characters along with disease resistance. These progenies recorded high or moderate coefficient of variation for the entire characters understudy. Hence, these progenies need to be advanced further till the attainment of homogeneity to obtain high yield in conjugation with resistance to foliar diseases.
Title: A Rapid Micro-method for the Isolation of Total DNA from Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Tissues
Abstract :
The high yielding and reproducible micro-method of barley total DNA isolation was developed. A strong buffer was used for the maximum yield of DNA. RNA was removed by treating DNA with DNase-free pancreatic RNase A and polysaccharide contamination was removed by ethanol precipitation. DNA isolated from callus or leaf tissue was proved enough for restriction enzyme digestion and Southern
Title: Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Four Brassica Species using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers
Abstract :
This investigation was aimed to explore the genetic diversity and relationship among the 30 Brassica varieties of four different species such as Brassica juncea, Brassica rapa, Brassica napusand Brassica carinatausing RAPD markers. Forty primers were tested in this study, out of which 33 revealed clear and repeatable RAPD polymorphisms. They produced 530 total loci and the total bands were 6041. Out of the 530 loci produced, 511 were polymorphic and hence the total polymorphism percentage was found to be 95.96 %. Nineteen primers out of 33 analyzed successfully produced 100% polymorphism. The average PIC value for RAPD was 0.92. The highest PIC value obtained was 0.94 for S-70 marker and lowest PIC value was 0.77 for S-40. The number of amplicons produced per primer varied from 9 to 26 with a mean of 16.56 bands per primer. The molecular size of the amplified PCR products ranged from 130 to 3100 bp. On the basis of dendrogram, thirty accessions were categorized mostly according to their species. Cultivar specific RAPD markers for fifteen accessions were also detected. The study revealed that the diversity exhibited by genotypes belonging to various Brassicaspecies can be further utilized for crop improvement programme.
Title: Biodegradation of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid by Delftia Acidovorans and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Marine Environment
Abstract :
Cashew Nut Shell Liquid or CNSL is a versatile byproduct of the Cashew Industry. CNSL is widely used in paints, varnishes, enamels, laminating resins, rubber compounding resins, cashew cement, polyurethane based polymers and epoxy resins. Biodegradation of paints is a threat to the marine paint industry. CNSL is an eco-friendly antifouling agent widely used in marine paints that prevents fouling of microorganisms to the hull of the ships and boats. Our aim was to isolate, identify and optimize the
effectiveorganism that degrade CNSL and phenol, which would be helpful in developing new paint products that resists these organisms. By enrichment culture technique, a mixed population of
microorganisms was obtained. By screening all the plants, it was found that Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas aeruginosaplay a significant role in the degradation of CNSL. Degradation of CNSL was estimated spectrophotometrically by Folins-Ciocalteau method at 650 nm. These strains can also be used for bioremediation purposes in CNSL contaminated soils in cashew industries.
Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation of Root Methanol Extract of Naregamia Alata W&A
Abstract :
The present research work was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential and phytochemical analysis of methanol root extract of Naregamia alata. Standard methods were adopted to screen antioxidant and phytochemical nature of the plant. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were determined by using different in vitro assays including DPPH (2, 2 –diphenyl -1-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide scavenging assay, reducing
power and superoxide free radical scavenging assay. Ascorbic acid was used as standard. The methanol root extract of the plant at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL were studied. The root extract of Naregamia alata showed significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner in all these assays. In Vitroantioxidant activity of the methanolic root extract showed good antioxidant power in DPPH assay (91.39%), Hydroxyl radical (76.90%) and Superoxide free radical scavenging assay (80.00%)
with IC50 values 7.5µg/ml, 45µg/ml, and 20µg/ml respectively which is almost comparable to standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. The other two assays such as Nitric oxide scavenging (55.44%) with IC50 82.5 µg/ml and Ferric reducing power (0.618) showed moderate scavenging activity. Results of phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, phenols, tannin, flavanoids and coumarin.
Title: Changes in Antioxidant and Biochemical Constituents in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruit cv. Apple Colour during Development and Ripening
Abstract :
Changes in antioxidant and biochemical constituents were studied in guava fruit cv. Apple colour to determine the optimum time of harvest. Fruits were analysed at 15 days interval at 30, 45, 60, 90, 105,120, 135 and 150 days after fruit set. Continous increase in TSS content was observed in guava cv. Apple Colour at different growth intervals (30 to 150 days) . Ascorbic acid content in guava varieties exhibited peculiarity, which firstly, increased from up to 120 days and then decreased at 150 days while titratable acidity in guava varieties increased from 30 days to 150 days and then decreased from 120 days to 150 days. Total sugars, reducing sugars and total carotenoid showed continous increasing trend from fruit development till ripening in guava cultivar. While anthocyanin content increased from 105 days to 150 days only.
Title: Crop Diversification for Increasing Productivity and Profitability under Mid-hill Sub-humid Conditions of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :
Eight cropping sequences viz.maize – wheat, maize (green cob) + frenchbean (pole type) – pea – summer squash, maize + soybean – garlic, maize (green cob) – broccoli – potato, maize (green cob) +
asparagus bean – radish – onion, maize (green cob) + mash – cauliflower – frenchbean, maize (green cob) + ricebean – cauliflower – buckwheat, maize (green cob) + asparagus bean – broccoli – radish were evaluated for their production potential and economic feasibility under mid hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh.After completion of the experiment maize (green cob) + asparagus bean – radish – onion and maize (green cob) + frenchbean (pole type) – pea – summer squash sequences resulted in significantly higher maize equivalent yield (36.9 and 35.0t ha-1), production efficiency (119.4 and 112.5 kg ha-1 day-1), net returns (` 223568.6 and ` 225468.9 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.5 and 1.5), respectively than other crop sequences.While, maize - wheat sequence was superior over all crop sequences in terms of carbohydrate yield and protein yield (3,556.7 and 590.5, respectively). Maize – broccoli – potato resulted in higher cost of cultivation than other crop sequences due to the labour intensive nature of potato crop.
Title: Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines Primed with Salicylic Acid under Low Temperature Stress
Abstract :
An experiment was conducted in controlled lab condition with 20 maize ( Zea maysL.) inbred lines to find out tolerant and sensitive genotypes under low temperature stress (10oC). Seeds were primed with salicylic acid (SA) @ 20ppm, 40ppm and 50ppm along with hydro (water) priming for overnight and sown in plastic trays (size 18×12 cm) filled with well mixed fertilized soil. Dry seeds were considered as control. Low temperature exposure was given in Plant Growth Chamber upto10 days. Morphophysiological observations were taken and found that hydro primed and salicylic acid treatments (20ppm, 40ppm and 50ppm) reduced time taken to 50% emergence (in days), mean emergence time (in days) and emergence index (%) and increased shoot length(cm), root length(cm) and relative water content (%) in all maize genotypes as compared to dry treatment (non-primed seeds). However, salicylic acid @ 20ppm, 40ppm and 50ppm treatments significantly increased the response of above parameters in genotypes HUZM-185 at parHKI-164-4 (1-3)2 as compared to dry and hydro primed treatments, while these values were found minimum in genotypes HUZM-80-1at par HUZM-36. Interestingly, among all SA treatments
20ppm performed best on aforesaid parameters in genotypes HUZM-185 and HKI-164-4 (1-3)2 while least in genotypes HUZM-80-1 and HUZM-36 as compared to dry, hydro, 40ppm and 50ppm of SA treatments.
Title: Quality Attributes of North-East Himalayan Soil for Cultivation of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.
Abstract :
Ramie ( Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.) is one of the most valuable and oldest fibre crop grown in the world. China is the chief producer of ramie in the international market. Being a perennial crop, ramie
cultivation helps in soil conservation and due to its unique properties its demand is always higher than production. In this scenario, ramie cultivation in India is utmost important to the farmers. This plant has a wide adaptation power and can survive at any place. But for commercial production of cultivated varities of ramie, some specific soil and climatic factors are required. The North Eastern parts of India, especially, Assam is noted for ramie cultivation in wide scale. The soil from Ramie Research Station (RRS), Sorbhog, Assam was considered as standard soil for ramie cultivation. The chemical and physical properties of this soil was studied carefully and the fibre samples from plants grown in this soil was analyzed. It was found that the quality of fibre depends on available nutrient status of soil. The best quality of fibre was available when the quantity of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the pre-existing plots were 460.60 – 474.05 kg/ha, 140.36 – 143.88 kg/ha and 49.72 – 63.16 kg/ha respectively.
Title: Nilambur- Genotypically A Unique Teak Population in Ind
Abstract :
Gene diversity and population structure were analyzed in 14 natural teak ( Tectona grandisL.f.) populations in India belonging to Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Orissa using microsatellite markers. The data collected through microsatellite marker studies from 550 trees of the natural teak populations in different geographic areas indicate that it has different genetic structure forming separate genetic clusters. Populations from Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat form the first cluster while Orissa is in the second cluster and Kerala populations except Nilambur fall in the third cluster. Phenotypically Nilambur teak stands are quite distinct among Kerala populations were reported earlier but this is the first report proving the uniqueness of Nilambur teak through DNA analysis. The results of this study using molecular markers also support and confirm that gene diversity within teak populations of teak are in higher percentage than the gene diversity among populations. 
Title: Forage Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Seed Yield and Seed Quality Response to Foliar Application of Bio-regula
Abstract :
Heat stress could be one of the major constraints for limiting yield and quality of legumes in many parts of the world. Foliage applied bio-regulators induce thermo-tolerance and flowering in plants under temperature stress conditions. So, we assessed the effectiveness of four foliage applied bio-regulators starting from flower initiation on growth, seed yield and germination parameters on two cultivars of forage cowpea ( cv. CL 367 and Cowpea 88) with different doses viz. sodium benzoate (100 and 150 µg mL-1), salicylic acid (50 and 100 µg mL-1), CaCl2 (0.5 and1.0%) and KNO3 (1.0 and 2.0%). Cultivar CL 367 recorded significantly higher SPAD value, pods plant-1, seed yield, harvest index, and seed germination parameters than Cowpea 88. Bio-regulators sprays on crop improved the seed yield by 12.9-32.7%. Salicylic acid (50 µg mL-1), KNO3 (2.0%) and CaCl2 (1.0%) foliar sprays increased seed yield by 32.7%, 27.5% and 26.7%, respectively, over control. Seeds produced from 50 µg mL-1 salicylic acid treatment were of better quality with improved germination, shoot length, root length and seedling vigor index. Our results suggest that three foliar sprays of 50 µg mL-1 of salicylic acid starting from flowering at weekly interval can increase the seed yield and quality of cowpea. Improvement in seed yield and its quality with foliar bio-regulators will certainly increase the area under this fodder crop and will be helpful in sustaining livestock production in developing countries.
Title: Sorghum Yield and Nutrient Uptake under Long Term Nutrient Management Practices in Sorghum-Sunflower Cropping System in an Alfisol
Abstract :
The long term fertilizer experiment which was initiated in 1999, was monitored during kharif 2013 to study the effect of different nutrient management practices under sorghum-sunflower cropping system
in an Alfisol to study the sorghum yields and nutrient uptake by sorghum. Integrated nutrient management practice by applying optimum NPK fertilizers along with FYM (NPK+FYM) or crop residues (NPK+CR) increased the sorghum grain yield significantly over application of only fertilizers (100% NPK). The sorghum yield significantly increased with increasing levels of NPK only up to 100% NPK. Super optima dose of fertilizers (150% NPK) did not increase the yield. Continuous application of only nitrogen resulted in reduced yields due to the imbalanced use of fertilizers. Additional application of phosphorus significantly increased the yield while there was no significant yield increase with application of potassium, sulphur, boron or zinc. Application of phosphorus, potassium and zinc significantly increased their uptake by the crop but application of nitrogen or sulphur did not increase their uptake.
Title: Response of Boron and Zinc Fertilization to Productivity of Rice in Piedmont Soil of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted in Piedmont plain soil of East Siang of Arunachal, India to predict the responses of rice ( Oryza sativa) to different levels of boron (B) andzinc (Zn) application. The result showed significance increase in grain and straw yield due to B fertilization. The highest yield response to the tune of 39.25 q/ha grain and 41.25 q/ha straw was recorded with 15 kg level of borax per hectare. Percent increase of grain and straw yield due to 15 kg borax alone over control was found to be 24.52 % and 17.78 % respectively. The soil also showed positive response to different levels of Zn fertilization but maximum response was observed upto 20 kg ZnSO4/ha. Boron and Zn interacted synergistically to boost yield of rice crop resulting in additional yield of 7.1 q/ha of grain and 6.28 q/ha of straw. The increased percent of grain and straw yield of rice with Zn and interaction between B × Zn were 24.87 %, 17.67 % and 47.04, 35.72 %, respectively. The boron concentration and uptake in grain and straw of rice also significantly increases with increase in level of borax upto 15 kg/ha and ZnSO4 10 kg/ha. However, a negative response was also observed in both grain and straw yield at level of 20kg/ha of borax and 30kg/ha of ZnSO4.
Title: Cotton Productivity, Profitability and Changes in Soil Properties under Different Nutrient Management Practices
Abstract :
Cotton is an important fibre crop of global significance, which is, cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions of more than seventy countries the world over. A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2013 to evaluate the nutrient requirement of Bt cotton vis-a-vis fertilizer practices in vogue. At different growth stages, except control, all other treatments recorded higher number of monopodial and sympodial branches than 100% RDF. Incremental doses of fertilizers increased number of bolls plant-1 but very high doses practiced by farmers did not help in increasing boll number. Kapas yield increased with increasing fertilizer dose from 100 to 150% but was on par with the yield realized in 100% NPK and soil test based
fertilizer application. Quality parameters like seed index, lint index and ginning out turn were not influenced by the fertilizer treatments. Availability nitrogen was lowest in control and highest in farmers’
practice. Availability phosphorus and potassium was lowest in control and highest in soil test based fertilizer application. Available sulphur content in soil was lowest in control and highest in 150% RDF + S @ 30 kg ha-1. Micronutrient status in soil at flowering and harvest stages was not significantly influenced by the fertilizer treatments. Economic analysis also indicated that application of very high doses of fertilizers did not help in getting higher net returns or higher benefit cost ratio. It is logical to resortof soil test based fertilizer application or to adopt the present recommendation of 150:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 for profitable cultivation of Bt cotton in Warangal district of Telangana state. 
Title: Productivity of Soil Amended with Rice Mill Wastes and Sawdust in Abakaliki, Nigeria
Abstract :
Rice mill wastes and sawdust were used to amendsoil in Abakaliki Southeast, Nigeria to study its immediate and residualproductivity for three cropping seasons. Randomized Complete Block Design
was used in laying out the field with four treatments replicated five times. Results showed that soil texture remained sandy loam after cropping for three seasons. Grain yield of maize was significantly
(P<0.05) higher in Burnt Rice Mill Waste (BRMW), Unburnt Rice Mill Waste (URMW) and Sawdust (SD) amended plots relative to control for the three seasons. The grain yield of maize in BRMW amended plot was 8, 11 and 11% higher when compared to control for the studied seasons. Total porosity, macroporosity, micro-porosity and cation exchange capacity (CEC) had r = 0.90, r = 0.86, r = 0.74 and r=0.80 with grain yield of maize. There were r2 =0.82 and r2 = 0.73 for total porosity and macro-porosity with grain yield of maize. Organic carbon (r=0.57), available phosphorus (r=0.63), exchangeable magnesium (r= 0.59), base saturation (r= 0.51) and aluminum saturation (r = 0.58) and micro-porosity (r2 = 0.55), CEC
(r2 = 0.64) were significantly related to grain yield of maize. Burnt rice mill waste was more superior to improving soil productivity compared to others.
Title: A Review on Prospects of Pre-harvest Application of Bioagents in Managing Post-Harvest Diseases of Horticultural Crops
Abstract :
The reduction of post-harvest food losses is a critical component of ensuring future global food security. For controlling post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables biocontrol measures play an important role in ensuring an effective and safe alternatives to synthetic chemicals. Biological control of pre- and postharvest diseases has been one of the most extensively studied alternatives and appears to be a viable technology. Post-harvest application of biocontrol agents has been reported since very early to control
post-harvest diseases, but it has one major limitation that it cannot control the latent infection that starts from the field itself during the flowering stage, fruit maturity stage, wounds develop at harvesting and transporting the produce. For these pre-harvest applications of biocontrol agents can be an appropriate strategy for fruits and vegetables that subject to several ways of damage in post-harvest handling till storage.
Title: High Frequency In Vitro Cloning of Banana (Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine
Abstract :
A study was carried out at the Biotechnology-cum-Tissue Culture Centre, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, India, to standardise a viable protocol for the “High frequency in vitro cloning of Banana ( Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine” during the year 2014. This has helped to determine the best media compositions for shoot multiplication and rooting of the variety Grande Naine, so as to get optimum results with a minimized cost of production. The result revealed that MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l IAA was found to be a most potent combination and produced a significantly higher number of shoots/explants (4.47) after 30 days of culturing. The same combination recorded significantly higher number of shoots/explants, i.e., 5.97 and 6.13 in 1st and 2nd sub-culturing respectively.MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l IBA was found to be ideal for the early shoot elongation attending height of 3.52 cm with more number of leaves/plants (4.2) and produced more number (5.4) of longer roots (4.47 cm) roots after 30 days of inoculation. Approximately 1308 number of Tissue culture plantlets/explant can be produced by following this protocol.
Title: Effect of Calcium and Shrink Film on Post-Harvest Behavior of Cold Stored Plum Fruits
Abstract :
Effect of post-harvest treatments of calcium and shrink film packaging on plum cv. Satluj Purple was studied. Uniform and healthy fruits were selected and treated with aqueous solutions of calcium chloride (1%, 2% and 3%) and calcium nitrate (2%) for 5 minutes. After drying, treated fruits from treatment no. T4, T5, T6, T8 and T9were packed in trays with shrink film and fruits from treatment no. T1, T2, T3, T7 and T10 were kept unpacked in corrugated fiber board (CFB) boxes (5% perforation) and stored at low temperature (0-1oC with 90-95% RH) for 40 days. Observations on palatability rating, spoilage, TSS: acid, reducing sugars and non- reducing were recorded after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of storage. Results revealed that fruits treated with CaCl2 @ 2% + shrink film tray packaging exhibited best fruit quality by maintaining palatability rating, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars and lowering spoilage and TSS: acid during 40 days of storage
Title: Evaluation of Heliconia Species Based on Agro-Morphological Traits
Abstract :
Wide variation was observed among the ten genotypes of Heliconiafor vegetative and floral characteristics. An investigation on ‘Floral biology’ was carried with the objective of studying the floral biology of these ten Heliconia species and varieties for thirteen floral characters. The study revealed that under hot and humid situation prevailing over West-Bengal there was no uniformity in flowering behaviour of different
species and varieties. Heliconia rostrata, Heliconia stricta, Heliconia wagneriana, Heliconia humilis, Heliconia psittacorumvar. ‘Lady di’, Heliconia psittacorumvar. ‘Choconiana’ observed to be ideal as cut
flowers. Cultivar Heliconia psittacorum var. ‘Golden Torch’ was observed to flower profusely and exhibited perpetual blooming and hence ideal for the landscaping
Title: Growth, Yield and Economics of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) as Influenced by Organic and Inorganic Nutrients
Abstract :
An experiment entitled “Growth, yield and economics of broccoli( Brassica oleracea) as influenced by organic and inorganic nutrients” was carried out at the site for “Network project on Bio fertilizer” in the campus of College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during Rabi 2008-09 and 2009-10. Results revealed that out of ten treatments tried, the T10 i.e. 75% NP+ 100% K+
bio inoculants+ VC (5t/ha) proved to be the best on account of growth factor such as plant height, leaf area and curd diameter. The plant height, leaf area and curd diameter in T10 was 41.58 cm, 363.32 cm2 and 46.91 cm respectively. The yield was also highest in T10 i.e. 149.43 q/ha. Similarly, the highest net return was also obtained from T10 i.e. ` 95,455 with benefit cost ratio of 3.45.
Title: Nutritional Evaluation of Squash (Sechium Edule) Germplasms Collected from Garo Hills of Meghalaya – North East India
Abstract :
The present investigation analysed the fruits of 10 accessions of Sechiumedule(Squash) for different physico-chemical parameters. The parameters analysed included physical characteristics such as fruit color, fruit size, pulp ratio and nutritional parameters such as total sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, protein content, ascorbic acid content and crude fibre. Results indicated that the germplasm collected are rich in important nutritional parameters. The fruits analysed have very high moisture content ranging from 89.3-94.2% but are not a good source of protein which ranged from 0.77-1.05% in the fruits. The juice extracted from the fruits was rich in Vitamin C content and the Germplasm GH10 had the highest Vitamin C content (22.3%). Fruits of Sechiumedule also have significant amount of carbohydrate (4.12-4.98%), crude fibre (4.88-5.89 %) and Mineral Ash (0.245-0.321%).
Title: Effect of Foliar Application of Zinc and Copper on Growth and Post-Harvest Life of Lilium (Asiatic hybrid) cv. Albedo
Abstract :
An experiment was carried out in the field and Post-harvest Laboratory of Department of Horticulture, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India during 2013-2014 to see the effect of zinc and copper on growth characteristics and post-harvest life in lilium grown under polyhouse condition. The treatments used were Zn 0.2%, Zn 0.4%, Cu 0.2%, Cu 0.4%, Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.2%, Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.4%, Zn 0.4% + Cu 0.2%, Zn 0.4% + Cu 0.4% along with control (distilled water). Foliar application of zinc and copper was done at 30 days after planting. Spraying of nutrients was done to run-off stage and control plants were treated in the same manner with distilled water. Experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) and replicated thrice. A significant result was observed in all the parameters studied. Among the growth parameter, treatment Zn 0.4% + Cu 0.4% showed significant increase in the leaf area followed by Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.4% whereas, Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.2% recorded maximum chlorophyll content followed by Zn 0.4% + Cu 0.2%. Maximum fresh weight and dry weight of leaves were observed with Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.2%. Among post-harvest parameters maximum weight of cut stem at 2nd, 4th and 6th day was noticed in Zn 0.4% followed by Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.4%. Treatment Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.4% extended the days to opening of 1st and 2nd flower followed by Zn 0.4% + Cu 0.2% and Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.2% while, Zn 0.4% recorded maximum diameter of flower which was statistically at par with Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.4% whereas, longevity of 1st and 2nd flower was maximum with Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.4% followed by Zn 0.4% + Cu 0.2%. Maximum solution uptake and vase life was observed with Zn 0.4% + Cu 0.2% followed by Zn 0.2% + Cu 0.4%
Title: Screening of Certain Promising Germplasm of Brassica spp. Against Lipaphis erysimi Kalt
Abstract :
Cultivation of resistant or tolerant varieties is the easiest way to protect the mustard crop from insect pests. Varietal screening for aphid resistance and stability of seed yield under aphid-infested and protected environment would help in identifying the tolerant varieties for aphid attack. The present investigations were therefore carried out with the objectives to study the evaluation of 240 B. juncea accessions for resistance/tolerance against mustard aphid. Under field conditions, the experiment was conducted with 240 accessions (germplasm) of Brassica junceaat Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre (CRC), Pantnagar, during 2010-2011 to evaluate their differential response on the infestation of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). Accessions 491128 491176, 491123, 491144 were highly resistant, and 491041, 320648,426401, 491042 were highly susceptible against mustard aphid based on its population. On the basis of mustard aphid infestation index (AII) the mustard germplasm, 339589 (0.46), 33957, 399816 were found highly resistant, whereas 296703, 491028, 248993, 296690 were highly susceptible 
Title: Identification of a Calliphorid Fly, Pollenia Rudis (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Based on its Fragments through DNA Barcoding
Abstract :
A bottle was received from a pharmaceutical company containing fragments of insect species like antennae, two leg pieces, a portion of the abdomen and two intact wing pieces at ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bangalore, India, for the possible identification of the insect specimen. The wing pieces given to the taxonomists suggested that the wing fragments belonged to a calyptrate dipteran - Sarcophagidae/Calliphoridae relative. Furthermore, DNA barcoding based identification was employed to determine the identity by amplifying COX1 mitochondrial gene, which was 658 bp size and GenBank accession number and barcode were generated, viz., KT368817 and VETIP006-15, respectively. Our sequence matched 100% with GenBank accession nos. GQ409351 and JF439551 and identity were determined as Pollenia rudis (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The present work highlights that DNA barcoding based identification tool a powerful and imperative in determining the identity of insect, even if a part or fragment of the specimen is available. This method can be used for insect identification wherever fragments are available, which can lead to preventive measures.
Title: Relative Resistance in Soybean Germplasms against White Fly, (Bemisia Tabaci Gennadius) and Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Spread in Field
Abstract :
Absence of resistance against diseases and insect pests in soybean is one of the main reasons for their low yield. During the kharif season, yellow mosaic epidemic damages the crop in most of the soybean growing areas of Uttarakhand. A field experiment was conducted during kharifseason of 2012-13 at N. E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) for the purpose of identifying resistance in soybean germplasms, a disease screening plot, comprising of 41 test entries, was developed. Despite being highly susceptible, some test entries produced good yield and showed tolerance to yellow vein mosaic disease. Screening of forty one genotypes of soybean against White fly, Bemisia tabaci(Genn.) revealed that the soybean genotypes (1.11 per 3 plants) SL- 900 with 67.49% disease spread was found the least susceptible, followed by AMSMB- 5-18, AMS-243, AMS-MB-5-19, DS-12-5, DS-2708, DSb-16, DSb-20, JS-20-29, JS-20-34, KDS-8, KS-103, MACS-1336, MACS-504, PS-1476, PS-1477, RVS -2001-18 germplasms were found resistant to White fly infestation as well as Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) damage. 
Title: Evaluation of Host Plant Resitance in Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Leaf miner (Chromatomyia horticola Gaur.) and Pod Borers
Abstract :
Different genotypes of Rajmash were sown at Agricultural Research Farm of Banaras Hindu University during Rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 for the evaluation of resistance to leaf miner and pod borers. During 2013-14 genotype 405 showed comparative resistance reaction to leaf miner damage (33.52%), whereas genotypes HUR 15 (51.74 %) and 180 (51.10 %) showed susceptible reaction with higher leaf miner damage. Maximum pod damage was recorded in genotype VL63 (11.00 %) and minimum in HUR 203 (1.93 %). Genotype M8 produced higher yields as compared to other genotypes (13.88 q ha-1), while genotype 180 (5.86 q ha-1) produced minimum yield. During 2014-15, genotype 405 (26.16 %) showed less leaf miner damage and genotype HUR 15 (45.12 %) was more infested by leaf miner. Genotype VL63 (11.67 %) showed maximum pod damage and genotype 405 (3.94 %) showed less damage.Maximum yield obtained from genotype 214 (13.36 q ha-1) and minimum from genotypes HUR15 and HUR 146 (6.48 q ha-1).
Title: Profile Analysis of Mixed Farming Adopter Farmers
Abstract :
Mixed farming systems focuses on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms and rational building on and use of the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhance biodiversity, optimize complementarities between crops and animal systems as well as increase opportunities in rural livelihoods. In an era of instability in agriculture with declining prices, increasing land hunger by increasing population and futile search for an insulating mechanism of farmers against fall in income and employment, interest in integration of farms with any other economic activity has revived. The present study analysing the profile of farmers adopting mixed farming was conducted in Anand taluka of Anand district of
Central Gujarat. A random sample of 50 mixed farming adopter farmers were selected from ten villages. The study revealed that majority (96.00%) of the farmers had middle to old age, secondary to higher secondary level of education (76.00%), slightly less than two-third (66.00%) of the farmers had eleven to thirty years of experience, up to four hectares of land holding, majority (82.00%) of the farmers possessed up to 20 animals, very low to low level of social participation (88.00%), medium to very high level of mass media exposure (86.00%), poor to average level of extension contacts (94.00%), high level of scientific orientation (80.00%), high to very high level of economic motivation (96.00%), medium to high degree of achievement motivation (94.00%).
Title: Technology Application for Sustainable Environment Management in Disadvantageous Terrains: Shifting Thrust of Public Agricultural Extension System in North Eastern Region of India
Abstract :
The North Eastern region of India is generally featured by enormous biodiversity, forest cover and clean environment. But, in the recent past the region has encountered numerous environment related issues,mainly due to encroachment, deforestation and indiscriminate jhuming. To contain the degraded environment a centrally planned and strategic change in farm practices considering natural resource management, recycling and environmental protection had been increasingly felt essential. The present study aimed at finding out whether the public agricultural extension system in the region while applying technologies in the farmers’ fields for transfer and wider dissemination, had been taking into due consideration the environmental issues or not, and if so, then what was the pattern of shift. A technology application index (TAI), comprising of six different indicators, was developed for the same purpose and the required data were extracted from relevant secondary sources. The findings of the study indicate that there has been a visible shift in thrust in agricultural technology application from field crop production oriented technologies to resource management and horticultural production technologies. Although a
shift in relative thrust has been observed in technologies related to small scale enterprises, some more emphasis is required to integrate the small scale enterprises to farm based livelihood options, exploiting natural resources in a sustainable manner and following scientific soil health management practices. 
Title: Transformation of Tomato with Cry2ax1 by Biolistic Gun Method for Fruit Borer Resistance
Abstract :
Tomato ( Solanum esculentumL.) is an important vegetable crop cultivated throughout India. The crop is extensively damaged by alepidopteran insect, Helicoverpa armigeraHubner (fruit borer). To mitigate this problem, an attempt was made to generate transgenic tomato plants resistant to fruit borer. The regeneration protocol being pre-requisite for any transformation studies, 1.0 mg L-1 BAP (Benzyl amino purine) in combination with 0.2 mg L-1 IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) was standardized as shoot regeneration media for tomato cv. Pusa Ruby using leaf explant. The highest callus initiation (100%) and an average number of shoots (3.9) were obtained in the above media. Rooting was observed at 2.0 mg L-1 of IBA(Indole-3-butyric acid) with a highest average number of roots (1.06). The transformation system has been established by Biolistic Gun method using plant binary vector pCAMBIA2300 mobilized into the Agrobacteriumstrain LBA4404 carrying cry2AX1under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. The callus of tomato was bombarded twice from three different distances between tissue and macro carrier assembly. The highest transformation efficiency (75%) was obtained at distance 9 cm and transformants were screened using 50 mg L-1 of kanamycin. Out of 72 explants bombarded, only six explants developed completely but only two putative transformed plants were successfully hardened in the greenhouse. The integration and expression of the cry2AX1 gene in transformed plants were confirmed by PCR and Quantitative ELISA. The cry2AX1 protein accumulated in leaf quantified by ELISA has recorded 38.9 and 79.9 ng ml-1 respectively compared to 129 ng ml-1 of protein sample in positive control.
Title: Bacteriological Quality of Frozen Desserts Available in Retail Markets of Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract :

Forty samples (10 kulfi, 10 branded ice cream, 10 softy ice cream and 10 ice milk) were subjected to standard plate count, coliform, salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus count. The mean standard plate count for kulfi, ice cream, softy and ice milk, were 3.723±0.125, 1.277±0.128, 4.277±0.112 and 5.667±1.410 respectively. The coliform and salmonella were negative in branded ice cream samples. A total of 7 samples of kulfi, ice milk and softy ice cream showed positive for staphylococcus aureus. Since the bacteriological quality of frozen dessert are poor in the study area, precautionary measures have to be taken in production as well as post-production period up to the consuming in order to prevent food poisoning.