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IJAEB - Volume 8 - Issue 3

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Title: Gene effects and genetic analysis of indigenous land races and improved cultivars for yield and yield components in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
Rice is one of the crucial staple food crops and its unique grains assist to hold two third of world population. Generation mean analysis is commonly used in studies of inheritance of quantitative traits. Experimental material consisted of ten parents which included six high yielding varieties used as female parents and four traditional landraces used as male parents, F1, F2 and F3 generation of six crosses viz., IR 72 x Veeradangan, ADT 39 x Kavuni, ADT 45 x Kavuni, ADT 43 x Navara, ASD 16 x Navara and
TPS 4 x Kathanellu. Seven biometrical characters indicated that additive and dominance x dominance gene actions were predominant with duplicate type of gene action for fi ve biometrical characters viz., plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fi lled grains per panicle and single plant yield. The epiststic eff ects, additive x additive [i] and dominance x dominance [h] were highly signifi cant in most cases. The signs of (h) and (l) were opposite in all studied traits for most crosses. Non-allelic gene interaction was operating in the control of genetic variation in most studied traits. Also, the inheritance of all studied traits was controlled by additive and non-additive genetic eff ects, but dominance gene eff ects play the major role in controlling the genetic variation of the most studied traits. Present study indicated that early generation selection is eff ective and should be
practiced for future breeding program. 
Title: SDS-Page based seed protein profiling and diversity assessment of indigenous genotypes of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.)
Abstract :
Genetic diversity through SDS-PAGE was assessed among the 28 monoecious and 14 hermaphrodite lines of ridge gourd, collected from diff erent parts of the country. A total of 14 protein bands could
be resolved which distributed in 3 zones namely zone A (6 bands) with Rf value from 0.13 to 0.31, Zone B (5 bands) with Rf value from 0.54 to 0.78, and zone C (3 bands) with Rf value from 0.82 to 0.92.
Most of the protein bands were found in all the genotypes but a specifi c protein band C2 with 0.85 Rf value was absent in genotype PCPGR-7267 (monoecious) and another specifi c protein band B5 with 0.78 Rf value was absent in genotype PCPGR-7247 (hermaphrodite). Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis generated by SDS-PAGE based on genetic distance of genotypes displayed dendogram grouped the genotypes initially into one major cluster I and one independent
genotype PCPGR-7267 with 65% similarity and further major cluster divided into sub-cluster to super small sub-sub clusters. The genotypes are grouped irrespective of their morphological distinctiveness indicating similarity between monoecious and hermaphrodite lines of ridge gourd at genotypic level in contrary that one monoecious genotype namely PCPGR-7267 and one hermaphrodite genotype namely PCPGR-7247 grouped into diff erent cluster. Thus, genotypes which were found diverse may be
included in ridge gourd future breeding programme to develop high yielding cultivars.
Title: Generation of DNA barcodes in Indian mottled EEL (Anguilla Bengalensis): A threatened ichthyofauna of Assam, India
Abstract :
Eels have always been a source of fascination because of their charismatic shape and size. They are good source of animal protein and bear high food values. Dwindling population of eels has meanwhile led certain species to IUCN threatened categories. In spite of these, scientifi c investigations on the only species of this genus, Anguilla bengalensis, in this region have not been reported much. Many biological questions of the catadromous fi sh are still unanswered. Quick but authentic identifi cation of threatened
species is vital to unveil such query and frame out conservation and management strategies. DNA barcodes utilising partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene and nuclear rhodopsin gene were developed in this current study. Conventional taxonomic information has also been included contemplating inevitable role of it in unambiguous species level discrimination. The study has generated novel barcode of the species from this region to decipher implications on congeneric and conspecific divergence
Title: Molecular characterization of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L.) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica l.) genotypes through PCR based molecular markers
Abstract :
The present study was carried out for the comparison of RAPD and ISSR markers for polymorphism pa ern and molecular diversity analysis among 17 ridge gourd (Luff a acutangula L.) and sponge gourd (Luff a cylindrica L.) genotypes using 20 RAPD and 12 ISSR markers. Twenty RAPD primers generated total of 94 bands of which 81 bands were polymorphic showing 86.17% polymorphism. The average bands per primer were found 4.05. The polymorphic information content (PIC) was recorded from 0.4828 to 0.8842 for RAPD. Jaccard’s similarity coeffi cient ranged from 30.8% to 78.6% for RAPD. However, out of 30 ISSR primers screened, twelve ISSR primers produced 79 bands of which 66 bands were polymorphic and 83.54% polymorphism with an average of 7.16 bands per primer. The PIC ranged between 0.6548 and 0.8939 for ISSR. Jaccard’s similarity coeffi cient ranged from 22.7 % to 81.2% for ISSR. This study showed that RAPD and ISSR markers produced specifi c DNA fragments for identifi cation of ridge gourd and sponge gourd genotypes.
Title: Assessment of diversity in aloe barbadensis miller using morphological and molecular markers
Abstract :
In this study, genetic diversity of 38 accessions of Aloe barbadensis, collected from diff erent parts of India were evaluated using morphological and random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data. Statistical analysis showed signifi cant diff erences for all morphological characteristics among the accessions, suggesting that selection for relevant characteristics could be possible. The analysis of molecular diversity was used the RAPD technique, with 14 random primers of 10-mer oligonucleotides. RAPD analysis was performed with 14 primers chosen a er a previous screening. Signifi cant genetic variability among those 38 cultivars was obtained both at the morphological and molecular level. This study demonstrated that for determining the genetic variability among some cultivars, the molecular
markers technique is more precise than the morphological traits.
Title: Leaf proteome alterations in tolerant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) genotype under water stress
Abstract :
Drought tolerant pearl millet genotype was used for diff erential physiological and proteomic analysis. The water stress was imposed on 20 days seedling up to fi ve days. The physiological parameters viz. soil moisture content, relative water content (RWC), shoot length (cm) were studied from drought and control seedling a er 25 days. The results showed signifi cant changes on RWC and soil moisture content was decreased under water stress. Proteome analysis of 2D gel electrophoresis indicates around 1262 well resolved spots within the 4-7 pH and 10-110 kDa ranges. Image analysis revealed the presence of both, qualitative and quantitative changes between two treatments. The proteomic changes were observed in tolerance genotype J-2340 resulted total 84 spots protein (22.5-97.4 kDa, pH- 4.00 to 6.73) matches with control and water stress treatments. However, 32 proteins up regulated (29.0-97.4 kDa, pH 4.20-7.00) and eight down regulated (57.9-97.4kDa, pH 4.00 to 6.68) were observed a er imposing water stress.
Title: Estimates of genetic variability parameters for yield and yield attributes in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Abstract :
Groundnut is an important oilseed crop grown under diverse climatic conditions. The productivity of the crop is considerably aff ected by foliar fungal diseases, especially late leaf spot and rust which occur together and cause severe yield loss. With an objective of upgrading yield integrated with disease resistance, two cross derivatives in BC2F1 generation were developed by crossing foliar disease susceptible variety CO 7 and two foliar disease resistant parents viz., GPBD 4 and COG 0437 in groundnut. These backcrosses viz., CO 7 × GPBD 4 and CO 7 × COG 0437 were used to study their mean performance, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean for yield and yield a ributes. High percentage of PCV, GCV, heritability coupled with high GAM were recorded by both the backcrosses for kernel yield per plant, pod yield per plant, number of pods per plant and 100-pod weight. In addition, the characters viz., 100-kernel weight, shell weight, sound mature kernel per cent, late leaf spot and rust score exhibited high/medium coeffi cient of variation accompanied with high/moderate heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean which indicated the presence of additive gene eff ect. Thus, upshot of the study clearly indicating that there is a presence of wide spectrum of genetic variation for almost all the characters in both the crosses, suggesting that they respond to selection with greater effi cacy for amelioration of kernel and pod yield conjunction with foliar disease resistance in groundnut.
Title: Association Studies for Yield and its components in Green Gram
Abstract :
Twenty three genotypes of green gram were studied for genetic variability, correlation and path analysis for eight economically important traits. The genotypes viz. SG1, MH 709, ML 1278, Pant M 4, SG 21-5, OGG 56, CGG 973, ML 1354 and RVSM 11 were found promising for seed yield per plant. In general, PCV were higher than the corresponding GCV values for all the characters, suggesting the infl uence of environment in the expression of these traits. The broad sense heritability were high for plant height followed by 100-seed weight, pod length, seed yield per plant, days to fl owering, seeds per pod, days to maturity, pod fi lling percentage and pods per plant . Seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, pods per plant, pod fi lling percentage and pod length showed signifi cant positive correlations with seed yield per plant both at phenotypic and genotypic levels. Path analysis revealed that seeds per pod had the maximum direct eff ect on seed yield followed by 100 seed weight, pod fi lling percentage and pods per plant. Therefore, main emphasis should be given on these traits during phenotypic selection for developing high yielding genotypes of green gram.
Title: Clonal variability studies in ‘langra’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers
Abstract :
Mango is one of the most economically important tropical fruits grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Being a delicious and widely cultivated fruit, it is regarded as ‘the King of fruits’ on the Indian subcontinent and the ‘national fruit of India’ because of the flavour and nutritional qualities. Mango has rich intra-specific diversity, with about 1600 and 1000 cultivars of mango present globally and India, respectively. ‘Langra’ is one of the leading commercial mango varieties of Northern India including Bihar which is known for mildly fibrous flesh and with a distinct pleasant taste and turpentine flavour. Significant variation exists among the clones of ‘Langra’ mango with respect to fruit shape, size, colour, quality and taste. Several studies have been made on characterization of intra-varietal variability of many different cultivars of mango. However, clonal variability studies in ‘Langra’ mango are limited. In this present investigation, an a empt were undertaken to study the clonal variability exit in some ‘Langra’ mango using morphological, biochemical and Molecular Markers. These results provide evidence that a signifi cant level of genetic variation exits among 10 clones of ‘Langra’ mango which can be used for mass multiplication of superior clone(s) and can be further utilized in breeding programs.
Title: Effect of pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed fresh-cut banana pseudo stem
Abstract :
The market for fresh-cut vegetables had been grown rapidly due to the changes in lifestyle pa ern and also health benefi ts associated with these foods. The pre-treatment of fresh-cut banana pseudo stem was done with two diff erent anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, potassium meta bi-sulphite (KMS)) at 1% for 15 min to determine the eff ect of a change in color (browning). The samples pre-treated with KMS had minimum decrease in color value of ‘L’ (70.41) and ‘b’ (20.94) value whereas there was a minimum increase of ‘a’ (1.28) value in 35 days of storage at 8±2°C which is the most desired quality for reducing the browning eff ect. The optimized pre-treated fresh-cut banana pseudo stem packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was stored at two diff erent storage temperatures of 27±2°C and 8±2°C. Among which minimum quality changes were seen at 8±2°C with physiological loss in weight (2.3 %), colour values such as ‘L’ (70.41), ‘a’ (3.30) and ‘b’ (17.1) and fi bre content (0.8 g/100g) remained same during its storage days. The minimum growth of bacteria and fungi was also found as 3.64 × 105CFU/g and 2.76 ×103 CFU/g in 35 days of storage. The sensory evaluation of minimally processed fresh-cut banana pseudo stem had maximum overall acceptability of 8
Title: Effect of growing media, Pgrs and seasonal variability on rooting ability and survival of lemon (Citrus Limon L.) cuttings
Abstract :
The eff ect of diff erent growing media (soil, soil+FYM, soil+vermicompost, soil+cocopeat, soil+sand+FYM, soil+sand+vermicompost and soil+sand+cocopeat), hormonal treatments (Control, IBA 500 ppm, NAA 500ppm and IBA+NAA 500ppm each) and growing seasons (rainy and spring) on the number of sprout per cu ing, number of primary roots per cu ing, number of secondary roots per cu ing and survival percentage of cu ings of lemon cv. Pant Lemon-1, was evaluated. Among the diff erent growing medium, number of sprouts per cu ing (2.58) with soil+sand+vermicompost, number of primary roots per cu ing (9.03) and number of secondary roots per cu ing (16.67) with soil+sand+cocopeat and survival percentage (82.23) with soil+sand+FYM, recorded maximum. Growth hormones IBA 500 ppm resulted maximum (2.42) number of sprouts per cu ing as well as highest survival percentage (81.68). Hormonal combination of IBA 500 ppm+NAA 500 ppm were resulted maximum number of primary roots (7.74) and secondary roots (16.19) per cu ing. Over all compare between spring and rainy seasons, spring season was found superior regarding number of sprout per cu ing (2.29) and number of primary roots per cu ing (7.30). Whereas, number of secondary roots per cu ing (15.30) and survival percentage
(77.37), were more in spring season. 
Title: Efficacy of edible coatings on the shelf life of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits at ambient condition
Abstract :
The present study explored the use of some post harvest treatments to extend the shelf life of ber. Matured ber fruits were treated with Chitosan (0.5%, 1%, 2%), Guar gum (1%, 1.5%, 2%), Gum tragacanth
(1%, 1.5%, 2%) for 16 days of storage. All treated fruits showed lower loss in fruit weight, less spoilage and long marketable life in comparison to untreated fruits. Guar gum (1.5%) proved very useful for
reducing loss in weight, shriveling even a er 12 days of storage. At the end of the storage maximum TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar were observed in Guar gum(1.5%) treated fruits followed by Gum tragacanth(2%).
Title: Shelf life extension of fresh-cut spinach
Abstract :
Fresh-cut vegetables are an important and rapidly developing class of convenience foods. Their storage life may be greatly reduced due to their high rates of respiration and transpiration and the possibility of enzymatic and microbiological deterioration. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the shelf life and the failure a ribute that conditioned the shelf life of fresh-cut spinach packaged in
diff erent packaging materials.Packaging of fresh vegetables is one of the most important steps in the long and complicated journey from grower to consumer. Spinach has a relatively short shelf life. “Shelf
life is defi ned as the time period that a product can be expected to maintain a predetermined level of quality under specifi ed storage conditions”. Shelf life is a function of time, environmental factors, and susceptibility of product to quality change.The maximum shelf life for spinach was observed as 3 days and 14 days when stored in LDPE bags with 5% perforation at ambient and cold storage conditions, respectively.
Title: Effect of plant growth regulators and micronutrients on growth and yield of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle) in hasta bahar
Abstract :
Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, famous for quality citrus production and acid lime is one of the important member of citrus group. Regulation of fl owering in Hasta bahar is important for obtaining off
season acid lime fruits. Keeping in view all these considerations, an experiment was carried out to study the eff ect of plant growth regulators (GA3, cycocel and paclobutrazol), KNO3 and micronutrients like zinc and boron on growth and yield of acid lime in Hasta bahar. The study revealed that application of GA3 50 ppm in June + Cycocel 1000 - 2000 ppm, Paclobutrazol 2.5 and 3.5 g a.i. / tree and 1000 - 2000 ppm in September + KNO3 (0.2%), Zinc (0.3%) and Boron (0.1%) in October showed be er performance in
plant height, mean plant spread and canopy volume. Maximum yield was obtained with the application of GAз 50 ppm + Cycocel 2000 ppm + KNOз 0.2% + Zn 0.3% + Boron 0.1%.
Title: Influence of storage temperature on decay loss and microbial quality of stored guava (Psidium Guajava L.)
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out with the objective to find out the effect of modified atmosphere and its duration on pathological parameters of two cvs (Hisar Safeda and Lucknow- 49) of guava (psidium guajava L.). Results showed that the duration of modified atmosphere had significant effect on pathological parameters. There was no decay loss in the fruits up to 4th day of storage and there a erfruit started decaying, which increased with increase in storage period. The minimum decay loss 6% and 7.50% was recorded on 8th day of storage in the fruits stored in modifi ed atmosphere. The decay loss 20.75% and 29.93% was recorded in control fruits in cvs. Hisar safeda and L-49, respectively on
5th day of storage and it reached to 100% on 8th day of storage in both the cvs. Diff erent types of fungi i.e Phoma spp., Penicilium spp., Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum spp. have been identifi ed throughout the storage period that caused decay loss in guava in both the cvs Hisar Safeda and L-49 (Sardar).
Title: Effects of liming, soil moisture regimes and application of sulphur and some micronutrients on soil plant availability of nutrients and yield of rice (Oriza Sativa L) in acid laterite soil
Abstract :
The productivity of wetland rice is constrained by the reduced availability of S and micronutrients like B, Cu, and Zn in acid laterite soils of West Bengal, India. A greenhouse study was conducted using acid laterite (Ultisol, Salboni loam) to evaluate the eff ects of liming, soil moisture regime and application of sulfur, boron, copper and zinc on the availability of applied nutrients, growth and yield of rice. The eff ects of application of lime (2.0 t/ha) over no lime; alternate fl ooding and drying (AFD) over continuous fl ooding (CF) and moisture regime maintained at fi eld capacity (FC); and nutrients viz., S, B, Cu and Zn on growth and yield of rice were assessed. Rice cv. IR 36 was grown with NPK applied @ 60
mg N, 30 mg P2O5 and 30 mg K2O/kg soil. S, B, Cu, and Zn were applied @ 10, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg/kg of soil, respectively. Application of 22.4 kg S, 1.12 kg B, 3.36 kg Cu, and 11.2 kg Zn/ha signifi cantly enhanced the growth and yield of rice over control in acid laterite soil. Yield response of rice to the application of S, B, Cu and Zn was further improved by liming and alternate flooding and drying during the growing season.
Title: Changes in total N in a waterlogged acid soil cropped with rice and subjected to different drying phases
Abstract :
An investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in total N in a waterlogged acid soil subjected to a drying phase at diff erent growth stages (pre-tillering and pre-fl owering) of the rice crop. Total N was estimated by the method of Bremner (1996). Results revealed that irrespective of cropping, drying at pre-blowering stage decreased the loss of total N in acid soil which is not treated with inorganic N. However, in presence of N-fertilizer, the decrease in the amount of total N increased in acid soil. The acid soils that are subjected to a drying phase at pre-fl owering stage of rice crop decreased the total N content in cropped over the uncropped acid soil.
Title: Effect of mulch on soil thermal regimes - A review
Abstract :
Any material spread over the soil to assist soil and water conservation, and increase the productivity of soil is called mulch. The application of diff erent types of mulch to soil is one of the corner stones of agriculture. Mulch may be organic or inorganic/synthetic in nature. Mulches are well-known for modifying the heat/energy and water balance at the surface of soils and creating more favorable conditions for plant growth. Soil thermal regimes can be modifi ed by using diff erent kinds of mulches. Soil temperature is agriculturally more signifi cant than aerial temperature. Extensive research in the past indicates that mulches modify soil hydrothermal regimes in crop root zone, conserve soil moisture, keep down weeds and promote soil productivity. Mulch infl uences the hydrothermal regimes by changing radiation balance, rate of heat and water vapor transfer and heat capacity of soil. However, the magnitude of the desired eff ects depends on the quality, quantity, durability of mulch material, soil type and climatic conditions. In the era of climate change, mulching materials should be extensively used especially under rainfed conditions for soil and moisture/water conservation, temperature moderation, soil health maintenance and finally towards the increased agricultural productivity. The economics and environmental concerns should also be taken into account while selecting the mulch material.
Title: Effect of zinc and organic matter on nutritional composition of seeded rice
Abstract :
A fi eld experiment was conducted to assess the eff ect on nutritional composition of Rice crop and zinc content in plant and post harvest soils a er the application of zinc alone and zinc in combination with
organic ma ers i.e farm yard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and piggery manure (PiM). Zinc was applied at the rate of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 kg ha-1 with 10 t FYM, 5 t PM and 5 t PiM ha-1.
Title: Weed seeds stratification in contrasting soil texture on the bank of river godavari
Abstract :
The experiment was conducted at Central Tobacco Research Institute (CTRI), Rajahmundry, Andra Pradesh, 2013 to investigate the role of soil texture in weed seed germination and eff ect of depth of soil profi le on emergence of weed seeds. The soil samples were collected from 3 places viz. Rajahmundry, Katheru farm under CTRI both belong to East Godavari district and Chainnaigudem village in West Godavari district with sandy, clay and sandy loam in texture respectively. Soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm depth of soil profile using core sampler. Each site represents were approximately 1300 m2 area and 32 samples from 4 depths for every site. So, total 144 samples were collected to conduct the experiment. Germinated weeds identifi ed and counted every week and 10 weeks study was carried out. Sandy, sandy loam and clay soil texture found signifi cant non-linear relationship between weed germination and soil depth. All three places recorded signifi cant interaction between depth and seed germination. Soil depth upto 20 cm recorded maximum weed emergence both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous; however, dicotyledonous weeds recorded more in number than monocotyledon in four consecutive depths. Sandy soil found highest number of germinated weeds than sandy loam and clay texture soils.
Title: Chemical profile and amino acids composition of edible mushroom
Abstract :
Study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of popularly cultivated mushrooms viz., white bu on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus pulmonarius. Both types of mushroom exhibited high moisture, crude protein and amino acid content. The Pleurotus and Agaricus mushrooms contained 3.26% and 1.78% soluble protein, respectively. Further, the qualitative amino acid analysis revealed these proteins to be rich source of essential amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids were qualitatively identifi ed in the fresh samples of both types of mushrooms. The Thin Layer Chromatography separation of amino acids showed that all the nine essential amino acid were present
in Agaricus bisporus whereas, only five are present in Pleurotus pulmonarius. Hence, the supplementation of these mushrooms with cereal diet can help to overcome essential amino acids defi ciency and reduce the post-harvest losses of this high value perishable crop
Title: Isolation and characterization of nitrogen fixing burkholderia Sp.
Abstract :
The bacterium Burkholderia has been isolated from the rhizosphere soils of Mimosa, Lemon, Maize, Sugarcane, Sunfl ower, Rice, Bhendhi, Sunhemp, Co on and Chilly from the diff erent farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Biochemical and physiological characterization was done for the obtained isolates to screen for further studies by using starch hydrolysis, lipid hydrolysis, casein hydrolysis and catalase test, etc. The isolates were checked for their ability to fi x nitrogen by using diff erent medium like BMGM and N free BMGM medium. The isolates were also checked for nitrogenase activity by using gas chromatography. B1 and R1 isolates showed high nitrogenase activity (7.99 and 7.15 n moles of ethylene /hr./mg of cell protein respectively). Total genomic DNA was isolated and PCR with 16S rRNA gene specifi c primers carried out to yields amplicons of 1300 bp size in Burkholderia. The PCR was carried out with specifi c primers of nifH gene primer for selected isolates. It showed that selected four isolates were found to have nifH gene with 400 bp. The present study revealed that some
of the Burkholderia sp. helps in plant growth promoting activities by fi xing nitrogen to enhance the yield of crop plants that can be exploited as bioinoculant in agriculture
Title: Impact of elevated temperature on iron and zinc uptake in rice crop
Abstract :
Climate change associated with rise in temperature has adverse impact on global food production. Rice crop is also aff ected by this rise in atmospheric temperature. An experiment was conducted during the kharif season of year 2013 inside Temperature Gradient Tunnel (TGT) in IARI farm, to study impact of elevated temperature on uptake of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in rice crop. There were 5 diff erent temperature treatments inside the TGT. Two nitrogen (N) doses were applied in all 5 temperature treatments. Results
showed that high temperature stress signifi cantly reduced both grain and biomass yields of rice crop. Grain and biomass yield of rice reduced by 26.6% and 23.5% respectively in treatment with 100% recommended dose of nitrogen. Uptake of Fe and Zn decreased signifi cantly with rise in temperature. Uptake of Fe and Zn in rice grains reduced by 41.5% and 27.3% respectively with rise in temperature by 3.9°C. Reduced yield at higher temperature has resulted in lower micronutrient uptake of the crop. Application of N dose, reduced the harmful eff ect of temperature rise to certain extent.
Title: Potential applications of nanotechnology in major agriculture divisions - A Review
Abstract :
Nanotechnology, a promising interdisciplinary science has already been adopted by various sectors like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and energy. But, recently, agriculture and food science door has been opened up for allowing nanoscience and technology to revolutionize them. Due to small size, large surface to volume ratio, chemical reactivity, enhanced solubility and unique magnetic and optical properties of nanoparticles, the long term positive eff ects on agriculture production including enhanced germination percentage, rapid and accurate gene delivery system, timely and controlled agrochemicals delivery system for be er plant growth and eff ective monitoring of pest and disease occurrence by using nanosensor can be achieved. Additionally, this nanotechnology also helps to increase the span of life, freshness and quality of food by resisting the gas penetration, increasing the tensile strength and enhancing micronutrient and antioxidant absorption through food packaging and preserving nanomaterials. In this paper, recent research, development and potential applications of nanotechnology in major agricultural divisions like crop improvement, crop management, crop protection and food science have been reviewed.
Title: Energy conversion study on cumbu napier CO-4
Abstract :
Agriculture has for several years formed the backbone of Indian economy, contributing approximating 30.2% of the gross domestic product employing over 77% of the population above 10 years of age (Surajit, 2012). Developing countries like India produce large quantities of agro-residues such as rice husks, bagasse, groundnut shells, co
Title: Design, development and field evaluation of manually operated rice transplanter for system of rice intensification
Abstract :
A 2-row plug type rice transplanter with revolving magazine metering mechanism was developed and fi eld evaluated for rice (Oryza sativa) crop. The seedlings of rice crop were grown in paper pot (80GSM). Plug technology was developed for the effi cient production of high-quality seedlings for transplanting. Seedling parameters like root length, plant height, stem thickness and stem width and machine parameters like plant to plant spacing, planting depth, field capacity, field effi ciency, total time of operation, speed of operation were recorded during fi eld evaluation. The cost and time saved over manual transplanting without considering paddy seed cost was about 59.9 and 79.85 per cent. The cost of transplanting with considering seed cost was ` 3101 h-1. The fi eld effi ciency and fi eld capacity of the transplanter was observed to be 83.22 % and 0.014 ha h-1 respectively.
Title: Soil moisture distribution under different lateral and dripper spacing of surface drip irrigation system in clay loam soil
Abstract :
The status, availability and distribution of moisture distribution within a crop’s root zone aff ect the yield and growth of crops. To increase the effi ciency of the water use while reducing water losses due to evaporation, the precise distribution of water around the emi
Title: Farmers perception, knowledge and attitude towards Biotech (GM) crops at Agrowon AgriExpo – A survey.
Abstract :
Public including farmers perceptions about Biotech Crops (GM crops ) is infl uenced by a broad range of issues, including environmental safety, ethics, cultural diversity, political environment, educational status, religious conviction, legal repercussions, economic gain, and socioeconomic impact. The present survey was done to spread the awareness about GM crops and Agriculture Biotechnology among the farmers and to know the extent of farmer’s perception, knowledge, readiness and support for genetically
modifi ed crops and biotechnological applications. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted with randomly selected 173 farmer respondents. The results of the survey revealed that the farmers are ready to adopt GM crops for plantation as it off ers improved yield in low production cost and would like to promote the GM food to the consumers, but combined appropriate policies, awareness and communications strategy, eff ective regulatory system is need of time to cope with the ever-increasing misconception spread by the anti-GM lobby without any scientifi c background. GM crops concerns coined by the anti-GM crops sightseer visited to the “Agri Biotechnology and GM crop awareness” stall at Agrowon AgriExpo - 2014 were noted and satisfactory scientifically based answers were given. The finding of the study can help policymakers for designing the GM crop awareness system considering the farmers interest.
Title: Efficiency of conservation agriculture: Evidences from wheat farms in Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
India is the second largest producer of wheat in the world and U ar Pradesh is the largest wheatgrowing state in the country. The major challenge to wheat production in the state is the enhancing of
its productivity and profi tability. Adoption of zero tillage technique is one such step in this direction. The paper has compared the economics and effi ciency of wheat production in U ar Pradesh with zero tillage (ZT) adopters and non-adopters and assessed the contribution of technology and inputs to the increased productivity due to zero tillage for the years 2013-14. For the study, CACP cost concept and Cob-Douglas production function were used to fi nd out the economics and effi ciency of wheat in zero till system. The result indicates that the net return was found 80 % higher in case of adopters than nonadopters. The study has also observed that ZT technology has potential to provide additional income to farmers and help in conservation of scarce resources. The resource use effi ciency analysis showed that zero tillage adoption saved machine labour and seed than under conventional method.
Title: An economic analysis of farm risk under water stress production environment in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
Agriculture is the single largest private sector occupation and is also considered to be the riskiest business since it mostly depends on the vagaries of nature. It is important for all decision makers to
know the degree of risk involved in each activity. Once the risk corresponding to an a ainable level of expected return is known, depending on the risk taking ability, diff erent farm plans having diff erent level of risk can be taken up by diff erent farmer. In this context, the present study a empts to analyze the agricultural production risk in Namakkal district because of the availability of dry farms. In this
study, survey was conducted in four blocks of the same district. The overall objective of the study is to analyze the farm risk to derive optimal input use and optimal cropping pa ern under the conditions
of risk by an appropriate risk programming models. In the case of cost of cultivation of selected crops, total cost was high i.e. ` 62208 for banana and followed by tomato i.e. ` 38976. Banana and tomato
generated higher returns viz. ` 97976 and ` 49516 when compared to maize and groundnut. The results of quadratic production function concluded that when risk level increases, optimum quantity of inputs
used for the production was decreased. The results showed that even though decline trend in income, the resources which were used in the cultivation as an effi ciency factor