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Title: Enhancement of Growth and Yield Parameters of Wheat Variety AAI-W6 by an Organic Farm Isolate of Plant Growth Promoting Erwinia Species (KP226572)
Abstract :

Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) play an important role in agricultural production and soil fertility. Wheat is a highly consumed cereal food crop of the world population and sustainable wheat productivity achieved by the application of bacterium in combination with NPK is promising. In the present study bacterial isolate (PR6) from soil of organic farm was included. The isolate (PR6) was screened for its morphological, biochemical and plant growth promoting characteristics, sequenced by 16S rDNA method and submitted to NCBI for the confirmation of strain identification. Further, the inoculation effect of the bacterial isolate in combination with NPK on growth and yield parameters of wheat var. AAI-W6 were analysed. The isolate (PR6) was identified as Erwinia sp. with NCBI Accession No. KP226572. The organism possessed multiple plant growth promoting (MPGP) traits such as production of ammonia, siderophore, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ACC Deaminase (ACCD) and showed phosphate solubilization activity. The organism was found tolerant to 10% salt, wide range of pH 5- 9, higher levels of trace elements and heavy metals and possessed resistant to multiple antibiotics. Inoculation of wheat variety AAI-W6 with the Erwinia species showed significant increase in seed germination and enhancement in elongation of root and shoot compared to untreated control. The combined application of PGPB (Erwinia sp.) along with NPK treatments showed similar significant results in all growth and yield parameters of wheat. This study is the first report on the beneficial effects of organic farm isolated Erwinia-NPK treatment combinations on sustainable wheat productivity.

Title: In silico analysis of the germin like protein multigene family members of tomato with predicted oxalate oxidase activity
Abstract :

Germins and germin like proteins (GLPs) have been reported as plant glycoproteins belonging to the superfamily. They have been documented to possess enzymatic activities leading to the generation of H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, members of the GLP family have been proposed to play major role in plant disease resistance through ROS-mediated signaling. Interestingly, the functional characterization of GLP(s) in terms of their suitability as a key player in plant disease resistance has remained under-explored in case of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.). In the present study, 15 tomato GLPs, predicted to have oxalate oxidase activity, have been investigated in silico. Deduced multiple amino acid sequence alignment-based clustering of these proteins was carried out to classify them into 3 sub-families. All the proteins were found to contain the conserved amino acid stretches, representing the BoxA, B and C, and an inter-motif region of variable length. It was observed through homology modeling and structural alignment that the active sites of all except 3 of these proteins have Mn2+ bound at the active site involving the three conserved histidine and one conserved glutamate residue(s). The active site architecture was analyzed with a comparative view in order to examine the metal binding capacity of tomato GLPs. Thus the present work makes a platform for further genetic, molecular biological and functional genomics studies in the field of tomato GLPs, the possible key players for conferring biotic and/or abiotic stress tolerance, in future.

Title: Non-linear optimization model for border irrigation system for wheat crop (Triticum aestivum)
Abstract :

Nonlinear optimization design models were developed for field conditions to design and manage border irrigation system using Lewis-Kostiakov infiltration equation. The design criterion used in the models was the depth of irrigation and basic infiltration rate of the soil. The objective function of the nonlinear model was constructed on the basis of a relationship between net returns and water application efficiency. The design variables of the models were the inflow rate, length of run, cutoff time, number of borders per set and number of sets. The nonlinear model gives a better representation of the design parameters and is more flexible because it permits easy changes in the objective function.

Title: Soil risk assessment of heavy metal contamination near Oil Refinery area, Northeastern India
Abstract :

The present paper aims to maps Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentration and assess the hazard in the soils of surrounding agricultural fields affected by oil refinery drainage of Digboi refinery of Tinsukia district, Assam using statistics, geostatistics and GIS techniques. The amounts of Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb were determined from 97 samples collected within the contaminated area. Among the heavy metals studied, the mean concentration of Pb was high. The greatest and the smallest standard deviation were observed in the Ni (44.1) and pH (0.47), respectively. Analysis of the isotropic variogram indicated that the Cr and Cd semivariograms were well described with the circular model, with the distance of spatial dependence being 1240 and 1022 m, respectively, while the Pb and Ni were well describe with Gaussain model, with the distance of spatial dependence being 1930 and 2321 m, respectively. The ordinary kriging maps of Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb showed that high concentrations of heavy metals were located in the low lying area. Indicator kriged probability maps of soil Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb were prepared based on the concentrations to exceed the respective Food and Agriculture Organization maximum permissible limit (MPL) value of 100, 3, 30 and 50 mg kg−1, respectively. It was seen that whole studied area had a higher than 0.99% probability to exceed the MPL value of Pb. About 10% area of the study site was having higher concentration than MPL value of Cd and Ni concentrated at the centre and north-west corner of the study area, respectively.

Title: Response of baramasi lemon to various post-harvest treatments
Abstract :

Baramasi lemon is an attractive fruit for its unique flavor and acidity. Harvesting period of winter crop of Baramasi lemon coincides with the cooler part of the year and there is low consumption of lemon fruits during winters, which leads to the glut in the market. Baramasi lemons are sensitive to chilling injury and it is difficult to store in the commercial cold stores. So, there is a need to enhance the shelf-life of Baramasi lemon fruits at ambient conditions. Keeping this in view, an experiment was conducted during 2014 to study the effect of chemicals and modified atmosphere packaging on the storage life and quality of Baramasi lemon fruits. Mature green Baramasi lemon fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested and treated with gibberellic acid (25, 50 &75 ppm), boric acid (1, 2 and 3%) and sodium benzoate (2, 3 and 4%) and packed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. Fruit were analyzed for various physico-chemical characteristics after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of storage. Results revealed that minimum spoilage and total soluble solids (TSS) and maximum physiological weight loss reduction, palatability rating, acidity were recorded in gibberellic acid @ 75 ppm + LDPE packaging during the entire storage period. It can be concluded that gibberellic acid @ 75 ppm along with LDPE packaging was found to be most effective in extending the post-harvest life of Baramasi lemon fruits at ambient conditions for 60 days.

Title: Identification of prediction model on population build up of Singhiella pallida Singh on Piper betle L. for timely intervention
Abstract :

Whitefly Singhiella pallida Singh is an important pest of betelvine, Piper betle L. infesting the crop throughout the year. The temperature played a crucial role in the population build up of the pest. The moderate temperature falling between 16°C to 20°C was found very much conducive for pest population development. However, relative humidity had a little role in population build up of the pest as compared to temperature. In contrary, rainfall was found detrimental to it. Prajneshu growth model was found to be most suitable non-linear growth model for prediction of the pest population build up. The 48th standard week was identified as the optimum time for intervention through insecticidal application as a prophylactic measures to check the peak pest population; supposed to be attained at the 52nd standard week as evidenced from pattern of population growth.

Title: In vitro multiplication of madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre Retz.)
Abstract :

Study was conducted for the in vitro multiplication of madhunashini by using immature seeds as explants. Immature seeds were cultured directly on to media containing different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin. Germination of seeds into plantlets was observed in the media containing cytokinins, however, the seeds cultured on media containing auxins at the expense of plantlet formation produced callus. Cent per cent of the explants responded when inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing Benzylaminopurine (BAP - 1.0 mg l-1), Kinetin (Kn - 0.5 mg l-1, 1.0 mg l-1 and 2.0 mg l-1) and BAP + Kn (1.0+1.0 mg l-1). Height of plantlet (19.74 mm) was significantly higher in MS media supplemented with BAP 0.5 mg l-1. Maximum number of leaves (3.12) were produced on MS media supplemented with Kn 2.0 mg l-1. Nodal explants obtained from in vitro seedlings when cultured on the media containing cytokinins induced proliferation of shoots. Number of shoots (5.50) produced and length of shoot (18.53 mm) was found to be maximum at lower concentrations of BAP 1.0 mg l-1 and Kn 0.5 mg l-1. Leaves from in vitro seedlings when used as explants and cultured on media with cytokinins did not show any response.

Title: Molecular modeling and docking approach to predict the potential interacting partners of AtMAPK3P with the members of bZIP transcription factor family in Arabidopsis
Abstract :

Protein-protein interaction plays key role in predicting the protein function of target protein thus the identification of PPIs is of primary importance. The  in vitro  and  in vivo  methods have their own limitations, thus  in silico  methods which include structure-based approaches were developed. In this research work, we endeavor to identify the downstream interaction partners of (AtMAPK3P) in Arabidopsis thaliana using the docking approach. The results of our study revealed that out of 73 bZIP members of Arabidopsis thaliana 47 members are showing interaction with AtMAPK3P. Elucidation of protein interaction networks also contributes greatly to the analysis of signal transduction pathways. Recent developments along with the results obtained essentially enhance our knowledge of the MAPK interacting protein network and provide a valuable research resource for developing a nearly important link between pathogen-activated MAPK signaling pathways and downstream transcriptional programming.

Title: Qualities of lemongrass (Cymbopogan citratus) essential oil at different drying conditions
Abstract :

Cymbopogon citratus is widely used in nutraceutical industries due to its strong lemony odor for its high content of the aldehyde citral and small quantities of geraniol, geranyl acetate and monoterpene olefins. Present studies were conducted to estimate the essential oil at different drying condition viz., sun-drying, shade-drying and oven-drying and analyzed for physicochemical properties (acid value, saponification value and iodine value). The maximum essential oil (3.05%) recovered in oven drying method while, the minimum saponification value (142.59 mgKOH/g) was recorded in sun drying method, however, the minimum acid value (4.14 mgKOH/g) and iodine value (114.31gI 2/100g) were recorded in shade drying method. The essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS instruments and identified eleven different components. Among the components identified, geranial (citral-a), neral (citral-b), caryophellene and limonene were found major components in the lemongrass essential oils.

Title: Progeny analysis of transgenic rice variety transformed with Glyoxalase I gene
Abstract :

Salinity is one of the major yields limiting factor that limit the worldwide productivity and distribution of cereal crops and the development of genetically engineered plants with enhanced tolerance to salt presents an important tool to increase the productivity. We introduced glyI (glyoxalase I) gene from Brassica Juncea into rice variety PR116 through particle bombardment for salt tolerance. Integration and expression analysis in T0 and T1 generations were confirmed through Polymerase chain reaction and in vitro screening for salt tolerance. In this study we confirmed the integration and expression of gene (glyI) in next two generation (T2, T3) through Polymerase Chain Reaction and methylglyoxal experiment. Expression of glyoxalase I gene was induced by different concentrations of methylglyoxal treatment and most of the transgenic lines were highly tolerant to methylglyoxal and showed high chlorophyll content after 72 h of treatment.

Title: Risk analysis of profenofos on tomato in poly house and open fields and risk mitigation methods for removal of profenofos residues from tomato for food safety.
Abstract :

Profenofos is a broad spectrum foliar insecticide and acaricide with contact and systemic action, widely used on tomato in India for the management of sap sucking insects and mites. Profenofos is not registered for use in India on tomato, and hence Maximum Residue Limits are not available as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. However, use of profenofos in poly house and open fields is very common, and hence profenofos residues are found in market samples. A research project was taken to study dissipation pattern of profenophos 50% EC in both open fields and poly houses, when applied twice @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, first spray at fruit initiation followed by second spray at 10 days interval as per the farmers practice. Profenofos residues were quantified through regular sampling till the residues are below determination level (BDL) of 0.05 mg kg-1 following the validated QuEChERS method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of profenofos was performed on GC-FPD and GC-MSMS (TQD). Initial deposits of 3.25 mg kg-1 were detected in tomato samples collected from poly house, which dissipated to BDL by 15th day with half-life of 2.43 days. In open fields, deposits of 1.51 mg kg-1 dissipated to BDL by 7th day with half-life of 1.55 days, indicates that dissipation is slow in poly house compared to open fields due to various factors, and in both situations initial deposits are lower than the MRL (10 mg kg-1) of Codex Alimentarius Commission hence a pre-harvest interval of 1 day is recommended. MRL of 7 mg kg-1 in poly house tomato and 3 mg kg-1 in open field tomato is recommended based on the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) calculator and chronic hazard exposure assessment taking into consideration of average body weight, national per capita tomato consumption and acceptable daily intake (ADI) of profenofos. Among various decontamination methods tested, veggy wash found to be very effective in removing profenofos residues to an extent of 75.84% which can be recommended as risk mitigation method for food safety, followed by 4% acetic acid solution (71.22%) and tap water wash was least effective (37.60%) in removing profenofos residues from tomato.

Title: Testing of catchment module of integrated reservoir-based canal irrigation model for kangsabati irrigation project
Abstract :

Bhadra, (2007) developed Integrated reservoir based canal irrigation model (IRCIM). It consist of catchment, reservoir, crop water demand modules. In this study, IRCIM was applied on Kangsabati irrigation project, West Bengal, India for period of 1998 to 2003. Runoff was predicted using two techniques namely, Distributed SCS Curve Number (CN) with Muskingum routing and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Backpropogation techniques available in catchment module. Distributed SCS CN method requires subbasin information, land cover characteristics, overland and channel information and daily rainfall on subbasin, whereas ANN method requires daily rainfall and runoff values. Catchment module was calibrated and validated using performance criteria modelling efficiency (ME) and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). ANN technique of runoff prediction involves extensive training of the network, where the unpredictable correlation of rainfall and runoff is also been taken into consideration which is not possible for conceptual model such as SCS CN method. Thus, results showed that for Kangsabati reservoir catchment, runoff values, predicted using ANN result in better match with observed runoff values compared to semi-distributed conceptual SCS CN method.

Title: Verticillium lecani (Zimm.): A potential entomopathogenic fungus
Abstract :

Development of insect resistance and risk to the environment due to indiscriminate use of conventional chemical pesticides for insect pest management favored the introduction of one of the new alternatives as biological control. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the most versatile biological control agents for sustainable management. The most considerable fungal species are Metarhizium spp., Beauveria spp., Nomuraea rileyi, Verticillium lecanii and Hirsutella spp. Out of these fungi, V, lecanii are opportunistic and widely distributed ascomycete fungi that has the ability to cause mycosis in a number of insects of orders Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. V. lecanii are easy to mass produce, store and are effective over a wide range of temperatures and humidity levels. It also provides a rapid kill at optimum doses and the fungus has been recently commercialized as a microbial agent for pest management. It has the additional features to produce extracelullar enzymes, such as chitinases which helps in promoting host colonization. It also shows compatibility with commonly used agrochemicals such as insecticides or fungicides and other biocontrol agents. Because of these numerous advantages, it can be considered as a potential biocontrol agent’s in integrated pest management.

Title: Germination profile of babul (Acacia Nilotica) under different salinity conditions
Abstract :

Babul (Acacia nilotica) is an important multipurpose, leguminous tree species, grown widely under agroforestry systems in India, Middle-East Asia, and Africa. It is an important source of fodder, fuel, timber, gum and medicines. The salinity tolerance ability of Babul in 15 provenances (Sagar, Jabalpur, Raipur, Nagpur, Akola, Khandwa, Ujjain, Shajapur, Bhopal, Guna, Jhansi, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Rewari, Karnal) were investigated using petri dishes and poly bags. The solutions of different compound like sodium chloride, sodium bi-cardonate, calcium chioride, magnesium sulphate and calcium sulphate was prepared with five level of salinity concentration, which have electrical conductivity of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 dSm-1, respectively. Among the five doses of salinity, the highest does EC 15 dSm-1 was found most deleterious to the seed germination of Babul in all the provenances. Out of 15, ten provenances had more than 50% reduction in germination at EC 9.0 dSm-1. Akola, Khandawa, Guna and Jaipur provenances were least affected by the increased level of salinity under both the test i.e., petri dishes and poly bags and hence these provenances may be called as most tolerant to salinity.

Title: Development and optimization of pyrolysis unit for producing charcoal
Abstract :

The Developed system is designed to produce the charcoal from biomass samples like Jatropha seed husk, Melia Dubia and Prosopis juliflora. The technology adopted is hybrid by combining both direct and indirect method of heating the biomass based on pyrolysis. The temperature is in the range of 300 °C to 500 °C. In results of the proximate analysis showed the fixed carbon content is increased in this pyrolysis unit charcoal whereas biomass sample and existing pyrolysis unit charcoal showed lower fixed carbon content. The charcoal yield efficiency is 34.84% whereas in conventional method of charcoal making the charcoal yield efficiency is about 20%. The mass and energy closure were found to be 72.72% and 80.30%.

Title: Kinetics of mitrogen mineralization in sewage amended soil
Abstract :

A laboratory experiment was carried out at, Jaunpur (25°18’ N, 83°03’ S) to study the kinetics of N mineralization in sewage amended soils. Four different agricultural fields viz., A, B, C and D which has been receiving sewage for irrigation since last five or more years were selected for study. The three replicate of each treatment were incubated at room temperature (25°C) for 7 weeks. The soils were brought to field capacity by addition of distilled water. The subsamples (10g) were withdrawn from each sample after every week interval and extracted immediately with 100 ml of 2 M KC1 solution and N was determined. The fitness of the model for mineralization study was tested by least square method and the mineralization rate constant (K) and half-life (t1/2) were calculated from fitted model. It was observed that, the highest mineralized N (121.20 mg/kg) was observed in soil receiving sewage continuously while lowest in N mineralized 112.80 mg/kg was observed in soil receiving less amount of sewage. Estimated mineralization rate content ‘K’ in four soils was 0.44, 0.38, 0.10 and 0.43 and correlation coefficient were 0.99, 0.98, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. The study revealed that, nitrogen mineralization was increased with increasing period of incubation with rapid increase during 2-4 weeks of incubation. First order model of kinetics was best suited for nitrogen mineralization in sewage amended soil under study.

Title: Polymerase chain reaction based detection of banana bunchy top virus using coat protein based primers
Abstract :

Banana Bunchy Top virus (BBTV) is a virus seriously affecting banana cultivation. Primers were designed for the amplification of coat protein gene for the diagnosis of BBTV in the commonly grown banana cultivars of Kerala, India, viz., Red Banana (AAA), Palayankodan (AAB), Dwarf Cavendish (AAA), Motta Poovan (AAB) and Ney Poovan (AB). PCR detection using these primers at an early stage can aid in disease free planting material production.

Title: Biology of the papaya mealybug, paracoccus marginatus williams and granara de willink (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)
Abstract :

The mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink completed 11generation in a year, 8 during March to October and 3 during November to February. The female and male nymphs completed development in 12.02 ± 4.44 to 17.92± 3.49 and 17.2 ± 3.00 to 21.25± 3.12 days respectively at during March to October, 21.59 ± 3.32 to 22.60 ± 4.49 and 22.81± 3.41 to 30.77 ± 2.38 days respectively during winter. The male and female ratio ranged from 1:1.20 to 1:3.41. Maximum oviposition period, minimum fecundity and maximum incubation period are 9 to 18, 108-154 and 9 days respectively in winter. Their mode of reproduction is entirely sexually. Life cycle is completed in 41 (maximum) and 27 (minimum) days during December- January and May respectively.

Title: In vitro evaluation of plant growth regulators on tissue culture bioassay produced by Pseudomonas species
Abstract :

Fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. is emerging as largest and potentially most promising group of PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) that are involved in plant growth enhancement. Plant growth regulators viz., auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins help in plant growth and development. In present study, fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from rhizospheric soil from temperate fruit zone of Himachal Pradesh were investigated for plant growth regulator production i.e. auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins in nutrient broth. All the strains tested produced plant growth regulators in concentrations auxins (1.83-21μg/ml), gibberellins (116.1-485.8μg/ml) and cytokinins (45.4-295.4μg/ml). Two strains (An-1-kul and An-13-kul) were selected on the basis of over all PGPR activities for production of growth regulators. Molecular characterization of best selected Pseudomonas strains were done by 16S-rRNA technique. Plant growth regulators produced by best isolates were further studied to observe their effect on growth of callus formation, shoot formation of broccoli and root elongation of cabbage

Title: Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Fingerprinting of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Abstract :

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere, which can improve the extent or quality of plant growth directly or indirectly. However, screening strategies for selecting the best rhizobacteria strain for rhizosphere competence with other microbial species in the plant rhizosphere will require more comprehensive knowledge. In the present investigation nine different strains were tested for their PGPR properties by using RFLP analysis on 16S rRNA gene or amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). 16 S rDNA amplification was done and restriction profiling was done using two endonucleases i.e. msp1 and taq1. Depending upon banding pattern of all the nine strains dendrogram was created using NTsys software. A clear-cut difference was seen in genetic diversity among the strains. Pseudomonas was found to be the most effective strain among all. Depending upon the outcome we can conclude that ARDRA can be an effective tool for analyzing the genetic diversity among different bacteria and PGPR starin e.g. Pseudomonas, Bacillus can be used as a potent biofertilizer.

Title: Use of proximal hypocotyl segment for high-through put  transgenic development of tomato
Abstract :

Achieving high-throughput and efficientregenerationare the top priorities of any Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation experiments to develop large numbers of in vitrotransformants. The type of explant plays a critical role in shoot regeneration efficiency. In the present investigation, an attempt was made tostudy the effect of various segments of hypocotyl and abaxial/adaxial orientation of cotyledon explants on regeneration efficiency in tomato.A plant transformation vector,pGRNAi-harboringdsRNAexpressing constructstargeted totwo genes of Helicoverpaarmigera,serine proteaseand chymotrypsinindependently wereused totransformtomato.Of the three segments of hypocotylsobtained from 12 day old seedlings, the proximal (closest to shoot apex) segment hadyielded highest regeneration (28.65%)compared to the middle (11.86%)and the distal segments (11.20%).In cotyledon explants,those incubated with their abaxial surface in contact with media exhibited highest regeneration (20.83%) compared to adaxially placed cotyledon explants. However, of the two-explant types, hypocotyls had higher regeneration compared to cotyledons. The molecular characterization of putative transformants through PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of the transgene. Thus, these results will aid in obtaining high-throughput regeneration in transformation of tomato in particular and other crops in general.

Title: Inheritance of resistance in indica rice cultivar HUR 4-3 against bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)
Abstract :

The mode of inheritance of resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain BXO1 and BX043 wild type of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice was studied in six generations of crosses of cultivars HUR 4-3 into PB-1460. The resistance cultivars PB-1460 showed 4.54% disease severity, while susceptible cultivar HUR 4-3 showed 53.01% disease severity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) of resistance cultivar was 65.61 which are significantly less than the susceptible cultivar 649.90. The F1 plants were observed to be resistant with an average disease severity 08.87% and AUDPC 110.26. The F2 populations were classified in to four distinct classes on their genotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 and phenotypically these populations were grouped in two distinct classes resistant and susceptible with their ratio of 13:3, respectively. However, B1 and B2 populations were classified in to two distinct classes as resistant (Resistant/ moderately resistant) and susceptible (moderately susceptible/ susceptible) in the ratio of genotypic 1:1:1:1 and 1:1 and phenotypically 1:1 and 1:0, respectively. The disease resistance occurs in the population is mainly due to cumulative effects of dominant and recessive two resistant genes i.e., Xa21 and xa13. Chi-square analysis of the population was confirm the inheritance of resistance with their value are 1.24 and 0.66 indicating that the observed data are in line with expected ratio and follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf blight in B1 and B2 generations and modification in the Mendelian ratio of inheritance in the F2 populations, it showed inhibitory gene action i.e., 13:3 that means dominant gene have cumulative effect of recessive gene.

Title: Response of land configurations, IW/CPE ratios and integrated nutrient supply systems on growth function, yield and water use efficiency of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PDR-14)
Abstract :

Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive years of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Agronomy Research Farm of NDUA&T, Faizabad (UP.) India to study the response of land configurations, IW/CPE ratios and integrated supply systems on growth function, yield and nutrient study of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under indo-gangetic eastern plains zone of Uttar Pradesh. Significant increase was observed for plant height, number of branches and dry matter accumulation per plant at 60 and 90 days after sowing and at harvest under 1.0 IW/CPE moisture regime nourished with 75% RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25% N through biocompost at raised bed configuration. Higher growth attributes resulted maximum yield and yield attributes of French bean with sowing at raised beds, application of 75% RDF+25% N through biocompost and IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 as compared to rest of the treatments. Increasing moisture regimes decreased the water use efficiency and it was highest under sowing on raised beds, moisture regime at 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and 75 % RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25 % N through biocompost nutrient supply system. Higher yields of French bean was obtained with treatment combinations of sowing on raised beds, moisture regime at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio and 75 % RDF through chemical fertilizers + 25 % N through biocompost and it was most remunerative and sustainable under Indo-gangetic plains of UP.

Title: An in vitro and ex vivo Study on Antioxidant Activity of Coriander Seeds
Abstract :

The antioxidant activity of extracts of different polarity from seeds of Local variety of Coriandrum sativum was assessed via both in vitro and ex vivo models. Results indicate that hexane extract of coriander exhibited no appreciable effects at either of the concentrations in all the three in vitro free radical scavenging models i.e. hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical. Instead, it showed pro-oxidant activity at higher concentrations. Whereas methanol: hexane extracts of coriander were found to be ineffective in quenching hydroxyl radical but revealed only moderate activity in quenching superoxide radical (EC50=711.81 μg/ml) and nitric oxide radical (EC50=569.02 μg/ml). Only methanolic extract of Local variety offered strong antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner for the same three free radicals with EC50 of 18.33 µg/ml, 553.50 µg/ml and 179.53 µg/ml respectively. Even in vitro linoleic acid peroxidation model proved methanolic extract of coriander (80% inhibition till 48 h) to be far better than standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (70% inhibition till 12 h). EC50 and SC50 for ex vivo linoleic acid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate and erythrocytes were recorded as 383.10 µg/ml and 166.78 µg/ml respectively. The methanolic extract of Local variety was further evaluated for its protective effect on osmotic fragility and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes at various time intervals (24-96 h). The decrease in% hemolysis and protection of activities of antioxidant enzymes even for 96 h of incubation in test groups supplemented with coriander proved indubitably, the effectiveness of methanolic coriander extract in alleviating protective mechanisms.

Title: Characteristics of spray dried dahi powder with maltodextrin as an adjunct
Abstract :

This study investigated the effect of adding as a complementary drying aid of maltodextrin (MD) on spray drying of dahi powder. Dahi powders were prepared by curd adding with maltodextrin (MD) drying aid at 5%, 7.5%, 10, and 12.5% level before spray drying by maintaining with outlet air temperature and blower speed being 70oC and 2200 rpm, respectively. The survival rate of lactobacilli during spray drying of dahi powder were investigated such as 0.62% shows maximum at 7.5% maltodextrin (MD) drying aid. Tests were conducted to evaluate the powder properties relevant to physical, chemical and reconstituted properties of the spry dried dahi powder. Results showed addition of 7.5% maltodextrin (MD) aid could significantly increases the product yield for the spry drying process of dahi powder and the consumer acceptable also. At the same time values of lightness, wet ability, water solubility index, viscosity, bulk density, dispersibility and total solids increases with increasing the maltodextrin (MD) aid. Moisture content, acidity and hygroscopicity decreases with increasing maltodextrin (MD) aid in spry dried dahi powder but the values of pH and acidity remain constant during spry drying process by increasing maltodextrin (MD) aid. The flavour of reconstituted dahi samples improves as the maltodextrin content increases may be due to more acetaldehyde retention in the samples. Addition of maltodextrin (MD) aid also improves the sensory properties and overall acceptability of reconstituted spry dried dahi powder.

Title: Phosphate solubilizing efficiency of Mycopesticides
Abstract :

In the present investigation, plant growth promoting activities of mycopesticides (beneficial mycopesticides or biological control fungi) viz. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Beauveria and Metarhizium were assessed. Their efficacy for the growth enhancement of Groundnut was investigated through laboratory as well as by pot studies. Results of In vitro studies have shown their higher potential of P-solubilization these fungi. In the experiment, two native cultures and five fungal isolates (procured from MTCC) were used. P solubilization ability of the test mycopesticides have shown good solubilization zones by the PlA isolate on PKVK agar. Not only this, TvA and ThM has also shown good P solubilizing zone on PKVK medium - supplemented with rose bengal dye. In liquid culture medium, ThM showed the highest P solubilizing ability (309.33 µμg/ ml). HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the presence of organic acids in the culture supernatant of promising cultures. TvM showed presence of pyruvic acid, formic acid, orotic acid, citric acid and butyric acid. Efficacy of mycopesticides in pots study as PGP has revealed seed treatment as the best one, but recommended fertilizer was found significantly superior than all mycopesticides treatments. Amongst mycopesticides, Trichoderma spp. proved to be the best followed by Paecilomyces. Beauveria in most cases remained at par with Paecilomyces but was inferior to Trichoderma. Metarhizium was better than control but was inferior to other fungal treatments. Efforts clearly indicated that mycopesticides can significantly enhance groundnut growth and production as a plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) proving their dual ability.

Title: Effect of Fertilizer Levels, FYM and Bioinoculants on Soil Properties in Inceptisol of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.) to study the effect of fertilizer levels, FYM and bioinoculants and their interaction effect on soil properties. The treatments consisted four levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (0, 50, 75 and 100% NPK), two levels of farmyard manure (0, 10 t ha-1) and four inoculation [no inoculation, PGPR (Azotobactor chroococum W5 + Azospirillum brasilence Cd+ Pseudomonas fluorescens BHU PSB06 + Bacillus megaterium BHU PSB14), VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) and PGPR+VAM]. The experiment was replicated thrice in a split plot design. The results revealed that the application of different treatments did not affect the pH, EC and bulk density decreased, water holding capacity, organic carbon and CEC significantly improved after harvest of wheat. The dehydrogenase, phosphatase enzyme activity and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and available N, P and K and microbial population of soil after the harvest of wheat were improved significantly due to the integration of inorganic fertilizers with FYM and bioinoculants. Positive impact of biological and organic manure application have been recorded with an additional advantage of the reduction of chemical fertilizer use.

Title: Influence of ethylene inhibitor on shoot organogenesis and regeneration in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid)
Abstract :
Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone (phytohormone) that play an important role on in vitro shoot morphogenesis in many plant species. The aim of the present investigation was to critically analyse the role of an ethylene inhibitor i.e. silver nitrate (AgNO3) on shoot organogenesis in sugarcanecvs.CoJ 83 and CoH 119. Different concentrations of silver nitrate were tested in the medium: 1 mgl-1, 3 mgl-1, 5 mgl-1 and 10 mgl-1. Genotypic dependence was observed between cvs. CoJ 83 and CoH 119 with different concentrations of AgNO3 tested in the medium. Among the varying concentrations (1–10 mgl-1) of silver nitrate tested, percentage of leaf roll segments responding were improved giving highest number of shoots per explant on MS medium + Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA; 5 mgl-1) + Kinetin (Kin; 0.5 mgl-1) + AgNO3 (3 mgl-1) in cv. CoJ 83 and on MS medium + NAA (5.5 mgl-1) + Kin (0.5 mgl-1) + AgNO3 (5 mg-1). The number of shoots formed per explant increased to two-fold and the shoot length was also increased as compared to control. Data recorded on the number of roots and root length also showed a significant increase over the control in both the varieties.
Title: Detection of genetic diversity in Lathyrus sativus L. using RAPD marker system
Abstract :

Lathyrus sativus L. (Grasspea) is a protein rich pulse crop. Enough information about genetic diversity of Lathyrus germplasm is needed to improve this crop. Molecular characterization is one of the tools to identify the hidden genetic diversity. The present study was undertaken to reveal the genetic diversity in a set of 20 grasspea genotypes using RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) marker system. For the 15 primers, various efficiency parameters that include Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), Marker Index (MI), Resolving Power (RP) and Diversity Index (DI) were studied. Finally Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and dendrogram was perfomed to find out the genetic diversity among the germplasm. The screened RAPD markers will facilitate further studies in population genetics and utilization of this crop.

Title: Biolistic transformation of cry 1Ac gene in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
Abstract :

Among different explants, cotyledon showed highest regeneration and number of buds per explant on all media combinations. However, highest regeneration potential was observed on MS fortified with 3.0 mgl-1 BAP (80.36%), but number of buds per explant were highest (21.76) on MS media supplemented with 2.5 mgl-1 BAP+ 1.0 mgl-1 Kin. Plant regeneration of cotyledons was completely checked with a selection pressure of 15ppm to 25ppm hygromycin for untranformed explants. But the selection efficacy of transformed tissue was 19.56% with 20ppm and 66.66% with 15 ppm hygromycin. GUS gene was expressed in 76.92% bombarded explants with 2 to 7 GUS spots per explant confirming the presence of transformed tissue. GUS gene was also visualized in 66.66% regenerated shoots from bombarded tissue. PCR analysis of putative transgenic eggplant plants with the specific primers confirmed the presence of Cry1Ac gene with 1.2 KB product size (falling between 1KB and 2KB bands of 10KB DNA ladder) in two of the four plants.

Title: Seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes in North India
Abstract :

Brucellosis is an infectious disease characterized by abortion and infertility in several mammalian species including buffaloes, and is one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. The objective of present study was to establish the seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes in North India and to know the exact causal species of Brucella organism. A total of 160 serum samples were analyzed. The seroprevalence of Brucellosis was 4.38% and 7.50% by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT), respectively. Seroprevalence was zero by both RBPT and STAT in organized dairy farm while in unorganized sector, 5.04 and 8.63% by RBPT and STAT, respectively. Age-wise seroprevalence was higher in 4.5 to 6 years old buffaloes than younger. Area-wise seroprevalence was higher in Satwari block of study area. On screening of 20 milk samples from serological positive and doubtful buffaloes by milk ring test, five samples were positive (25%). On isolation of from samples, only one sample yielded Brucella abortus. The results showed that younger buffaloes were less infected than adults. Prevalence of Brucellosis was higher in Satwari block of Jammu province compared to other study area. The presence of Brucellosis in bovine may pose a significant economic loss to the farmer and a public health hazard to the general population.

Title: Molecular detection and genetic characterisation of fumonisin producing fusarium isolates from rice cultivars
Abstract :

Fusarium species mainly produce fumonisins group of mycotoxins which are classified as Group 2B human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In poor storage conditions, Fusarium species producing fumonisins can infect rice or paddy (Oryza sativa L.) which is the highest produced and consumed staple food in India. A rapid molecular method using primer Fum5F and Fum6R detected 85% fumonisin producers among 28 Fusarium isolates from Indian rice cultivars. Genetic variability of the isolates was studied by PCR based RAPD assay using 13 random primers. A total of 169 polymorphic bands were obtained by 13 markers with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.665 and overall polymorphism of 88%. Primer 3B showed a polymorphism of 96% with PIC value of 0.66 and it amplified 26 scorable fragments hence may be useful for the analysis of genetic variation among Fusarium isolates. Four strains (F47, F90, F92 and F96) in which fum gene wasn’t amplified by Fum5F and Fum6R and supposed to be non producer of fumonisin have been consistently placed in one separate group by RAPD primers. Genetic variation of toxic Fusarium in rice from India is less studied. RAPD proved to be a suitable tool for depicting Polymorphism among the isolates. The high genetic variability among the Fusarium isolates used in the current study is a matter of concern considering the importance of Rice in India.

Title: Evaluation of different Substrates for Mass Multiplication of Pseudomonas fluorescens in two Incubation Temperature
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to different organic substrate for develop simple, cheap and effective method to suitable mass multiplication of biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens. Different organic substrates were treated by sterilizated method such as hot water, steam and chemical treatment at two incubation temperature separately. 200 g of each substrate was filled in polythene bag and 48 h KMB slant culture of P. fluorescens cell suspension of concentration of 108 cfu/ml was pipetted into the each bag. The observations were recorded on 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 35 th DAI. One gram of substrate from each bag was used for assessment of difference in growth of P. fluorescens and data regarding number of colony forming units (cfu) of bioagent per gram of each substrate. After 35 DAI, found that significantly higher population in FYM followed by vermi compost and gram straw at both temperature (20-25°C) and (35-40°C) irrespective of three sterilization methods taken in the study and also observed that overall growth of isolate of P. fluorescens was maximum in steam followed by hot water and least in chemical method of sterilization. As far as method of sterilization was concerned, the trend was similar as in cooler and room temperature. In all, cooler temperature (20-25°C) supported the mass multiplication over the room temperature (35-40°C).

Title: Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and Expression of Recombinant LipL41, Loa22 and LipL21 Proteins from Leptospira interrogans
Abstract :

Leptospirosis, a worldwide anthropozoonosis infection with multisystemic involvement, is emerging in North India. These days, focus is to develop recombinant outer membrane protein-based diagnostic tests. In this study, three genes lipL41 (1088 bp), loa22 (608bp) and lipL21 (581bp) of Leptospira interrogans were cloned and sequenced. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that loa22 and lipL21gene sequences of L. interrogans serovars Grippotyphosa and Canicola respectively were conserved in nature but lipL41 gene sequence of L. interrogans serovars Grippotyphosa showed variation in nucleotide sequence which contributes to serovar evolution within species. For protein expression truncated lipL41 (1028 bp), loa22 (548bp) and lipL21 (472bp) genes were amplified, cloned and expressed in prokaryotic expression system and His-tagged ~45kDa (lipL41 gene), ~28kDa (loa22 gene) and ~17kDa (lipL21 gene) proteins were purified by nickel-nitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. Purified proteins were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. For immunological characterization, total four doses of recombinant proteins were injected subcutaneously into Swiss-albino mice at 50µg quantity along with Freund’s adjuvant and after 21 days immunogenicity of expressed proteins was tested by blotting using mice raised serum.

Title: Genetic variability, Heritability, Genetic Advance and Correlation Coefficient for Vegetative and Floral Characters of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)
Abstract :

The study was conducted on genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation coefficient for vegetative and floral characters of gerbera during April 2011 to March 2012. Nine varieties namely, Rionegro, Manizales, Galileo, Marinila, Palmira, Figaro, Teresa, Pia and Tecala were selected for their evaluation. The range of variation was high for a number of flowers per sq. m per year followed by number of ray florets and plant spread. Highest phenotypic and genotypic variances were observed for a number of flowers per sq. m per year. The estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. Maximum phenotypic coefficient of variation and heritability was observed for vase life. Genotypic coefficient of variance showed a range of variation from 2.58 to 32.01 for diameter of neck and vase life, respectively. However, the maximum genetic advance was observed in the number of flowers per sq. m per year. The high heritability was associated with high genetic advance percentage of the mean for vase life indicating the possible role of additive gene action. The magnitude of genotypic correlation was higher than their corresponding phenotypic correlation for most of the traits, indicating a strong inherent linkage between various traits under study. At genotypic level, number of leaves per plant exhibited positive significant correlation with diameter of flower and number of flowers per sq. m per year but highly significant and positive correlation with a number of flowers per sq. m per year at phenotypic level.

Title: Morphological Abnormality among Hardened Shoots of Banana cv. Rajapuri (AAB) after in vitro Multiplication with TDZ and BAP from Excised Shoot Tips
Abstract :

To compare the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) on morphological abnormal plants or per-cent variant plantlets during secondary hardening period. Shoot tips of Musa spp. were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (2.0 and 5.0 mg/L) of BAP and (0.2 and 0.3 mg/L) of TDZ and NAA 0.2 mg/L. Wherever, TDZ is present in the medium some morphological dwarf plants were observed. The maximum plant height (16.17 cm) and number of leaves (4.20) was in T2. Where, the maximum shoot diameter (4.97 mm), number of primary roots (4.53) and length of longest root (11.17 cm) was in T1. TDZ at 0.2 mg/L it increases the morphological abnormal plants like dwarf plants (20.00%). In conclusion BAP at 5.0 mg/L, TDZ at 0.2 mg/L and NAA at 0.2 mg/L and BAP at 2.0 mg/L, TDZ at 0.2 mg/L and NAA at 0.2 mg/L were assumed to be the most suitable for commercial micropropagation system with low frequency of abnormal shoot production for local banana cultivars.

Title: Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition on Nitrogen assimilating Enzymes in Soybean Roots and Nodules
Abstract :
Soybean is an important legume crop with high protein content, but deficient in sulphur (S) containing amino acids viz methionine and cysteine. Soybean protein quality can be improved by nutrient fertilization. Present studies report the effect of nitrogen (N) and S nutrition on nodulation, activities of ammonia assimilating enzymes and biochemical parameters in soybean roots and nodules. Nitrogen as urea @ 31.25 kg ha-1 and sulphur as gypsum @ 20 kg ha-1 alone significantly increased nodule number, fresh and dry weight per nodule, root length and nodular hemoglobin content whereas total soluble proteins, free amino acids, glucose and sucrose content did not vary significantly in nodules and roots. Treatment of N or S significantly increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity in cytosol and bacterial fractions from 70 to 90 days after sowing whereas aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate synthase, glutamine synthetase and alanine aminotransferase activities showed non-significant variations in roots at different stages of development under the influence of N or S alone or their combination. Results suggested that N and S could improve nodulation and vegetative growth in soybean, but ammonia assimilating enzyme activities in roots/nodules did not vary significantly.
Title: Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation in Rice:A Novel Approach to Produce Agronomically Superior Transgenics
Abstract :

Rice the most important staple grain with second highest worldwide production has offered a great potential for biotechnological advances, categorized broadly in areas like transgenics, structural and functional genomics and marker-assisted breeding to provide with vital breakthroughs to achieve improvements in both quality and quantity in a sustainable manner. The ever increasing demand, increasing anthropogenic activities has posed a challenge to boost the production of rice. To cope of with this alarming situation, the advent of genetic engineering has been utilized to remove natural barriers through gene transfer/exchange. Since then, sequences from various sources like bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic systems were used to develop transgenic crop varieties. Gene transfer techniques like direct DNA transfer through particle bombardment, polyethylene glycol or electroporation and indirectly mediated by Agrobacterium are increasingly applied. Unfortunately, DNA delivered by direct methods is often integrated into the genome as rearranged or multiple copies, presumably as a result of which the expression pattern of the gene of interest is often aberrant or unstable. In contrast to this, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system offers higher transformation efficiency with discrete, unrearranged segments of DNA being inserted at fairly low copy number. Achievements, to date, through Agrobacterium-mediated transfer have surpassed all previous expectations and with the development of this successful technique for genetic improvement the future is even more promising.

Title: Nutrient Release Pattern of Different Boron Fractions in Maize Growing Sandy Loam Soils
Abstract :

An understanding of soil boron occurring in various forms and their release behaviour in soils needs to be examined extensively in major soil series. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to study the release pattern of boron fractions under maize growing sandy loam B deficit soils with different levels of B as 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1 were replicated thrice in a completely randomized design. The soils were incubated at field capacity for a month (30 days) period and destructive sampling was done at intervals viz., 0, 7, 15, 21 and 30 days after incubation. B fractions viz., specifically adsorbed, oxide bound, organically bound and residual B in soil were determined. The results revealed that with applied boron, the non-specifically adsorbed B fraction was higher next to residual form when compared to other forms of boron. Applied B converted to soluble form and attained peak values at 21 days after incubation in the treatment with application of 2 kg B ha-1 and thereafter a decrease was noted. Irrespective of location, the plant available form of B includes non- specifically adsorbed B fraction which was considerably higher (1.03 and 1.0 mg kg-1 mg kg-1) on 21st day after incubation (contributed towards 0.02 and 0.01% of total B) which coincides with the high demand for B by maize crop during vegetative phase. The data’s also revealed that the contribution of residual boron to total boron was the highest among the B fractions.

Title: Screening of Weed Competitive Cultivars of Summer Green-gram in Lateritic Soil of West Bengal
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted in two consecutive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 at the Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal to screen out the weed competitive Green-gram cultivars. Experimental plots were infested with grassy, broadleaved and sedge weeds. Digitaria sanguinalis among grasses, Croton bonplandianum among broad leaved and Cyperus rotundus among sedges were most predominant throughout crop season. Losses in seed yield of green-gram due to weed infestation ranged from 7 to 37%. Among the cultivars, the plots of ‘WBM 34-1-1’, ‘WBM 04-5’ and ‘PDM 54’ registered lower number as well as dry weight of grasses, broadleaved, sedges and total weeds at 45 days after sowing (DAS) under both weedy and one hand weeding situations. These cultivars also recorded higher values of yield attributes and seed yields. Yield components viz. number of pods/plant, seeds/pod, test weight as well as seed yield were significantly reduced in weedy situation, compared with one hand weeding at 30 DAS in all the cultivars excepting ‘PDM 54’ and ‘WBM 04-5’, where no significant reduction due to weed competition was recorded, indicating higher weed competitive abilities of both the cultivars. The cultivars ‘WBM 34-1-1’, ‘WBM 04-5’ and ‘PDM 54’ appeared to be promising towards suppressing weeds and producing higher seed yields in lateritic soil of West Bengal.

Title: Growth, yield components and yield of hybrid rice as influenced by nitrogen levels and time of Homo-Brassinolide application
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted on hybrid rice during the kharif season of 2011 at the farm of Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal to study the effect of nitrogen and homo-brassionlide on growth and productivity of hybrid rice. The experiment was laid out in FRBD with five levels of nitrogen viz. N0, N60, N120, N180 and 240 kg ha-1 and three levels spraying of homo-brassionlide viz. active tillering (AT), active tillering +panicle initiation (PI) and active tillering +panicle initiation + flowering (FL). The results showed that hybrid rice responded well to fertilizer application. Application of 180 kg N improved all the growth attributes such as plant height, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter accumulation and increased the yield attributes like number of panicles m-2, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1, percentage of filled grain and test weight that ultimately led to high crop productivity. The spray of homo-brassinolide has a significant effect on plant height, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter accumulation and increased the yield attributes like number of panicles m-2, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1, percentage of filled grain and test weight that ultimately led to high crop productivity. Among the spraying, thrice spraying of homo-brassinolide i.e. at AT+PI + FL recorded significantly higher yield parameters and yield as compared to AT, MT+PI. The study advocated cultivating hybrid rice 180 kg N with for its high productivity.

Title: Seroprevalence Studies of Brucellosis at Organized and Unorganized Cattle Farms in North India
Abstract :

Brucellosis is a worldwide contagious and zoonotic bacterial infectious disease caused by Brucella. The aim of present study was therefore to establish the seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in North India and to know the exact causal species of Brucella organism. A total of 160 serum samples were analyzed. The seroprevalence of Brucellosis was 1.88 per cent and 3.13 per cent by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT), respectively. Seroprevalence was zero by both RBPT and STAT in organized dairy farm while in unorganized sector, 2.16 and 3.65 per cent by RBPT and STAT, respectively. Age-wise seroprevalence was higher in 4.5 to 6 years old cows than younger. Area-wise seroprevalence was higher in Satwari block of study area. On screening of 10 milk samples from serological positive and doubtful cows by milk ring test, two sample were positive (20%). On isolation of from samples, only one sample yielded Brucella abortus. The results showed that younger cattle were less infected than adults. Prevalence of Brucellosis was higher in Satwari block of Jammu province compared to other study area. The presence of Brucellosis in bovine may pose a significant economic loss to the farmer and a public health hazard to the general population.

Title: Morpho-physiological Basis of Waterlogging Tolerance in Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]
Abstract :

Global climate change predictions suggest new scenarios with large arid areas and extreme climatologic events. Thus, it is essential to understand how plants respond to different abiotic stresses in order to improve crop performance. A pot experiment was carried in a net house in four replicates of normal (no waterlogging) and waterlogging stress. Excess soil moisture stress was imposed at 21 days after sowing by placing the pots of each genotype in water-filled troughs for 7 and 14 days. The data revealed that the genotypes ICPB 2039 and KPBR 80-2-1 were showed significant superiority during 7 and 14 days waterlogging stress and during recovery for survival percentage. However, during 7 days waterlogging stress genotype KPBR 80-2-1 was superior for plant height and chlorophyll content, ICPH 2431 for root length, ICPL 20128 for leaf area, JBP 110-B for relative water content and JKM 7 for total dry matter production. When the waterlogging duration exceeded 14 days the genotypes showed the highest plant height and relative water content by ICPL 87051, root length and total dry matter production by JKM 7, leaf area by ICPH 2431 and chlorophyll content by C 11 under waterlogged conditions.

Title: Standardization of Propagation through cuttings in Salacia fruticosa Heyne ex Lawson: A Medicinal Plant Endemic to Western Ghats
Abstract :

Salacia fruticosa Heyne ex Lawson, one of the red listed medicinal plants belonging to the family Celastraceae which is categorised as threatened by IUCN due to unsustainable and indiscriminate harvesting for commercial purposes. Traditional propagation techniques cannot cater to large scale planting stock production of this valuable species due to poor fruit set and seed germination hence the vegetative propagation has to be resorted to meet the planting stock requirement. Present investigation was carried out at Kerala Forest Research Institute to standardize the vegetative propagation protocol of S. fruticosa through stem cuttings with growth regulators in different season. Semi-hard wood and hardwood cuttings were collected in three seasons (January-April, May-August and September- December) and treated with Indole Butyric Acid and Naphthalene Acetic Acid in different concentrations. Rooting response was measured after two weeks in the mist chamber. The adventitious rhizogenesis of S. fruticosa stem cuttings was influenced by type of cutting, season of collection, type of growth regulator and its concentration. Semi hardwood leafy cuttings, treated with 3000 mg/l of IBA during January – April was the successful method for vegetative propagation (80% rooting) to produce the planting stock. Significant increase in number of new leaves, root length also recorded for the same treatment. Hence, we recommend the same treatment combination for the large scale planting production in S. Fruticosa.

Title: Nutrient composition, uptake by weeds and rice under different crop establishment and weed management practices
Abstract :

Field study was conducted during the kharif, 2011 at Agronomy Research Farm, Central Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to assess the nutrient concentration and uptake by weeds and crops under different crop establishment methods. Weedy check recorded highest nutrient content of weeds. Weedy check plot recorded the maximum N, P and K content of 0.83, 0.13 and 1.3% respectively. The removal of N,P and K (82.45,13.42 and 127.74 kg ha-1 ) was the highest in the same treatment and the lowest nutrient uptake by conoweeding N,P and K was 0.73 , 0.13 and 1.25% and removal of N,P and K (kg ha-1) was 17.34, 3.11 and 29.44 respectively. The nutrient content of grain and straw of rice in conoweeding was maximum recording N, P and K of grain are 1.33, 0.37 and 1.26% respectively. The corresponding values for straw were 0.44, 0.10 and 1.82% respectively. The weedy check recorded the lower values of N, P and K content as compared with weed control treatments. Nutrient uptake of rice crop showed that maximum uptake of nutrient was recorded in SRI (62.72 and 25.13 kg ha-1 of N, 17.06 and 5.26 kg ha-1 of P and 13.04 and 101.11 kg h-1a of K in grain and straw respectively) it was followed by transplanting, drum seeding and line sowing. Minimum depletion of 47.34 kg of N, 11.18 kg ha-1 of P and 67.54 kg ha-1 of K was observed in weedy check taking the total values of grain and straw. The highest benefit: cost ratio were recorded in the SRI supplemented with conoweeder.

Title: In vitro Plant Regeneration from Seedlings-derived Explants of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Abstract :

Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crops in India. In vitro tissue culture of tomato could serve as an important means for its improvement through genetic transformation. To improve the regeneration capacity of tomato, the effect on plant regeneration of donor plant type, basal medium, and plant growth regulators were evaluated using explants derived from the cotyledon, hypocotyl, leaf and petioles. Cotyledon and hypocotyl excised from 10-15 days old and leaf and petiole excised from 25-30 days were optimal explants. Explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog) basal medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BA-IAA, BA-NAA, Kn-IAA and Kn-NAA. The highest regeneration efficiency was obtained on MS basal medium containing combinations of BA-IAA and Kn-IAA. The best response in terms of the percentage of shoot regeneration (77%) was obtained from petiole explant cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Kn + 1.0 mg/l IAA. Successful rooting was achieved by placing the shoots onto MS basal medium supplemented with 0.20 mg/l NAA. The combination of sand: soil (1:1) was the best for plant acclimatization as 90% of the plants survived and became established.

Title: Spatial and Temporal Variations of SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM Concentration in Ambient Air of Jalna City, India
Abstract :

The ambient air quality monitoring data of Jalna City, India for SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM at two sites (residential and industrial) and over a one year period are presented within this paper. The diurnal and seasonal variation in concentrations of SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM has been analyzed. It has been observed that all pollutants showed higher concentration during daytime as compared to night. The seasonal cycle at both the sites generally showed for SO2, PM10 and TSPM higher concentrations during the winter season. At both the sites no distinct seasonal cycle could be detected for NOx. The annual mean concentrations recorded for SO2, NOx, PM10 and TSPM were 4.93µg/m3, 26.68µg/m3, 61.85µg/m3 and 166.11µg/m3 at residential site and 6.44µg/m3, 64.64µg/m3, 126.82µg/m3 and 306.27µg/m3 at industrial site. The annual mean concentrations of all four pollutants measured at residential site were found within the permissible limits of Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) whereas annual PM10 concentration at residential and industrial site violated the prescribed standard.

Title: Heterosis studies in diallel crosses of maize for yield and yield attributing traits in maize (Zea mays L.) over locations
Abstract :

A study was undertaken to estimate the heterotic, heterobeltiotic and standard heterotic effects of 11 characters of 45 maize hybrids developed by ten parents in maize during rabi, 2011-12 over three locations viz., College Farm, Rajendranagar (Hyderabad), Agricultural Research Station, Karimnagar and Agricultural Research Station, Kampasagar, Nalgonda District, T.S. The pooled analysis of variance (Diallel) revealed significant differences among locations and genotypes for all the characters studied. The crosses exhibited significant differences, indicating varying performance of cross combinations. The parent vs crosses which indicates average heterosis, for all the traits, thus considerable amount of average heterosis was reflected in hybrids. Negative standard heterosis was observed for days to 50 per cent tasseling, days to 50 per cent silking and days to maturity due to earliness in three hybrids over checks DHM-117 and 900 M Gold were BML-2782 X BML-5233-5, CM-211 X BML-5233-5 and BML-2486 X BML-2. Five crosses viz. BML-15 X BML-2910, BML-7 X BML-3044, CM-211 X BML-7, BML-6 X BML-2 and BML-2782 X BML-6 were identified as potential hybrids with more than 12% standard heterosis for grain yield over better yielding commercial hybrid check DHM-117. Testing of these hybrids in all India coordinated trials across the different states of the country may result in identification of better hybrids in the near future for commercial exploitation.

Title: Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon Mill.)
Abstract :

In the present study an attempt has been made to germplasm evaluation in 39 diverse genotypes of tomato at Vegetable Research Farm, Rewa (Madhya Pradesh) during the Rabi session of 2011. Analysis of variance showed significant variation among the genotypes for all evaluated traits. Number of fruits plant-1 showed the highest genotypic and phenotypic variance (1282.0 and 1287.6) whereas test weight showed the lowest (0.03 and 0.08). High genotypic variance was observed for most of the characters indicating more contribution of genetic components for the total variation. Genotypic coefficients of variations (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were highest for average fruit weight (48.85 and 48.87), number of seeds fruit-1 (44.54 and 45.29) whereas the lowest were recorded for days to 50% fruit setting (1.984 and 2.81). Higher GCV and PVC were recorded for most of the characters indicating higher magnitude of variability for these characters. The highest heritability (broad senses) estimates were observed for average fruit weight (99.92) number of secondary branches (99.65%), while the lowest was for the test weight (45.29%). Highest genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for average fruit weight (100.59%) and lowest for days to 50% fruit setting (2.89). The exploration of genetic variability in the available germplasm is a prerequisite in a breeding programme for effective selection of superior genotype of tomato.

Title: Quality and Quantity Improvement of Citrus: Role of Plant Growth Regulators
Abstract :

Citrus is one of the most important fruit tree species in the world, as the fruits are a valuable source of nutrients, vitamins and other antioxidant compounds. The citrus productivity depends on various factors, among these the plant growth regulators holds a prime position. The use of plant growth regulators has become an important component in the field of citriculture because of the wide range of potential roles they play in increasing the productivity of crop per unit area. The plant growth regulating compounds actively regulate the growth and development by regulation of the endogenous processes and there exogenous applications have been exploited for modifying the growth response. Plant growth regulators have been used in citrus fruit production for influencing flowering, fruit set and fruit drop and play a major role in fruit growth and abscission. These regulators have also been used to influence fruit quality factors like peel quality and colour, fruit size, juice quality and to improve total soluble solids in different citrus species. This review may serve as a complete treatise on the possible roles of growth promoting substances on the physiological processes of citrus plant.

Title: Gene Expression Study of Arachis Hypogaea L.
Abstract :

Arachis hypogaea L. (The peanut) is an important oilseed crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This species belongs to the subfamily Fabaceae and family Leguminosae. Different parts of the plant such as leaves and seeds are used for many purposes in India. Next-generation sequencing technology (NGS) such as RNA-seq has provided a powerful approach for analyzing the Transcriptome accurately and cheaply. This study is focus on gene expression study of RNA-seq of Arachis hypogaea L. (The peanut); Three SRA files of BioProject ID 243319 downloaded from NCBI database and genome of Arabidopsis thaliana was considered as reference genome for gene expression study. Data analysis carried out with many Bioinformatics tools such as TopHat2, Cufflinks, Cuffmerge, Cuffcompare and Cuffdiff. CummeRbund tool was used to manage, visualize and integrate all of the data produced by a Cuffdiff tool for gene expression analysis. These data reported in the current study will serve as a valuable genetic resource of the Arachis hypogaea L..

Title: Chronic toxic effect of Acenapthene on diverse microalgaes and cyanobacteria: Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck, Desmodesmus subspicatus Chodat and Scytonema sp.
Abstract :

There is an increasing need to describe the growth characteristics of algae exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of occurrence of PAHs in lakes is known to deleteriously affect the growth of microorganisms. This study explored the chronic effect of different doses of three ring structure polycyclic hydrocarbon Acenapthene on the growth of two microalgal species and one cyanobacterial species. C. vulgaris, D. subspicatus and Scytonema sp. cultivated in the medium with different concentration of PAH and its affect was investigated during increasing 4, 8, 12 and 16 Days of exposure. The growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Desmodesmus subspicatus and Scytonema sp. was adversely affected by Acenapthene. The results indicated that the increased concentration of Acenapthene negatively impacted on chlorophyll content, carotenoids, phycobilliproteins, carbohydrate, amino acids, proteins, nitrate reductase, succinate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthetase except phenol . However, the raise in Phenol content was observed during the incubation period. Moreover, a high significance correlation (F>0.05) existed between different metabolites, pigments and enzymes which was statistically confirmed by Two Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Title: Correlation and association of characters in Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) from Kerala part of Peninsular India
Abstract :

Selection of appropriate genotypes based on characters that show good genetic strength is a very important tool in crop improvement since selection could not be carried out based on all characters. Study of interrelationship and association of characters is essential to identify the variables which show maximum relationship with others. Correlation analysis was carried out presently in the case of 12 morphometric characters in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) so as to study the relationship between them. The present study revealed varying degrees of interrelationship between the morphometric characters studied. Character association was also studied so as to group the characters based on gene sharing and to identify the lead characters that could be used in further breeding programmes. Plant height showed the highest factor loading followed by leaf breadth, root length, leaves per tiller and fresh root weight showing their higher contribution towards the variability of the population and their usability in breeding programmes as lead characters.

Title: Kriging Approach for Estimating Deficient Micronutrients in the Soil: A Case Study
Abstract :

Soil surveying, testing and mapping are important operations for knowing availability of nutrients and micronutrients in the soil and their optimum use for agricultural operation. The main objective of present study was to estimate the content of deficient micronutrients namely Zn, B and Fe in the soil of Kashi Vidyapeeth block of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh, (India) at different locations by using test results of sampled soils. The Kriging interpolation method (Krige, 1951) was used for preparing the maps to show spatial distribution of deficient micronutrients. The method can be used for recommending judicious applications of micronutrients for sustainable soil management.

Title: Quality assessment of probiotic weaning mix from fermented cereal-legume blends
Abstract :

Weaning mix was developed from underutilized crops of Uttarakhand (finger millet, barnyard millet, black soybean, amaranth grain). Malting and fermentation were adopted as ways of improving cereal protein quality and decreasing anti-nutritional property and probiotic weaning mix was produced using probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum. Box-benkhen design of response surface methodology was used to design the experiments design for three variables with three levels [blend ratio (cereals : legume:: 50:50, 60:40, 70:30), fermentation time (12 h, 24 h, 36 h), inoculums concentration (1%, 3%, 5%] and four responses (protein, tannin, water absorption capacity, water absorption index). The probiotic fermentation resulted in favourable changes in nutritionl profile of weaning mix resulting 48.2% increase in protein and 92.3% decrease in tannin content. The optimized set of independent variables (cereals (FM+BM): legume: 70:30 fermented for 25 h with 2.9% inoculum concentration) obtained after statistical analysis, was used to develop final probiotic weaning mix.

Title: Bioremediation potential of Comamonas acidovorans MTCC 3364 for the removal of sulfonated di-azo dye Reactive Black B
Abstract :

Azo dyes are a chief class of synthetic colorants, which are released by the majority of the textile industries. The effluents of dyes disrupt the ecosystem so removal of these dyes is major concerned by using cost-competitive and eco-friendly method. The present study was aimed to study the decolorization efficiency of the textile azo dyes by Comamonas acidovorans MTCC 3364 and optimize the environmental condition for maximum decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black B (RBB) dye. Optimization of various environmental parameters like pH and temperature was studied in which maximum decolorization was obtained at 37°C, pH 7.0 under static condition within 24 hours. The addition of co-substrates lactose and yeast extract increased the rate of decolorization. The bacterial strain was able to decolorize high concentration of RBB dye (1 g l-1) up to 8th cycle. Vanillin was added as a redox mediator which showed the highest rate of decolorization (1.062 mg l-1 h-1) and thiourea was added as an inhibitor, which showed highest inhibition (0.246 mg l-1 h-1). Incubation of dye with a non-growing (free) cells and dead cells resulted in removal of dye from the buffer, indicating the biosorption and adsorption mechanism. Immobilization cell studies revealed that activated immobilized cell preparations decolorized RBB dye up to 10 cycles showing remarkable operational stability. The degradation analysis of RBB was further confirmed by HPTLC and FTIR techniques.

Title: Physical and biochemical changes in guava (Psidium Guajava L.) during various stages of fruit growth and development
Abstract :

Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit growth, development and maturity of eleven genotypes of guava fruit were studied at 30, 60, 90, 105, 120 and 127 days after fruit set (DAFS). Fruit weight, length and diameter of guava fruit increased continuously from the initial stage of fruit development till maturity and ripening in all the genotypes. The increases in fruit weight and diameter were comparatively more between 30 to 60 DAFS and 90 to 127 DAFS than 60 to 90 DAFS where the increase in fruit weight and diameter was slow in most of the genotypes. However, RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3 showed the continued rapid increase in fruit weight upto 120 days and thereafter the rate of increase was quite slow. A gradual increase in total soluble solids (TSS) was observed in all the genotypes throughout development and ripening stage of the fruits. However, the amount of total titratable acidity increased steadily in the beginning upto 105 days after fruit set in most of the genotypes except RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3 which showed upto 90 days only and afterwards there was a continuous reduction till ripening. The fruits showed continuous and progressive increase in TSS: acid ratio from 30 DAFS till maturity and ripening in all the genotypes except RCG-11, RCGH-1 and RCGH-7 that showed from 60 DAFS. Based on the present findings, days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>105 days), TSS (>9.50%) and TSS: acid ratio (>15.00) were some of the parameters for judging the maturity indices of genotypes like RCG-1, RCG-2 and RCG-3. Similarly, days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>110 days), TSS (>10.50%), TSS: acid ratio (>21.00) and fruit skin colour (whitish green) for RCGH-1 were some of the parameters for judging the maturity indices. Whereas, other genotypes were also exhibited the variation for days taken from flowering to harvest maturity (>120 days), skin colours, TSS (9.20-11.00%) and TSS: acid ratio (13.50-23.50.

Title: Molecular study of Pigeonpea [Cajanuscajan (L.) Mill sp.]Genotypes for Fusariumwilt using RAPD markers
Abstract :

The molecular study of seventeen genotypes of pigeonpea using 20 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers has been reported. A total of 179 loci were scored corresponding to an average of 8.95 loci per primer with 123 bands showing polymorphism (65.42%).Very low level of polymorphism in cultivated pigeonpeagermplasm had been earlier reported which was corroborated by many pigeonpea workers indicating the normal genetic base existing in this crop (Odenyet al. 2007). The average number of polymorphic loci obtained per primer (Assay Efficiency Index) was found to be 6.15. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.52 to 0.77 and the marker index value for pooled RAPD was found to be 11.65. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters. Cluster-I comprised of 5 cultivars whichwas further differentiated into two sub-clusters. The cluster-II included remaining twelve cultivars. Genotypes that are susceptible to fusariumwilt of pigeonpeaviz., GT-1, GT-100, GT-101, GT-102 and BANAS were closely related and they formed one cluster. It also revealed that genotypes viz., AGT-2 and AVPP-1 were closely related and formed one cluster whereas viz., T-15-15, LRG-41, C-11, BDN-2 and ICPL-87 were closely related and formed another cluster. The dendogram showed that genotypes that are resistant to fusarium wilt of pigeonpeaviz., BSMR-853, WRGE-119, ICPL-87119, ICPL-84060 and ICP-8863 were related genotypes and they formed another cluster. The study reiterated that RAPD can be efficiently used for discriminating resistant and susceptible pigeonpea genotypes.

Title: Production of Exopolysaccharide (EPS) and its Application by New Fungal Isolates SGMP1 and SGMP2
Abstract :

Exopolysaccharide producing fungal cultures were screened from the soil samples collected from New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Dist. Anand, Gujarat (India). The isolates designated as SGMP1 and SGMP2 were found to be significant producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS). The present study shows optimization, characterization and certain applications of EPS produced by selected isolates. The isolates SGMP1 and SGMP2 showed a maximum production of EPS 20.5 ± 0.85 g/l and 7.5 ± 0.4 g/l respectively with supplementation of 2% glucose and starch. Yeast extract was used as a nitrogen source at a concentration of 2% (w/v). The maximum production of EPS 7.5 g/l was obtained for SGMP2.The FTIR analysis of EPS showed the presence of polysaccharides, carboxylic acids and lactone. The fungal EPS showed antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The EPS produced by the fungal isolate showed 99 % flocculating activity and could also act as an emulsifier. Furthermore, the fungal isolates SGMP1 and SGMP2 were able to remove Al+3 and Fe+3 up to the 600 mg/l concentration which suffices the role of EPS in bioremediation of heavy metals.

Title: Molecular characterization of bacterial leaf blight resistant near isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using RAPD and SSR markers
Abstract :

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is nutritionally, one of the most important cereal crops. Rice production is mostly reduced due to different biotic stresses. Bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae bacteria, is one of the major biotic destructive diseases throughout the world. This disease affects the rice production because it reduces the photosynthesis by causing leaf wilting. The preferred strategy for disease management is through varietal resistance because it is not fully controlled by any chemical treatments. Gene pyramiding is the most effective strategy; in which, pyramided lines with three to four different bacterial leaf blight resistance genes have been developed in the genetic background of popular rice cultivars by using marker-assisted selection. The present study was carried out with an aim to study the molecular characterization of 30 rice genotypes for BLB resistance using RAPD and SSR markers. Overall results on the basis of clustering pattern of SSR and RAPD pooled data analysis revealed genetic similarity between some of the pyramided lines with their respective recurrent parent. Some of the SSR markers are very informative and can be useful for marker-assisted selection.

Title: An Efficient Regeneration and Genetic Transformation Protocol of Coleus forskohlii using Biolistic Gun
Abstract :

An efficient selection and plant regeneration protocol for biolistic gun transformation using leaf derived callus of Coleus forskohlii has been developed. Highest regeneration frequency 90% with 50 shoots per callus clump was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP) 2.0 mg L-1 + naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) 0.5 mg L-1 The rate of shoot multiplication was increased with each subculture. Rhizogenesis was obtained on the same media composition. The in vitro raised plants were established successfully in sand and cocopeat (1:1). Callus of C. forskohlii was bombarded using biolistic gun with pABC plasmid DNA which contains β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and Arabidopsis thaliana white brown complex homologs (AtWBC19) as selectable marker gene. Kanamycin in the shoot induction medium was compared qualitatively and quantitatively for its efficiency as a selection agent for the selection and regeneration of transgenic plants after biolistic gun transformation. Kanamycin levels at or above 50mg L-1 completely inhibited growth of untransformed shoots. The integration of selectable marker gene GUS and AtWBC 19 into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed using isoenzymatic GUS assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) respectively. These results pave the way for the transformation of Coleus forskohlii with desirable genes.

Title: Impact of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Phosphorus Application on Forage Yield and Quality of Berseem in West Bengal
Abstract :

Phosphorus availability is increased through the use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for enhancing the forage yield and improving the quality of berseem fodder. A field experiment was conducted in the fodder farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Belgachia during rabi, season 2013-14. The crop was sown with inoculated (I1) and un-inoculated (I0) seeds of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum  L.) of variety warden and was given phosphorus fertilizer at the levels 40 (P1), 60 (P2), 80 (P3) and 100 (P4) kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of SSP in RCBD with three replications in plots of net size 6 m X 2 m. PSB inoculation significantly increases green forage and dry matter yield by increasing plant height, no. of branches, leaf-stem ratio, etc. All the quality traits except ash content and dry matter percentage were significantly affected by PSB inoculation. Higher green forage yield (320.4 qt ha-1), dry matter yield (39.2 qt ha-1), crude protein yield (7.89 qt ha-1), crude protein percentage (19.28%), ethyl extract (3.32%) and nitrogen free extract (41.75%) were recorded from the plots inoculated with PSB. Application of phosphorus fertilizers significantly influenced the green forage and dry matter yield of berseem, leaf-stem ratio, etc. though plant height and no. of branches were not-significant. All the quality parameters i.e. CP, CF, EE, NFE, except ash percentage were significantly influenced by phosphorus application. Best results were obtained with 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 in all the cases. Regarding interaction effect, higher yields of better quality green forage of berseem were obtained in I1P3 i.e. inoculation with PSB with phosphorus application of 80 kg P2O5 ha-1.

Title: Study of HFE Gene Mutation at C282Y and H63D Locus with Special Reference to Thalassemia Patients
Abstract :
Hemochromatosis disorder of iron metabolism leads to excess iron levels in body which is extremely toxic to all cells of the body and can cause serious and irreversible
damages. Clinical complications of hemochromatosis include cirrhosis of the liver, congestive cardiac failure and cardiac arrhythmias, endocrine pancreatic disease. Hemochromatosis is classified as Primary and secondary hemochromatosis. One of the type of primary hemochromatosis is type I also refereed as hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and is a autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism. Three recurrent mutations in hemochromatosis gene (HFE) : C282Y, H63D and S65C are known for hereditary hemochromatosis. C282Y is considered the most relevant mutation responsible for hemochromatosis. In secondary or acquired hemochromatosis, reasons for excess iron accumulation are repeated blood transfusions or enhanced iron absorption produced by thalassemia or both, if thalassemic patients are having mutations in HFE gene repeated blood transfusions may aggravate the condition hence, it is important to screen the thalassemic patients for HFE gene mutations.
Title: Effect of Bensulfuron-Methyl+Pretilachlor and Other Herbicides on Mixed Weed Flora of Wet Season Transplanted Rice
Abstract :

Field experiments were conducted during the wet season of 2012 and 2013 at farmer’s field of village Binuria, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal, India with rice variety ‘Swarna’ (MTU 7029) to study the effect of bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor and other herbicides on growth of different weed species and productivity of transplanted rice. Twelve treatments in the experiment were assigned in a randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that rice was infested with three categories of weeds viz. grasses, broadleaved and sedges. Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum distichum among the grasses; Fimbristylis miliacea, among the sedges and Ludwigia parviflora and Commelina nudiflora among the broadleaved weeds were predominant throughout the cropping period. Bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60+600 g ha-1applied at 3 DAT completely controlled the grasses, broadleaved and sedges at 30 and 60 DAT except Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum distichum. However, the density, as well as dry weight of both the species were significantly reduced. Metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4+35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT was also quite effective in controlling broad spectrum weeds. Lower values of weed density, total weed dry weight and higher values of herbicide efficiency index and yield of rice were registered with application of bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60 + 600 g ha-1 at 3 DAT followed by metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4+35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT. Weed infestation resulted in grain yield reduction of rice to the tune of 40% Application of bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60+600 g ha-1 at 3 DAT or metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4 + 35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT appeared to be the most promising for managing mixed weed flora and obtaining higher yield of transplanted rice in the lateritic belt of West Bengal, India.

Title: Geomorphometric analysis of a hilly watershed in north east India
Abstract :

Morphometric analysis of a hilly watershed was carried out using GIS. The drainage map generated from the Survey of India toposheets was used for morphometric analysis of the watershed in terms of stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, relief ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, infiltration number and ruggedness number. The Um Shipra watershed is a fifth order watershed having dendritic drainage pattern with high drainage density (6.22 The logarithmic plot of the stream length versus stream order showed a linear relationship indicating the watershed has developed over a homogeneous rock material. The mean bifurcation ratio of 1.71 indicated absence of strong structural control on the drainage pattern and that the watershed was structurally less disturbed. The number of streams belonging to the order I, II, III, IV and V were found to be 327, 147, 78, 45 and 46 respectively. Lower values of form factor (0.19), circularity ratio (0.29) and elongation ratio (0.49) suggested that the watershed has elongated shape with lower peak flows for longer duration. The ruggedness number having relatively higher value implied that the area has rugged topography which is prone to soil erosion. Higher values of stream frequency and drainage density indicated that the watershed has high runoff potential despite having lower peak flow creating a good scope for surface water resource development. The results obtained can serve as a useful input for developing soil and water resources conservation and management plan on a watershed basis.

Title: Study of Keratinolytic Activity of Thermophilic and Alkaliphilic Actinomycetes: Saccharomonospora Viridis SJ-21
Abstract :

Keratins are insoluble proteins from feathers, wool, silk, collagens, elastin, horn, hair and nail. They are not easily degraded by common proteolytic enzymes like trypsin, pepsin and papain.The resistant property of these compounds are due to their disulphide bonds, hydrogen bonds, salt linkages and cross linkages and hydrophobic interactions. Actinomycetes are known to digest keratins by synthesizing specific class of extracellular enzymes called alkaline thermo stable proteases which degrade keratin into small peptides that can be utilized by cell. Alkaline protease producing thermophilic actinomycete strain was screened from hot water spring of Tulsishyam Gujarat and was identified as Saccharomonospora viridis SJ-21 on the basis of colony characters, biochemical activity, spore nature, growth patterns and pigmentation and 16 S r RNA sequencing.The partially purified protease of Saccharomonospora viridis SJ-21 and the isolate itself were employed to check feather degradation. The feathers were degraded successfully within 72h at 45ºC. The degraded samples were analyzed for release of various amino acids by HPLC- Fluorescence with post column Derivatization. The aminoacids released were tyrosine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, cysteine, arginine, methionine, etc. S. viridis SJ-21 is found having a significant keratinolytic activity and may serve dual purpose for degradation of poultry waste and production of amino acid rich feed supplement. The protein rich, concentrated feather meal can also be used for organic farming as semi-slow release, nitrogen fertilizer.

Title: Leaching behavior of Kresoxim-Methyl and Acid Metabolite in normal and sludge amended inceptisol soil
Abstract :

Kresoxim-methyl, a strobilurin fungicide, is a broad spectrum, foliar fungicide. Leaching studies conducted with kresoxim methyl and acid metabolite separately revealed that in column soil >90% of the kresoxim methyl undergo hydrolysis and changed into acid metabolite. Acid metabolite showed more leaching potential than the parent molecule. Residues moved to the lower soil depth with increasing amount of rainfall. Increasing the organic matter content of the soil by sludge amendment (5%) reduced the leaching potential of both the compounds. With the same amount of rainfall, leaching was found to be more under discontinuous flow than continuous flow treatment.

Title: Effect of iron and zinc on growth, flowering and bulb yield in lilium
Abstract :

Lilium is a bulbous plant having non-tunicate bulbs. They are popular throughout the world for their exotic colours and fragrance, making them ideal cut flowers. A trial was conducted to study the effect of foliar spray of iron and zinc in form of sulphate to see their effect on growth, flowering and bulb yield attributes in lilium. Bulbs of lilium cv. Tresor were planted under polyhouse condition and different combinations of iron sulphate and zinc sulphate at 0.2% and 0.4% were applied as foliar spray at 30 and 45 days after planting. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 3 replications. Foliar application of FeSO4 0.2% promoted length of flower stalk and diameter of 1st flower, while its higher dose (FeSO4 at 0.4%) increased the number of buds plant-1 and weight of bulbs plant-1. Foliar treatment of ZnSO4 at 0.4% significantly enhanced the number of bulblets plant-1, number of scales bulb-1, diameter of 1st flower and diameter of bulb. Different treatment combinations of iron sulphate and zinc sulphate also affected various characters like number of leaves plant-1, diameter of stem, days to colour show and days to opening of 1st bud.

Title: Molecular Genetic Analysis of TH and COMT Gene Polymorphism in Mentally Retarded Patients
Abstract :

Mental retardation is a variable and heterogeneous manifestation of central nervous system dysfunction characterized by significant sub average intellectual functioning.In India the incidence of mental retardation is reported to be 2-3% of these 30% cases of severe mental retardation are genetically determined due to many reasons viz- chromosomal aberrations, X linked and subtelometric abnormalities and mutations in genes associated with nervous system function viz- TH ,COMT, MTHFR, PPP1R1B, MECP2. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene is located on chromosome number 11 and is coding for rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine. Changes in TH gene expression or function influence the process or behavior modulated by dopamine, any mutation in TH gene modulate dopamine and its function. Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) gene is located on chromosome number 22 and plays an important role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters. Low levels of COMT expression leads to mental retardation.The present study was carried out to study polymorphism in TH and COMT and its possible association with mental retardation. The detection technique includes isolation of DNA from peripheral blood of the mentally retarded patients of Surat and Anand regions of Gujarat state. DNA was isolated by standard phenol: chloroform method. PCR-RFLP was used for detection of polymorphism. Analysis of TH and COMT gene polymorphism in mentally retarded patients revealed that most observed genotype in normal as well as in mentally retarded patients is TT and HH for TH and COMT loci respectively.

Title: Under saline stress plant growth promoting bacteria affect growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant activities in paddy.
Abstract :
Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) was found to be more promising to induce growth of paddy plants under lower and moderate salinity levels. PGPB protects the plants from salinity injury by increasing biomass content, photosynthetic activity and antioxidant enzymes acid phosphatase and glutathione reductase. This study also states that PGPB helps in decrement of lipid peroxidation, plays an important role in regulation of growth for positive adaptation of plants to salt stress. However with increase in soil salinity the glutathione reductase activity decreased in non-inoculated plants. The present study shows that inoculation of paddy (Oryza sativa) with root associated bacteria could provide salt tolerant ability to paddy plants as these isolates also remain associated with root and root is the plant part affected first by salinity, so it serve as a useful tool for alleviating salinity stress.
Title: Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis G-1 in suppression of stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and growth promotion of groundnut
Abstract :

A total of seven biocontrol agents with known antifungal activity against other soilborne fungal pathogens were screened for their antagonistic potential against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc, the causal agent of stem rot disease of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by dual culture assay. Among the various biocontrol agents tested Bacillus subtilis strain G-1 was the most effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii and recorded an inhibition of 28%. Groundnut seeds when treated with B. subtilis G-1 showed significant increases in root length, shoot length and seedling vigour. A talc-based powder formulation of the highly effective strain, B. subtilis G-1, was developed and its efficacy in controlling groundnut stem rot was determined under greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that seed treatment with the powder formulation of B. subtilis G-1 alone effectively reduced the incidence of stem rot and increased the pod yield; but combined application through seed and soil increased the efficacy. Seed treatment and soil application with B. subtilis G-1 reduced the stem rot incidence from 80 per cent (with non-bacterized seeds) to 5 per cent. When the treated seeds were sown in soil, the antagonist moved to the rhizosphere and multiplied well in it. These results suggest that B. subtilis G-1 is an effective bioagent against stem rot of groundnut. Further studies are required to assess its efficacy in controlling stem rot of groundnut under field conditions.

Title: Temporal variation of rainfall trends in parambikulam aliyar sub basin, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Identification of temporal variation of rainfall trends provides useful information for sustainable planning and management of water resources in a river basin particularly during flood and drought periods. The present study was conducted to determine trends in the annual and seasonal total rainfall over Parambikulam Aliyar sub basin of Tamil Nadu using 30 years (1982-2012) monthly rainfall data at eight rain-gauge stations. The procedure is based on the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test for the trend and the nonparametric Sen’s method for the magnitude of the trend. The maximum increase in rainfall was found at Chinnakallar with an annual rainfall of 90.51 mm/year and the maximum reduction in rainfall of -8.60 mm/year was found at Topslip during South West monsoon. Significant positive trend were observed at Weaverly station during North East monsoon rainfall series and significant negative trend has been noticed in the South West monsoon of Topslip.

Title: Field evaluation of fungicides against Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif., causing purple blotch of onion (Allium cepaL.)
Abstract :

Field evaluation of several fungicides including new molecules was undertaken for the management of purple blotch disease of onion caused by Alternaria porri(Ellis) Cif. The experiments were conducted during kharif of 2012 and 2013 using susceptible variety Arka Nikethan.Cymoxanil 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP @ 2500 ppm and Mancozeb 70% WP @ 2500 ppm were effective in reducing the disease severity by 54.86 and 52.88 % over untreated control. However, Mancozeb 70% WP and Cymoxanil 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP recorded the maximum yield of 39.71 and 37.06 t/ha and obtained benefit cost ratio of 33.85 and 20.67. Thus these two fungicides can be recommended for the effective and economical management of the disease

Title: Influence of Storage Temperature on Chemical and Microbial Quality of Carotene Rich Pumpkin Powder
Abstract :

Attempts were made to store the carotene rich pumpkin powder at 30 + 2°C & 62+5% RH and 7 + 1°C & 80+5% RH in aluminum laminated flexible pouch for the period of 180 days. The shelf life was determined on the basis chemical and microbiological analysis of stored powder at an interval of every 15 days. As the storage period was increased from 0 to 180 days, the carotene retention was found to decrease. More carotene could be retained (82.95%) when pumpkin powder was stored at 7°C as compared to 52.28% retention at 30°C when the stored for 180 days. Standard plate count of pumpkin powder stored at 7°C was found to be only 440 cfu / g at the end of 180 days of storage. Similarly, yeast and mold count observed at the end of 180 days storage was only 7 cfu/g. Coliform was found to be absent throughout storage. Pumpkin powder was found to be more stable upto only 75 days, if stored at 30°C. However, it can be safely stored for almost 180 days, if stored at 7°C.

Title: Characterization of mungbean genotypes against mungbean yellow mosaic virus and cercospora leaf spot diseases under north east plain zone
Abstract :

Mungbean is an important legume crop due to its short behavior, nutritious and green mannuring nature. But it is highly affected by several diseases and other factors, which reduces the yield and seed quality. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) are the major disease of mungbean. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the 34 genotypes of mungbean against MYMV and CLS disease during Kharif 2012 under two different date of sowing. The present study indicated that the none of the genotype was found immune, resistant to MYMV and CLS, whereas five genotypes namely DMS 03-17-2, IPM 2K-14-9, P 1131, DMS 02-11-4 and IPM 99-1-6 were found with moderately resistant reaction. These genotypes may be added in breeding program for improvement of mungbean.

Title: Optimal design of flow rate in drip irrigation system to enhance the tomato cultivation
Abstract :

Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop next to potato. As far as conservation of soil and water is concerned, drip irrigation offers the most practical and effective alternative to regular surface irrigation among all the irrigation technique known today in the world. Researchers throughout the world are kin to obtain the optimal flow rate through drip irrigation for overall development of crop. In this study, attempt has been made to analysis the growth rate and yield of tomato plant at various flow rate of drip irrigation, and to determine the effect of fertigation through drip irrigation on growth and yield of tomato. In this study “Samartha F1 hybrid” variety of tomato seed was selected and cultivated over the farm size of 6×5 m2. The selected farm area was divided into two sections i.e. fertigation section and non-fertigation section. Three rows having ten plants in each row was transplanted in both sections. Growth of tomato plants in term of height and canopy was measured and compared with different flow rates. The average increment in the height of tomato plants at flow rate of 2 L/hr, 4 L/hr and 8 L/hr were estimated as 68%, 60% and 52% respectively. Yield of tomato in terms of fruits was estimated for three different flow rates of 2 L/hr, 4 L/hr and 8 L/hr. The yield of tomato is optimal when drip irrigation with 2 litres per second has been used for irrigating the farm land. Significant effect of fertigation through drip irrigation has been found on growth and yield of tomato plants.

Title: Biological removal of synthetic textile dye Reactive Red M5B by isolated white rot fungal culture AGYP-1 under optimized culture conditions
Abstract :

The contamination of soil and water by dye containing effluents is the major and most important environmental problem. The removal of 10 different synthetic textile dyes using white rot fungal isolate AGYP-1 was investigated. The screening of decolorization using solid and liquid media demonstrated an effective removal of Reactive Red M5B by the isolate. Laccase and MnP were found to be major enzymes involved in the decolorization. The dye decolorization efficiency of the isolate was further improved by optimizing various physico-chemical parameters. The isolate was capable to decolorize 100 mg l-1 dye at pH 5.0 and 30oC under shaking condition. The supplementation of maltose (20 g l-1) and gelatine (2.5 g l-1) improved the decolorization rate by 1.6 times along with 10.28 and 18.66 times higher production of laccase and MnP. A significant decolorization of 500 mg l-1 of the dye was achieved by the isolate AGYP-1. The degradation of Reactive Red M5B was confirmed by Uv-visible spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis. This suggests the potential application of the isolate AGYP-1 for the treatment of dye containing industrial effluents.

Title: Changes in fruit colour of Dusehari mangoes during ethephon induced ripening
Abstract :

The effect of ethephon on colour changes of Dusehari mango (Mangifera indica) fruits during ripening was examined. Physiological mature fruits were given post harvest dip of ethephon solution @ 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for five minutes. Treated fruits were packed in CFB boxes placed at ambient conditions for ripening. Fruit peel and pulp colour was determined after 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h after ripening treatments using Hunter Lab scale. Results revealed that all ethephon treatments enhanced colour development as compared to control. The luminosity of peel increased with increase in concentration of ethephon as well as with ripening period. The greenness of peel as reflected by ‘a’ values decreased with ripening treatments and period. However ‘a’ value for pulp increased with development of redness of tissue. The fruit peel developed yellowish colour with ethephon treatments as evidenced by increase in values of ‘b’. The effect of ethephon on colour changes at higher doses (800 ppm and 1000 ppm) was non-significant after 120 h of ripening period.

Title: Study of genetic variation among soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] accessions in CID values
Abstract :

A set of 91 diverse soybean accessions were analysed for 10 morphological traits with special reference to water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination (CID) technique. The coefficient of variation for CID values was found to be 3.36%. There is negative correlation between Δ13C values (CID values) and WUE. The genotypes which registered lower values of Δ13C are more water efficient than the genotypes with higher Δ13C values. The range of Δ13C values observed in this experiment are slightly lower than that reported in sugar beet (Δ13C 17.66‰ to 22.96‰), (Rajabi et al., 2009). Genotype UPSL309 has highest CID value (22.91‰) indicating low WUE and genotype DS9813 has lowest CID value (19.95 ‰) with high WUE. In present study randomly classified genotypes as high WUE (CID less than 20.5 ‰), medium WUE (CID between 20.6 to 22.4 ‰) and low WUE (CID above 22.5 ‰). There were 7 genotypes which were found to show high WUE, and 13 exhibited low WUE whereas, rests of the 71 genotypes were medium in WUE.

Title: Comparative analysis of Polyphenol Oxidase, Catalase and Lycopene production in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Abstract :

Antioxidant activity of tomato has been extensively studied but only in context of Lycopene. This study relates the activity of antioxidant enzymes (Polyphenol Oxidase and Catalase) along with Lycopene in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill at different growth stages of (Seedling, Flowering and Fruiting). Polyphenol Oxidase, Catalase (both partially purified) and Lycopene were estimated spectrophotometrically and presence of Lycopene was further confirmed through Thin Layer and High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography. Polyphenol Oxidase and Catalase could be partially purified with 2.61 (22.55% yield) and 2.11 (62.3% yield) fold purification respectively via ammonium sulphate precipitation respectively. Antioxidant enzymes showed maximum production at the seedling stage (Polyphenol Oxidases: 197.12U/ml and Catalase: 0.037U/ml) where Lycopene production was least; while Lycopene production was maximum in the fruiting stage (259.49mg/kg of fresh weigh) where enzyme activities were negligible. HPTLC analysis also supported the above findings. Linear Regression analysis of Lycopene, PPO and CAT were performed in which r (correlation coefficient) value for Lycopene and PPO was -0.9279108012 and for Lycopene and CAT was -0.7316992009; which indicated strong negative correlation between Lycopene and both the enzymes. It can be concluded that Antioxidant enzymes play their share at young stages while Lycopene at mature stage in antioxidant network of tomato.

Title: Genetic diversity and molecular analysis among cotton genotypes by EST-SSR markers.
Abstract :

Objective of this research work is to utilize EST- SSR markers for fibre quality traits to generate genetic diversity between tetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum) and diploid (Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboreum) cotton species at molecular level. Twenty four (24) genotypes of cotton and thirty five (35) EST SSR primers for different fibre quality traits (fibre length, Lint percentage, Boll weight and fibre strength) were taken for this study. Almost all primers reveals amplification in both diploid and tetraploid cotton species which indicates that flanking primer sequences are conserved in both genomes of cotton. Thirty one (31) EST SSR primers generate good and enormous amplicon and produced a total of four hundred seventy eight (478) sharp, similar and variable bands in all genotypes. Average number of bands amplified by each primer was 15.419. Statistical analysis for EST SSR data was conducted using software programme NTSYS pc version 2.02e and GeneAlEx. The genetic distance (GD) among the all genotypes of cotton were also analyzed and it is ranged from 0.05 to 0.71 which indicates significant diversity between all the genotypes of both tetraploid and diploid cotton species. The average observed mean heterozygosity was 0.60 and observed mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 60%.

Title: Temperature dependent electrical conductivities of ginger paste during ohmic heating
Abstract :

Ohmic heating is now regarded as highly attractive advanced technique for food processing wherein electric current is passed through the liquid particulates foods with primary purpose of heating them. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, method by which the food flows through the system and composition of the food. In this study, the ginger paste at different salt treatment (0-2% w/w) was heated in a laboratory scale ohmic heater by applying voltage gradients (5–13 V/cm). The temperature dependent electrical conductivity was obtained at different time interval of 0, 5 and 10 minute at different temperatures (30-60˚C). Bubbling was observed above 70˚C especially at high voltage gradients. The electrical conductivity measured in terms of point and bulk electrical conductivity. Point electrical conductivity was greater than bulk electrical conductivity. The point and bulk electrical conductivity values were in the range of 4.41 to 6.63 and 3.75 to 5.87 mS/cm respectively.

Title: Seasonal variations in peel colour in relation to fruit development of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.)
Abstract :

The studies on seasonal variations in peel colour of grapefruit cv. Star Ruby were carried out in order to explain the relationship between fruit growth and colour development. The fruit diameter of the grapefruit increased from 90 days after fruit set to the maturity of fruit. The seasonal variation in fruit diameter was recorded 12.83% during fruit development. The increase in a* coordinate, which represented the gradual loss of greenness, continued until mid-November at 210 DAFS. Calorimetric coordinate b* values always remained positive and increased until the fruit maturity and showed yellow tinge. The hue angle values decreased continuously from start of sampling to the harvest of fruit with appearance of pinkish-yellow tone. Seasonal variation in the hue angle was recorded 26.80%. The negative correlation was observed between hue angle and the fruit development with the advancement of fruit maturity. However, studies have reported positive correlation was recorded between colour space values (L*, a*, b* and C*) with fruit development. The maximum seasonal variation was noted in colour parameter a* (CV = 189.99%) and minimum seasonal variation was noted in L* (CV = 9.42%).

Title: Effect of precooling and chemical preservatives on post harvest longevity of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) florets
Abstract :

Investigations were carried out to study the effect of precooling and preservative chemicals on post harvest longevity of the florets of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajwal. The effect of precooling of tuberose florets in combination with four chemical treatments were studied and observations were recorded based on quality parameters like freshness of the florets, colour retention, physiological loss in weight and days to fifty per cent wilting. Pre-cooling of flower buds was found to improve the longevity (shelf life) of flower buds. Soaking of florets in 4 % Boric acid solution for two hours and air drying them before packing increased the shelf life up to six days.

Title: An overview and assessment of two wetlands in Eastern Thailand: Kung krabaen bay and welu wetlands in chanthaburi province
Abstract :

Climate change as occasioned by environmental degradation has led to innovative thought on how to preserve natural resources while also deriving benefits. Mangrove destruction, saline water intrusion, decline in fish stock and reduced livelihoods were factors that led to the establishment of Kung Krabaen Bay development study centre and the Welu wetland both in Chanthaburi province. The two wetlands provide important benefits to the people that live around it as well as tourists. Through the absorption and processing of wastes, these wetlands help maintain environmental quality and safety while also maintaining a biological balance of carbon IV oxide and other green house gases. Shrimp farm waste is treated in Kung Krabaen bay. A synthesis of Provisioning, Regulating, Cultural and Supportive benefits of the two wetlands is presented. Management regime involves integrated approach (Kung Krabaen Bay) and a co-management approach (Welu wetland). Direct and indirect drivers of change are analysed with management capacity to effectively manage these drivers being examined. The rational use of the resources provided by wetlands is a key factor in their conservation. Recovery from overexploitation may take time but these wetlands are showing resilience and there is need to improve management regimes via international cooperation.

Title: Seed and oil quality characteristics of some castor (Ricinus Communis L.) inbred lines
Abstract :

Castor (Ricinus communis L) is an important non-edible oilseed crop with diversified industrial usage. India is dominating in the production and productivity of castor. Thirteen inbred lines were studied for seed physical characteristics, oil quality, as well as fatty acid profile. Among the inbred studied, the maximum weight of 100 seed was 34.2 g, in JC-26, and maximum oil content was 51.3% in SKI-333. One hundred seed wt showed a positive correlation with % of kernel (r=0.472*) and seed oil content has positive correlation with kernel oil content (r=0.803**). Important oil characteristics for industrial use like specific gravity (g/cc) varied from 0.954 to 0.958 while the viscosity (cp) ranged from 604 to 626. The free Fatty acid as oleic acid was ranging between 4.33 to 6.02%. Among the fatty acid, the ricinolic acid was ranging from 83.93 to 87.02%, the minimum value was in 48-1 while the maximum value of ricinolic acid was recorded in DCS-9 inbred.

Title: Exploitation of heterosis and combining ability for earliness and vegetative traits in ridge gourd [luffa acutangula (roxb.)L.]
Abstract :

Eight parental lines and 28 F1 hybrids of ridge gourd obtained from half-diallel were studied to investigate the extent of combining ability and heterosis for earliness and vegetative characters. Appreciable heterosis in desirable direction was found over better parent and check parent for the characters viz. days to first female flower, node number to first female flower, vine length (m), number of primary branches and days taken to Ist fruit harvesting. Crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 142, PRG 117 X PRG 142, PRG 117 X PRG 131, PRG 117 X PRG 132 and PRG 117 X PRG 120 were found promising for earliness. Crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 117, PCPGR 7256 X PRG 131 and PRG 132 X PRG 120 were recorded promising for vegetative traits. Regarding general combining ability the parents PRG 117 and PRG 142 found best for earliness and for vegetative growth PRG 131 stood in top. The crosses PRG 131 X PRG 132 and PCPGR 7256 X PRG 142 showed highest specific combining ability for earliness and both the crosses PCPGR 7256 X PRG 117 and PRG 132 X PRG 120 found best for different vegetative traits.

Title: Arsenic distribution in environment and its bioremediation: A review
Abstract :

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring toxic metalloid which is introduced into the environment through natural geochemical processes and several anthropogenic actions. Since it is a carcinogen, there is an urgent need to efficiently remove As from contaminated soil and water. This review elaborates the chemistry and environmental distribution of As along with several bioremediation approaches to alleviate As pollution.

Title: Genetic diversity studies in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) using microsatellite markers
Abstract :

The objective of present study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism and identification of diverse parents among the 76 rice accessions using simple sequences repeat (SSR) markers. The accessions showed significant phenotypic variation for all the characters analyzed. The SSR Markers were highly polymorphic across all accessions and altogether 79 alleles were detected. The overall Polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.26 to 0.65 with an average of 2.82 per locus indicting high level of genetic variation. The cluster analysis showed the rice germplasm accessions grouped in to two major groups and 14 subgroups. The pair-wise genetic dissimilarity co-efficient indicated that the highest dissimilarity was obtained between cultivar B.3688-TB and IR.67017-1(0.1935) followed by cultivar Badi Kodi and Changhat (0.3333). These grmplasms were showing wide genetic divergence among the constituent in it and may be directly utilized in hybridization programme for improvement of yield related traits. The markers RM 413, RM 481, RM 206 and RM 20 produced a maximum of four alleles. These microsatellite markers could serve as a powerful tool in selecting genetically diverse germplasm accessions, to execute efficient selection in highly segregating generations.

Title: Measurement of employment, unemployment and underemployment of agricultural labour in tarai regions of Uttaranchal State and Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

In rural areas, both unemployment and underemployment exist side by side, the distinction between them is by no means sharp. The various sophistications and refinements brought about in the concepts and measurement of employment and unemployment, have not fully succeeded even in properly quantifying the above problems. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to measures the unemployment and under employment of agricultural labour in Tarai regions of uttaranchal state and Uttar Pradesh according to time and income criterion. In each state one district was selected randomly viz. Sidharth Nagar in Uttar Pradesh and U.S. Nagar in Uttaranchal state. From each of these two selected district, the Birdpur block in Sidharth Nagar district and Rudrapur block in U.S. Nagar district was selected randomly. The study is based on the 55 households in Birdpur block and 66 households in Rudrapur block. Thus, total sample consists of 121 agricultural labour households. The study pertained to the year 1999-2000. In order to achieve the objective simple averages and percentages were used. The findings of the study reveals that the unemployment and under employment measured by time and income criteria for agricultural labour household as well as agricultural labour was higher in Uttar Pradesh as compared to Uttaranchal state. It is, therefore, suggested that more avenues of employment must be provided at the village level, including provision of loans for the purchase of inputs, cross bred cattle, and land distribution among agricultural labourers.

Title: Comparative evaluation of IPM module and farmer’s practices in Mungbean, Vigna Radiata (L.) Wilczek against major insect pests
Abstract :

Results indicated that IPM module proved comparatively economical against major insect pests of mungbean over farmer’s practices. The results revealed that, IPM module i.e., Mungbean with seed treatment of Imidacloprid 600 FS (5ml kg-1) followed by one spray of NSKE (5%) at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and chemical insecticide Triazophos 40 EC 0.04 per cent of the crop, were effective in reducing the incidence of White fly, MYMV, Jassids and Thrips and gave higher grain yield than farmer’s practices. Present study indicates that IPM is definitely better over non-IPM practices under different pest population numbers. IPM implies the rational integration of various methods of insect pests control to suppress the pest population below ETL. Therefore, farmers should be made aware of its benefits and motivated to critically analyze and make decisions regarding pest management practices.

Title: Evaluation of suitable antagonists in the management of early blight of tomato cultivar CO-3
Abstract :

Early blight of tomato is one of the most destructive diseases caused by Alternaria solani causing considerable loss to quality and quantity of fruits. To avoid chemical fungicides in the management of this menace, soil borne rhizospheric organisms were isolated and evaluated against the pathogen. Different antagonists i.e Aspergillus sp. Trichoderma sp. Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. were used against most virulent isolates of A. solani under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Maximum in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria solani was observed in case of Trichoderma sp. (87.69%) followed by Aspergillus sp. (84.23%) as compared to control. Under glass house conditions Trichoderma sp. exhibited a similar efficacy with a percent disease control ranging from 82.6-91.3.

Title: Interrelationship between fruit quality and pre-harvest calcium chloride treatment on peach Cv. ‘Shan-I-Punjab’
Abstract :

The effectiveness of pre-harvest calcium, chloride on post-harvest life and quality of peach fruits were studied. Calcium chloride viz. 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% was sprayed to peach plants at pit hardening stage, 10 and 20 days after pit hardening. Peach fruits harvested at physiological mature stage were sorted, washed, air dried and packed in CFB boxes before placing in cold store (temperature 0-10 and RH 85-90%). Changes in PLW, fruit firmness, sensory quality, pulp: stone, total sugars, total phenolics and calcium content were studied. Calcium chloride @ 1.5% (three sprays) resulted in minimum PLW, total sugars and maximum fruit firmness, sensory quality score, pulp: stone, total phenolics and calcium content during the stipulated storage period.

Title: Effect of moisture regimes and pesticides of different biodegradability on transformation of different forms of inorganic and organic N in a dominant soil series of West Bengal
Abstract :

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of pesticides of different biodegradability on changes in inorganic and organic forms of N in soil maintained under two different moisture regimes. Results revealed that irrespective of pesticides and N treatment, comparatively higher amount of available N is recorded in waterlogged then the soil kept at 60% MHC. Addition of pesticides at lower dose affects the transformation process of organic N in soil. Irrespective of pesticide treatment, in general, hydrolysable NH4+ -N decreased but on the other hand amino acid N increased in soil. Again, the intensity of decrease or increase is more in waterlogged than the soil maintained under 60% of the MHC.

Title: Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Vegetative and Propagule Characters in Gladiolus and Induction of Homeotic Mutants
Abstract :

Uniform and healthy corms of eight gladiolus varieties ( Yellow Golden, Nathan Red, White Friendship, American Beauty, Red Majesty, Purple Flora and Algarve) were irradiated with different doses (0, 25, 40, 55 and 70 Gy) of gamma rays from 60Co source and planted under open field condition in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with factorial concept. Each treatment was replicated thrice.Plants treated with higher doses (55 Gy and 70 Gy) showed deleterious effect of ionising radiations although at lowest dose (25 Gy) plants were not affected much. Plant height was reduced after irradiation as compare to untreated plants and was recorded minimum at highest doses. Number of shoots per plant was slightly increased at 25 Gy treatment (1.62) in vM2 as compare to untreated plants (1.42). Significant effect of gamma irradiation on corm and cormel characters was noticed. Maximum number of corms per plant was recorded in plants treated with 25 Gy and minimum at 70 Gy. Among all the varieties Nathan Red had maximum number (1.75, 1.97) and weight (73.29gm, 79.33gm) of corms per plant in vM1 as well as vM2 generation. Number of cormels per plant was also reduced with the increase in gamma rays dose. Maximum number of cormels per plant (227.83) was recorded in the interaction of Algarve variety with 25 Gy gamma ray dose in vM2. Homeotic mutants were isolated from all the varieties at 55 and 70 Gy except American Beauty and Red Majesty variety.

Title: Biochemical Investigation on Antioxidative and Antinutritional Characters of Yellow Seeded Brassica Genotypes for Quality Assessment
Abstract :

Yellow seeded Brassica is one of the most important oilseed crop cultivated in many parts of the world. The oil is consumed predominantly as edible oil and the defatted meal cake is utilized as animal/poultry feed. In the present study, intact seeds and defatted meal of 12 yellow-seeded Brassica genotypes evaluated for the presence of anti-oxidative and anti-nutritive factors. The maximum phenolic, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, flavonoid contents observed for Bio 39(16.946 mg/g), Bio 30(2.38 mg/g) and Bio 39(8.282 mg/g) respectively. The crude fibre, phytic acid and glucosinolate contents were found to be minimum in Bio 21 (6.95%), Bio 2 (3.632%) and Bio 38 (54.324 µmole/g) respectively. Vitamin C content was maximum in Bio 36 and Bio 3. The α-tocopherol content was observed to be maximum Bio 2 (61.875 mg/100g). The total antioxidant activity varied from 5.95 mg AAE/g in Bio 28 to 14.395 mg AAE/g in Bio 39. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed to be maximum in Bio 30 and reducing power was found to be maximum in Bio 21(0.867 ± 0.023). The present findings may be utilized for determining the quality status to ascertain their potential for development of better cultivar.

Title: Evaluation of Castor Stems Residue for Cellulose and Lignin Content
Abstract :

Castor is an important crop of arid and semi-arid regions of the country. The castor cultivation in India is increasing year after year. In India, Gujarat and Rajasthan are two major states producing more than 80% of total castor production. The castor seeds are crushed or expelled to get castor oil, which is further used to make many important derivatives for industrial purposes. Castor being more remunerative crop to farmers of arid and semi arid region and the adoption of castor cultivation has improved the livelihood of farmers. Due to non-perishable nature of castor seeds, sometimes farmers store castor for long times growing seasons without any reduction in marketable quality of castor seeds. Cellulose is the major component of castor plant and the paper is composed of cellulose fibers. Paper and pulp industry has found suitability of use of sugarcane bagasse as raw material for paper production. Castor GCH-7 hybrid plants attained an average height of 100-110 cm with 25-30 branches. The diameter of main spike branch and sub-spike branches were ranged between 3.0-5.0 cm and 2.0 to 3.0 cm, respectively. The cellulose content was observed to 45.7%. The present study showed that the cellulose content in castor stem was remarkably higher than the other agro waste, therefore have potential to be used in paper industry, which was around 11% more than sugarcane bagasse, 25% more than rice straw and 50% more than wheat straw. In the present study, the lignin content was found 17.2%. The present study showed that the lignin content in castor stem was less than the other agro waste used in paper industry, which was around 30% less than sugarcane bagasse, 40% less than rice straw while 7% more than wheat straw. The ash content of castor samples was observed to 2.3%.

Title: Yield sustainability and chemical fertilizer economy through IPNS in capsicum (Capsicum Annum L. Var. grossum) under dry temperate condition of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

A field experiment to evaluate the effect of five organic sources of plant nutrients and three fertility levels on productivity and economics of tomato was conducted during Kharif seasons of 2006 and 2007 under dry temperate region of HAREC, Kukumseri (L&S), Himachal Pradesh. Among organic sources, application of FYM @ 5 t/ha has recorded the higher values for all yield attributes except No. of branches/plant and was followed by FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Azotobacter. However both these treatments were significantly at par with each other in recording significantly more No. of branches/plant, higher yield and productivity. Significantly higher economic efficiency of Rs. 1567.6 was achieved with the application of FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Azotobacter and was followed by FYM @ 5 t/ha (1567.6 Rs./ha/day). Increase in the level of NPK has significant influence on yield, productivity and economic efficiency. Significantly higher values of different yield attributes were recorded with the application of 150% NPK which was reflected in getting significantly higher capsicum yield (190.0 q/ha) and productivity (1.04 q/ha/day) with greater economic efficiency of 1766.7 Rs./ha/day.

Title: Characterization of Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) Genotypes in Ladakh Region of India
Abstract :
Ladakh region includes Leh and Kargil districts of Jammu and Kashmir in India. The region is cold and arid limiting the growing of fruit crops. The study aims to characterize walnut diversity in the region which would be resourceful in the near future for various purposes and boost up walnut cultivation. Four genotypes are selected from various walnut growing areas of Ladakh viz. G1 from Skara, G2 from Nurla, G3 from Temisgam and G4 from Dhomkhar. It was evident that majority of the genotypes exhibited intermediate tree vigour with spreading nature of growth habit, glabrous shoot pubescence and leaf and rachis pubescence, strong shell seal and shell strength with good nut diameter and nut length, satisfactory kernel flavor, well filled kernel and easy removal of kernel halves. Leaflet shape observed was elliptic, leaflet margin was entire, green leaf and rachis colour, brown shoot colour, complete shell integrity and kernel plumpness was moderate in all the four genotypes. The branching habit was dense in genotypes G3 and G4, intermediate in G1 and intermediate to dense in G2. In general, the highest value of leaf length and kernel percentage was recorded in G2. G3 exhibited the maximum width of leaf, number of leaflets, inshell nut weight and kernel weight. The nut shape was broad to ovate in G2 and G3, while G1 was broad ovate and G4 was broad elliptic in shape. The shell texture of G2 and G4 was medium while G3 was medium to rough and G1 was rough. The shell colour of G1 was light, medium in G2, light to medium in G3 and medium to dark in G4. The shell thickness recorded the maximum in G4. The kernel colour was light in G2 and G4, while extra light and light to amber was observed in G1and
G3 respectively.
Title: Time Series Modeling for Trend Analysis and Forecasting Wheat Production of India
Abstract :

Wheat is one of the most important staple food grains of human for centuries. It has a special place in the Indian  economy because of its significance in food security, trade and industry. This study made an attempt to model and forecast the production of wheat in India by using annual time series data from 1961-2013. Parametric regression, exponential smoothing and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were employed and compared for finding out an appropriate econometric model to capture the trend of wheat production of the country. The best fitted model was selected based on the performance of several goodness of fit criteria viz. Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Squared Error (MSE), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (SBC) and R-squared values. The assumptions of ‘Independence’ and ‘Normality’ of error terms were examined by using the ‘Run-test’ and ‘Shapiro-Wilk test’ respectively. This study found ARIMA (1,1,0) as most appropriate to model the wheat production of India. The forecasted value by using this model was obtained as 100.271 million tones (MT) by 2017-18.

Title: Micronutrient Analysis by Ion Chromatography and AAS, Pasting Properties, and Shelf-life Study of Sugar Free Biscuit Inriched with Fenugreek Seed Powder and Natural Sweetener Stevia
Abstract :

The colour of sugar free biscuit was recorded by hunter colour flex and the L*, a*, b*, value was 46.40, 12, 20.29, respectively. Developed sugar free biscuit was rich in calcium and magnesium and their concentration were observed 294.8mg/100g and 451.5mg/100g respectively by ion chromatography. Atomic absorption spectroscopy of developed sugar free biscuits was also performed for mineral analysis and reported that it contains iron (1.93mg/100g), copper (0.065mg/100g), and zinc (0.325 mg/100g). Fortified sugar free biscuits was also analysed by rapid visco analyser for pasting properties of starch, gelatin ionization of starch. The shelf-life of sugar free biscuit was lower at 37oC than at 10oC and 25oC. The HMF (Hydroxy Methyl Furfural) concentration which indicates the mallard reaction at a higher temperature and with increasing days of storage, the HMF concentration was also increased. The HMF increased to 6.1, 6.3, 6.5 μmol/100g at 10, 25, 37oC respectively after 30 days from 5.1 mol/100g which was the HMF value initially. The TBA (Thiobarbituric acid) also increased the most at 30 days storage at 10 oC as compared to 25 oC and 37oC, TBA value was 0.254, 0.265 and 0.286 respectively. The same result was seen in moisture content 5.1, 5.25., 5. 5% at 10 oC, 25 oC, 37 oC respectively from 4% of moisture initially content. The Microbiological studies concluded that the product was safe with no yeast and mould growth and coliform was also not detected. Only total plate count after 30 days was found 3×10 CFU/ml. The product was found safe for consumption even after 30 days of storage.

Title: Impact of Non Timber Forest Produces (NTFPs) on Food and Livelihood Security: An Economic Study of Tribal Economy in Dang’s District of Gujarat, India
Abstract :

The present study attempted to assess the contribution of NTFPs to income and employment by ensuring food and livelihood security for the tribal economy in Dang’s district of Gujarat. This indicates that most employment (42.51%) was generated by the wage sector followed by NTFPs collection (31.67%) and livestock rearing (15.85%) respectively. About 42 species of NTFPs were found to be collected and utilized for various purposes such as food, medicines, and raw materials for making implements and also as a source of income. It suggested that alternate sources of income to the villagers to improve their socio-economic conditions as well as increasing the income level and employment opportunities by effective collection and selling of Non-Timber Forest Products.

Title: Mass Transfer Kinetics during Osmotic Dehydration of Pineapple Samples Coated with Pectin
Abstract :

The effect of process conditions on the mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of coated pineapples was studied. Pineapple samples were coated with 0.5 to 5.0% (w/v) pectin solution prior to osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution. The time of dipping in the coating solution was kept at 60 and 120 s followed by oven drying time of 10 and 40 min to solidify the coating. Water loss, solid gain, performance ratio and weight reduction were measured during osmotic dehydration of both coated and uncoated samples. Water loss of coated samples was more than the uncoated samples in coating solution of 0.5 to 3% concentration whereas solid gain of coated samples was less than the uncoated samples at all the concentrations of coating solution. Increase in drying time led to decrease in both water loss and solid gain. PR values increased as the concentration of coating agent increased from 0.5 to 1% and further increase in the concentration above 1% resulted in decreased PR. The highest value of performance ratio of 5.89 was observed in samples dipped in coating solution of 1% concentration for 120 s followed by oven drying for 40 min.

Title: An Overview on Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and its Genetic Diversity
Abstract :
Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual, self-pollinated species with a genome size of ~ 370 Mb. Flax provides raw materials for food, medicine and textiles and hence it has been of great importance to human culture and development. Linseed oil is well-known for its health benefits mainly attributed to its high content of omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (55-57%). Consumption of grounded seeds adds nutritional benefits because flax seeds are also a rich source of lignans, having anticancer properties. India contributes
to almost 20% of world’s linseed production and governs linseed production among the Asian countries whereas, the scenario is just reverse in case of fibre flax. In the last decade, the fibre industry has devoted some effort to develop high-value products from linseed stems with applications in the pulp, technical fibre and biofuel industries. Therefore, understanding its genetic diversity is important for the continued improvement of this crop and as well as for its utilization as a truly dual purpose crop. Diversity analysis based on morphology alone has a significant limitation in the fact that it is highly influenced by the environment, to overcome this problem; molecular characterization can play an important role. However, systematic studies regarding the genetic diversity of flax in India are meagre. Hence, in-depth studies based on both morphological and molecular markers will help in better conceiving the genetic diversity
of flax germplasm
Title: Dissipation Studies of Metribuzin in Alfisol Soils and its Terminal Residues in Potato Tubers
Abstract :

A field investigation was conducted to determine dissipation behaviour in soil and terminal residues of metribuzin in potato crop applied at half the recommended dose (0.25 kg. ha-1), recommended dose (0.50 kg. ha-1) and double the recommended dose (1.00 kg. ha-1). Soil samples at different time intervals after herbicide spray and potato tuber samples at the maturity of crop were collected, processed and subjected to metribuzin residue analysis by a validated gas chromatography method with an accepted recovery of above 80%. In all herbicide treatments, more than 90% of applied herbicide in soil dissipated within 45 days after herbicide application. Metribuzin residues in potato tubers at the time of harvest were below detectable levels. This indicated that the metribuzin did not leave any residues in potato tuber at any of the applied doses. From the study, it may be concluded that pre emergence application of metribuzin in potato for weed management could be considered safe, as its residues were below the prescribed MRL (0.05 mg. kg-1).

Title: Effect of intensity of pruning on yield and fruit quality of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L) cv. UMRAN
Abstract :

A study was conducted at Regional Research Station, Bathinda to determine the effect of different pruning intensities on yield and fruit quality of ber cv. Umran. The secondary branches of ber trees were pruned at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 bud levels and control i.e., no pruning. The fruit yield decreased with the increase in intensity of pruning. The maximum fruit weight and fruit size in terms of fruit length and fruit breadth was obtained in trees pruned at 8th bud level followed by the trees pruned at 10th level and minimum in the trees kept under control. The pulp percentage and pulp stone ratio was maximum in the fruit of the trees pruned at 8th bud level. TSS content was maximum in the fruits pruned at 8th bud levels followed by 10th and 12th bud levels and minimum under control. The acid content of the fruits was also not influenced by pruning intensities.

Title: Method Validation for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Tomato with GC-MS/MS (TQD) for Food Safety Testing
Abstract :

Pesticide residues analysis in fruits and fresh vegetables is a challenge for food safety as the gap between pesticide sprays and harvests is very less in vegetables. A multi residue method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 64 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) using QuEChERS extraction method and GC-MS/MS (Triple Quadrupole) for analysis. Eight different concentrations of certified reference materials from 0.05 ppm to 0.30 ppm were injected in GC-MS/MS with MRM method, in six replications, and R2 ranged from 0.990-0.999 with RSD of 0.55 to 11.24. The sample preparation approach is through adoption of QuEChERS method, untreated control tomato samples were fortified with mixture of pesticides at 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg/kg, each is five replications, and the recovery of pesticides is in the range of 80-95%, and hence method can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 64 pesticides in/on tomato for monitoring studies.

Title: Distribution and Availability of Sulphur in some Terai Soils under Subtropical Zone of Eastern India
Abstract :

A study was conducted in some terai soils under subtropical zone of Eastern India considering some soil series and some benchmark sites to evaluate distribution of available sulphur status and important soil attributes on sulphur availability. The total S content was found to vary widely from 191.18 to 530.40 mg kg-1 with an average of 309.21 mg kg-1. The percentage contribution of organic S, sulphate S, adsorbed S, heat soluble S and water soluble S varied from 29.62 to 85.02, 7.85 to 9.94, 0.23 to 9.82, 5.97 to 17.59 and 1.77 to 6.80 per cent to total sulphur in soil samples. Available S was significantly and positively correlated to organic carbon, total N, clay and silt+clay, oxalate-Fe, CBD-Fe and only negative correlated with pH (r = -0.02). Organic S exhibited significant and positive correlations with sulphate, water soluble S, heat soluble S and adsorbed S and played major role in sulphur availability. Significantly positive correlations of sulphate S with water soluble (r = 0.80**), heat soluble (r = 0.70**) and adsorbed S (r = 0.46**) and organic form of S (r = 70**) were found. A significantly positive correlation was observed between water soluble and heat soluble S. Among the soil properties, organic carbon, total N, silt+ clay, CBD-extractable Al and Fe influenced mostly on variability of available S in these soils.

Title: Zinc biofortification and agronomic indices of pearl millet under semi-arid region
Abstract :

Zinc deficiency is a global challenge and improving the grain Zn concentration of cereal crops is a high-priority research area. An investigation was conducted in 2011-12 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) fertilizer on zinc biofortification in pearl millet. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (factorial), with four nitrogen rates (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg N/ha) and three rates of zinc (0, 5 and 10 kg Zn/ha) with three replication. The grain yield significantly increased 47.65% from 0 to 60 kg N/ha and 31.47 % from 0 to 10 kg Zn/ha. Nitrogen and zinc significantly interact and recorded highest zinc content (26.1 mg/kg) with 20 kg N with 5 kg Zn/ha. The agronomic efficiency, partial factor productivity and apparent recovery efficiency (nitrogen and zinc) diminished as nitrogen and zinc rates increased. An interaction was recorded with nitrogen and zinc fertilizer for partial factor productivity (nitrogen) with 20 kg N with 10 kg Zn/ha and for apparent recovery efficiency (Zn) with 20 kg N with 5 kg Zn/ha.

Title: Extent and Correlates of Knowledge of Farmers regarding Scientific Potato Production Technologies in Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

The productivity of potato in hilly state of Himachal Pradesh is far below than the national average. Major reason is low adoption rate of improved varieties and technologies due to lack of knowledge. Present study was conducted in Shimla, Mandi and Kangra district of HP during year 2011-12 to find out the extent of knowledge of potato farmers about scientific potato production technology and knowledge gap in relation to different package of practices for potato cultivation. A total of 90 respondents, (30 from each district) constituted the sample of the present study. Data was collected by interview method using structured interview schedule and subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. The findings revealed that a majority of the respondents (78.8%) had medium to low knowledge level about scientific potato production technology. Maximum knowledge gap was found in practices like weed management (73.3%) followed by seed treatment before storage (70%) and insect-pest management (68.8%). Majority of farmers were having knowledge about improved varieties, method of fertilizer application, row to row and plant to plant spacing and planting operations. Socio-personal-economic variables like education, land holding and annual income were significantly and positively correlated with knowledge level of farmers.

Title: Study of in vitro selection and plant regeneration of Indica rice tolerant to iron
Abstract :

Iron tolerant callus lines of Indica rice Vars. Khandagiri and Jagannath has been achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Kinetin, 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D, 12 mM Fe. Somatic embryos derived from both tolerant non-tolerant calluses are germinated on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.25 mg/l 1-napthalen-eacetic acid (NAA) and 12 mM Fe within four weeks of subculture. The growth parameters like fresh and dry weight of callus, growth tolerance index, enzyme activity (Catalase and Peroxidase) and biochemical markers were used as indicators of iron tolerance. Measurements as early as two weeks after the beginning of the treatments did not yield consistent results. However, the growth tolerance index in the four weeks after the beginning of treatments yielded significant differences among non-tolerant and tolerant calluses. The enzyme activity is enhanced in the tolerant calluses than non-tolerant one. The in vitro raised plantlets derived from tolerant callus lines are grown in vitro in the presence of BA, NAA and 12 mM iron. The tolerant plantlets are established in the pots with iron-rich soil. This study will help to develop iron tolerant rice plants for breeding program.

Title: Influence of different protected cultivation structures on water requirements of winter vegetables
Abstract :

Protected cultivation structures provide favourable environment for crop growth thereby achieving greater yield and high quality produce. Green house, polyhouse, shade net house & low tunnels are different types of protected cultivation structures, which are commonly adopted for crop cultivation. During extreme cold in winter season (November-February) vegetables can be grown under green house structure. Accurate irrigation scheduling in protected cultivation structures is one of the important factors in achieving high yields and avoiding loss of quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of protected cultivation structures (Poly house, shade net house and shadow hall) on temperature, relative humidity and water requirement of vegetable crops (Tomato, Cucumber, Capsicum, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Broccoli & Brinjal) with drip irrigation system grown during winter season (November-February). FAO-56 Penman Monteith approach was used to estimate the reference crop evapotranspiration under different kind of protected cultivation structures with different vegetable crops. Study shows that vegetable production in winter for sub humid region reduces due to fall in temperature below optimum level. Green house structure offers a solar energy saver and enhances temperature inside the structures. Daily average reference crop evapotranspiration value was found to be minimum for shadow hall (1.2-2.9 mm day-1) followed by polyhouse (1.3-3.2 mm day-1), shadenet house (1.4-3.7 mm day-1) and open field (2.0-4.9 mm day-1) condition. The total water requirement of drip irrigated vegetable crops in protected cultivation structure is reduced by about 35.6 %, 35.2 % and 25.5 % respectively under shadow hall, poly house and shade net house in comparison to open field cultivation.

Title: Perchlorate Uptake and its Effect on Physiological, Biochemical and Growth Parameters of Eucalyptusplant under Ammonium Perchlorate Stress
Abstract :

Perchlorate is a significant environmental pollutant affecting public health. When entered in ecosystem it is highly toxic. Present investigation focused on the influence of perchlorate on physiological and biochemical parameters of Eucalyptus citriodora and also its accumulation in plant tissue and depletion from soil. Eucalyptus plants were treated with varying concentration of ammonium perchlorate from 1000ppm, 2000ppm, 5000ppm and 10000 ppm. Perchlorate inside the plant tissue and in soil was quantified at regular intervals. Amount of perchlorate inside plant tissue observed to increase with number of days after treatment and is proportional to concentration of perchlorate in soil. Morphological characters like shoot length, root length, number of leaf were observed to decrease with increasing concentration of perchlorate. The present study revealed decrease in chlorophyll and reducing sugar content in leaf tissue under varying concentration of perchlorate and is indirectly proportional to amount of perchlorate. While total protein, proline, and phenol content showed a gradual increase with increase in concentration of perchlorate and in different experimental set up, suggesting increase in non-enzymatic stress parameters with increased level of toxicity. An increased activity of peroxidase enzyme was observed with increased dose of ammonium perchlorate. It can be concluded that perchlorate related influence on plant are both qualitative and quantitative and depends upon its concentration and duration of exposure.

Title: Adult Plant Resistance of Wheat Entries to Black Rust Race 40-A
Abstract :

Genetic resistance is the most efficient, economical and environmental friendly approach against black rust of wheat. Although, evolution of new physiological races/pathotypes which can overcome the response of current resistant cultivar has engender to focus on evaluation of large number of wheat germplasms, breeding materials, cultivars for their reaction to black rust. Field based assessment for adult plant resistance in promising fifty entries against predominant pathotype 40-A of black rust revealed that forty eight entries showed resistance with lower AUDPC value in the range of 0 to 240 as compared to highly susceptible check varieties i.e. Lok 1 and Agra Local which showed AUDPC value of 1305 and 2000, respectively. But, amongst the forty eight resistant entries, forty entries showed durable resistance due to slower development of disease under high disease pressure which could be due to the presence of effective adult plant resistance Sr genes. Result of correlation coefficient between CI with both the disease parameters i.e. AUDPC (r=99**) and FRS (r=98**) also showed highly significant positive association.

Title: Decomposition Bt Cotton Residues affecting Soil microbial activity under varied Soils
Abstract :

The effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton residues on soil microbiological activity was investigated. Greenhouse study was carried out during the 2011 wet season (March to August) at Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University. It was experimented on three different soil orders that included entisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138) and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138) were grown until maturity along with one control treatment. Microbial population count, Dehydrogenage activity and Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC) were estimated following standard protocols. The decomposition of cotton crop residues resulted increased micro-flora populations and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). When residue was retained, non- Bt cotton showed higher populations of micro-flora as well as MBC that of Bt-cotton. Results from the study revealed that a significant reduction (7.5%) of the dehydrogenase activity was there in case of Bt-cotton. The interaction effect between soil type and varieties was found to be non significant for the soil micro-flora populations for different sampling stages throughout the incorporation period.These results suggest that Bt-transgenic cotton tissues have no apparent effect on soil microbial activity.

Title: Energy conversion study on cumbu napier CO-4
Abstract :
Agriculture has for several years formed the backbone of Indian economy, contributing approximating 30.2% of the gross domestic product employing over 77% of the population above 10 years of age (Surajit, 2012). Developing countries like India produce large quantities of agro-residues such as rice husks, bagasse, groundnut shells, co
Title: Analysis of Heterosis on Morphological and Qualitative Traits in Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon Mill) for Salinity Tolerance.
Abstract :

The present study was carried out for the assessment of heterotic performance of 44 hybrids and their parents including check under saline ecosystem at Vegetable Research Form, NDUAT Kumarganj Faizabad U.P. These F1s were produced by using Line x tester mating design. The crosses, which displayed superiority over better parent and standard variety for total yield per plants, also exhibited significant heterosis for some/most of the major component traits. The most worthy common crosses selected on the basis of per se performance, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for different traits in both environments were Bilahi-2 x H-86 and Himlata x H-86 for total yield; MM x H-88 and KS-60 x H-24 for number of fruits plant-1 in E2, MM x H-86 and MM x H-88 for average fruit weight in E1 and EC 168282 x H-24 in E2 for length of fruits; Himlata x H-88 in both experiment and NDT-2 x H-88 in E2 for diameter of fruits and Himlata x H-86 in E1 and NDT-2 x H-86 in E2 for early yield plant-1. However, for agronomical traits, Bilahi-2xH-86 in both environments for plant height as well as number of primary branches plant-1 was observed as voluble cross combination. Promising hybrid identified for the characters important to processing and quality point of view, were MM x H-88 in both environments for total soluble solids; EC 2291-2 x H-88 in both environments for Ascorbic acid content and EC 7343 x H-24 in E1 and Bilahi-2 x H-88 in E2 for pericarp thickness. However, none of the crosses were common for titrable acidity in both the environments in relation to above three parameters i.e. per se performance, standard heterosis and heterobeltiosis.

Title: Effectiveness of Different Mordants and Concentrations on the Dyeing Properties of Jackfruit (Atrocarpus heterophyllus) Bark on Silk
Abstract :

A study was carried out to assess the effect of different mordants and concentrations on the colouring characteristics of jackfruit bark dye on silk. Six types of mordants, viz. citric acid, alum, ferrous sulphate, aluminum sulphate, copper sulphate and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) were used, each at 1, 2 and 3% of weight of the fabric (o.w.f.). The material liquor ratio was maintained at 1:40. The Hunterlab colour scale was used to analyse the variations in colour and intensities. The results indicated that the maximum change in colour with respect to the undyed silk fabrics was for 2% alum treated samples with the ΔE* value of 27.08±0.29. However, the values were not significantly different from the samples treated with FeSO4 mordant at 2% and 3% levels, CuSO4 mordant at 2% level and alum at 3% level. The change in chroma (ΔC*) value was maximum for the alum (2%) mordant (24.44±0.2). The analysis on colour fastness with respect to washing, rubbing and sunlight also indicated that all mordants and concentrations used in the study excepting 1% alum offered adequate fastness characteristics. The unmordanted samples exhibited moderate fastness. In view of the colour fastness with respect to washing, rubbing and exposure to light, the jackfruit bark dye can be applied on silk with any of the selected mordants at 3% level.

Title: Optimal Size of Fish Pond for Socio-Economical Development of Cachar (Assam)
Abstract :

Aquaculture is one of the main sources of livelihood of the state of Assam in the northeast of India. In this study, Cachar district of Assam has been selected to study and assess the impact of various sizes of fish farm on the economic condition of farmers. The study was conducted in the villages of 5 blocks namely Borjalenga, Tapang, Narsingpur, Sonai and Palonghat with an objective to suggest optimum size of the pond and analyze the production rate of different type of fish farm. The data was collected from around 169 farmers by the principle of participatory rural appraisal a method used by non- governmental organizations. Most of the farmers are not much educated and most of them lived below poverty line. The number of medium size ponds (0.5 to 1 hectare), and small farm ponds (between 0.3 to 0.5 hectare) are highest followed by very small (less than 0.3 hectare) and then large size ponds (more than 1 hectare). In the study area, both excavated and embankment type pond exist. The results indicate that even with possession of small and medium size fish farms, better annual production rate of fish can be achieved by better management practices. 83% of all fish farms in Cachar district are very small, small or medium size fish farms. Only 17% of the farms are of large size. The annual production is remarkably good for small and medium size farms. The results indicate that small and medium farm sizes have better annual production rate than other farms. Thus, small to medium farms are economically more viable for the Cachar district.

Title: Mechanical properties of onion seeds (Allium cepa variety aggregatum L.) under compression loading
Abstract :

Some mechanical properties of onion seeds were investigated in this study. These properties are often required for the design of transportation, storage and grading/sorting machines and other post harvest machines for onion seeds. The seeds were compressed along three mutually perpendicular axes and the properties studied were initial rupture force, rupture force, deformation at rupture and energy consumed at rupture. The ranges of moisture content investigated were 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15% (db), respectively. The tests were carried out at a deformation rate of 70% strain energy. Onion seeds were compressed along major axes (length), intermediate axes (Breadth) and minor axes (thickness), respectively. Physical properties like dimensions, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and mass were also evaluated. It was observed from the results that rupture force, Peak force and energy consumed at rupture decreased with increase in moisture content and the deformation at rupture increased with increase moisture content.

Title: Profiling of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Jaunpuri Giant Raddish Rhizosphere
Abstract :Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Jaunpuri Giant Newar variety of radish was selected to study the PGPR profiling due to its peculiar growth features.The analysis of PGPR was based on their plant growth promotion (PGP) attributes, requirement of carbon substrates, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rDNA homology. In search of efficient PGPR strains associated with radish cv. Jaunpuri Giant Newar rhizosphere, a total 115 isolates were randomly selected and screened for PGP attributes, out of which twenty isolates showing multifarious PGP traits were selected for detailed study. Metabolic characterization of representative strains revealed a large versatility with respect to carbon utilization. ARDRA revealed ten clusters composed of 1–5 strains. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identiûed as Micrococcus luteus, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp., Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Leifsonia sp., P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, Nesterenkonia terrae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from India as far as systematic, genetic and functional diversity of PGPR in radish rhizosphere region is concerned. Additionally, the generated information may serve as a baseline data for developing effective bio-inoculants to improve plant growth and biotic stress management of radish in an eco-compatible manner. Highlights • A total of 115 isolates were obtained from rhizospheric region of Radish cv. Jaunpuri Giant Newar. • Among115, 20 isolates showing multiple PGP traits were characterized by BIOLOG, RFLP and ARDRA. • Representative isolates from each group resulted from ARDRA were identified by 16S rDNA sequence homology. • Most of the identified isolates were related to genera Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Agrobacterium, Micrococcus, Leifsonia and Nesterenkonia.
Title: Effect of Sr2+ on Mitotic Activity and Chromosomal Behavior in Root Meristem of Allium cepa L.
Abstract :The effect of Strontium chloride ranging from 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm on the mitotic activity and chromosomal behavior in root meristem of Allium cepa for 24h, 48h and 72h was studied. Accumulation of Sr2+ in the root meristem reduced the root growth of Allium cepa which was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer) using strontium lamp-68 at 460 nm.Concentrations higher than 20 ppm of Sr2+ applied for 24h were toxic for Allium cepa. The non-lethal concentrations of Sr2+ showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root tips of Allium cepa and caused a decrease in their mitotic index values. All treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases as compared with the control values. Sr2+ treatments produced a number of mitotic abnormalities in dividing cells in root tips of plants resulting from its action on the spindle apparatus such as C-metaphases, lagging chromosomes and multipolar anaphases and Binucleate. The induction of chromosomal stickiness and chromosomal aberrations such as bridges and breaks indicates its action on the chromosome. These abnormalities (chromosome breaks and chromosomal bridges at ana–telophases) indicate true clastogenic potential of the ions tested.
Title: Screening of Endophytic Bacterial Isolates of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Roots for their Multiple Plant Growth Promoting Activities
Abstract :A total of eighteen endophytic bacterial isolates from tea roots were screened for their multiple plant growth promoting activities including indole acetic acid production (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, ammonia production and siderophore production. All the isolates subjected for characterization were IAA producers Production of IAA was found to be remarkable in ER7 (10.45 µg/ml), ER14 (11.80 µg/ml), ER15 (11.40 µg/ml) and ER17 (16.22µg/ml). Among the isolates, seven were siderophore producers, five were phosphate solubilizers and twelve were found to be ammonia producers. Proper implementation of these plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria will open a new area in organic tea cultivation.
Title: Clonal variability studies in ‘langra’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers
Abstract :
Mango is one of the most economically important tropical fruits grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Being a delicious and widely cultivated fruit, it is regarded as ‘the King of fruits’ on the Indian subcontinent and the ‘national fruit of India’ because of the flavour and nutritional qualities. Mango has rich intra-specific diversity, with about 1600 and 1000 cultivars of mango present globally and India, respectively. ‘Langra’ is one of the leading commercial mango varieties of Northern India including Bihar which is known for mildly fibrous flesh and with a distinct pleasant taste and turpentine flavour. Significant variation exists among the clones of ‘Langra’ mango with respect to fruit shape, size, colour, quality and taste. Several studies have been made on characterization of intra-varietal variability of many different cultivars of mango. However, clonal variability studies in ‘Langra’ mango are limited. In this present investigation, an a empt were undertaken to study the clonal variability exit in some ‘Langra’ mango using morphological, biochemical and Molecular Markers. These results provide evidence that a signifi cant level of genetic variation exits among 10 clones of ‘Langra’ mango which can be used for mass multiplication of superior clone(s) and can be further utilized in breeding programs.
Title: In-silico Interaction Studies of Alternaria brassicae Toxin Destruxin B and Potential Partners of MAPK4 Cascade
Abstract :Alternaria blight is one of the important fungal diseases of Brassica plant which leads to major yield losses as well as deterioration in quality. Plant responds toward fungal attack through intricate signal transduction pathways involving MAPKs. In the present study an effort was taken to delineate the MAP kinase pathway involving MAPK4 through in-silico interaction studies. Here we have reported that destruxin B has strong interaction with Lys M receptor kinase and Lys M receptor and toxin interaction was differential with different host. Lys M receptor kinase showed strong interaction with MAPKKK19. Out of ten MAPKKs known four MAPKK viz. MAPKK3, MAPKK5, MAPKK8 and MAPKK9 showed good interaction with MAPK4. Among these four interacting MAPKKs, MAPKK9 showed best interaction with MAPKKK19. At the downstream of the cascade MAPK4 showed strong interaction with WRKY 25 and WRKY 40.The results of the present study clearly indicate the role of MAPK4 in plant defense against Alternaria blight.
Title: Present Status of Renewable Energy Sources in Punjab
Abstract :
The present energy generating systems in developing countries depend largely on local resources: wood, straw, dung for burning, hydraulic power for water wheels and electric power generation and whatever fossil fuel supplies are locally available. A country’s energy requirements often are not fully met by these local resources and foreign-currency resources must be expended to import the needed fossil fuel. In most developing countries, the economic base and the majority of the population are still rural and machinery that requires energy (especially fossil fuel) is not heavily utilized. However, the lack of cheap and adequate energy often hampers rural development plans and retards improvement in the quality of rural life. As on March, 2007, the cumulative grid-interactive power-generating capacity from renewable energy sources was about 9372 MW (6315 MW – wind energy, 1905 MW – small hydro power, 1152 MW – bio power), contributing about 7% of the total installed power-generating capacity in the country. In addition to power generation, renewable energy is being used for a variety of other applications in the country such as cooking, heating domestic water, drying crops, heating in industrial process, and so on. Status of Renewable Energy Sources in Punjab as on March 31, 2012 was studied in details in the fields of biogas technology (1, 30,000 family size and 45 power generation plants), biomass power plants (42 projects of 375 MW capacity), 23 projects of solar energy (10 MW power generations and other applications of solar energy) and hydro power (56 projects of 72 MW capacity).
Title: Threatened Rodent Species of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
The rodents are important animals in food chain and play an important role in the ecosystem. They also serve as prey for many important and endangered carnivorous and make up almost 40% of the mammalian species. They are essential part in the regeneration of forests. In Arunachal Pradesh, there are three types of forest i.e. tropical, subtropical and alpine experienced with
different climate. Such type of environment is favourable for multiplication of rats, squirrels and porcupines, even though, their population is decreasing day by day due to indiscriminate hunting. Most of the squirrels and porcupines are hunted for meat, furs, skin, teeth and quills. Field surveys were conducted in different districts of Arunachal Pradesh for the present review. The presence of squirrels and porcupines were observed by direct sighting with the help of binocular or by hearing calls. Information was also collected through interaction of local people and forest staffs. The major threats for rodents are consequences due to hunting for meat, shifting agriculture (Jhum), deforestation, human settlements and infrastructure development in forest areas. Many of the rodents have come under endangered species and some gone extinct in recent years. Keeping this view, the present review has been made to document the diversity of rodents in Arunachal Pradesh and to review their habitat and conservation. The article reports 10 threatened rodent species under 9 genera belonging to 3 families.
Title: Review on Physiological Disorders of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Causes and Management Approach
Abstract :

Apart from insects, pests and diseases, physiological disorders are one of the major threats to fruit industry which cause economic losses worldwide. Many tropical and subtropical fruit crops (Mango, Banana, Citrus, Grape, Papaya, litchi, loquat etc.) are vulnerable to different physiological disorders like spongy tissue, chock throat, granulation, pink berries, bumpy fruits, fruit cracking and purple spot respectively. Adverse environmental conditions such as high or low temperature, moisture content, nutritional and hormonal imbalance, improper pollination or fertilization etc. cause abnormal external or internal conditions as well as abnormal growth pattern of fruits collectively known as physiological disorders. Most of the disorders associated with more than one factors like environment and nutrition but some disorders are mainly occur due to one factor only. So, there is need to understand the reason behind a particular cause and way to overcome it with a specific management approach. Among the nutritional disorders, the deficiencies of micronutrients (Zn, Bo, Mn etc.,) are more prevalent in Indian orchards rather than macronutrients. This review not only describes the cause of physiological disorders of fruit crops which lead to huge losses to fruit growers but also discusses the management practices to prevent it and retain the quality for higher market value.

Title: Chemical Control and Economics of Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Brinjal in the Eastern Ghat Highland Zone of Odisha
Abstract :
A field trial was conducted during 2011 and 2012 for management of phomopsis blight and fruit rot of brinjal caused by Phomopsis
vexans by seed treatment with carboxin 37.5 % + thiram 37.5 % (Vitavax power) @ 2 g/kg and foliar application of copper oxychloride (Blitox-50) @ 0.3 %.The disease and economic parameters as well as yield were compared with that of untreated farmers’ field. It was revealed that the plant protection chemicals increased the seed germination by 21.18 % and reduced seedling
mortality, seedling blight and fruit rot infection by 90.25, 74.51 and 65.9 %, respectively. The improved germination and reduced disease infections helped to sustain 40.28 % higher brinjal yield with a net higher return of Rs. 26513 per ha.
Title: Micropropagation Study of Jatropha curcas for Enhancing Shoot Induction Frequency
Abstract :Jatropha curcas, is an upcoming energy source, which promises to mitigate energy crisis and environmental pollution. Jatropha seeds (0.4-12 tons/ha/yr) contain oil (30-40%) which is non edible due to the toxins such as phorbol esters, trypsin inhibitors,lectins and phylates. Various combinations of auxins with cytokinins were used for regeneration study. The best shoot regeneration (80%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.125ppm) and BAP (1.5ppm). Root induction was successfully obtained in plane MS/MS with auxins. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.
Title: Soil Test Based Fertilizer Recommendation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in an Alluvial Soil
Abstract :Soil test crop response correlation involving integrated plant nutrition system (STCR-IPNS) studies on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) in wheat on an Inceptisol, New Delhi, India were carried out following Ramamoorthy’s ‘inductive cum targeted yield model’. After establishment of marked fertility gradient with respect to soil available N, P and S, four levels of fertilizer N, P, S and three levels of farmyard manure (FYM) were randomized in three fertility strips each having twenty four plots. Soil and plant analysis data were further used to compute basic parameters required for development of nutrient prescription equation. The nutrient requirement for producing one quintal of wheat grain yield was worked out as 2.26 kg of N, 0.40 kg of P and 0.54 kg of S.Soil available pool contributed 26.15, 50.06 and 52.55 % to total N, P and S uptake, respectively; contribution from applied fertilizer were 42.31, 25.12 and 46.39% and contribution from applied FYM were 27.95, 11.21 and 17.66% to total N, P and S uptake by wheat.Using basic data, fertilizer prescription equations and ready reckoner were developed for range of soil test values and desired yield targets for NPS alone and IPNS (NPS with FYM).
Title: Effect of Different Form of Phosphorous Nutrition on Growth and Yield of Cauliflower (Brassica Olaracea Var. Botrytis L.)
Abstract :A field experiment was conducted at Naggar Farm of I.A.R.I., Regional Station Katrain, (Kullu Valley) H.P. during 2005-06 and 2006- 07 with cauliflower var. Pusa Snowball K-1. The experiment was laid out laid out in a randomized block design with 3 replications. There were ten treatments comprising of different sources of phosphorous. These were T-1 100% phosphorous ( Single Super Phosphate), T-2 100% Phosphorous (Rock Phosphate), T-3 50% phosphorous (Rock Phosphate) + Psolubiliser + Vascular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM), T-4 VAM, T-5 P solubiliser, T-6 100% Phosphorous (Rock Phosphate) + 15 t/ha Farm Yard Mannure, T-7 Liming + 50% phosphorous(Single Super Phosphate), T-8 15 t/ha Pine needle compost, T-9 15 t/ha Rice straw compost and T-10 control. The maximum curd yield were recorded with 50% P (R.P.) + P solubiliser + VAM (415.30 q/ha) followed by liming + 50% P (SSP 387.22 q/ha) and maximum growth were recorded with 50% P (R.P.) + P solubiliser + VAM 1339.73 cm2)followed by 100% P (R.P.) + 15t/ha FYM (1097.57 cm2).
Title: Genetic Analysis of Sodicity Tolerance in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Abstract :
In order to estimate gene actions for sodicity tolerance, grain yield and its related traits in rice, six basic generations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Inheritance of salinity tolerance was determined in a cross between two rice cultivars, “ASD 18” (P1) a susceptible cultivar and “TRY” (R) 2 (P2) a tolerant one. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations were studied under sodic environment. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations were studied under
sodicity conditions (Exchangeable Sodium Percentage 23). The data on 10 physio-morphological traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, spikelet fertility percentage, single plant yield, Na+: K+ ratio, proline content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and chlorophyll stability index were recorded. Generation means analysis of the data revealed that all these traits exhibit significant non-allelic interactions and suggest that complex epistatic interactions are more important in controlling sodicity tolerance traits. The simple additive dominance model was adequate to explain the inheritance of chlorophyll stability index. Due to the presence of greater non-additive gene effects, selection for almost all of the studied traits in this cross, especially in early generations, would be complex in conventional methods. Regarding the existence of additive and
non-additive effects in controlling traits in this cross, inter se mattings followed by pedigree method of breeding might prove useful in improving sodicity tolerance in rice.
Title: Optimization and Validation of LLE/HPLC-DAD Method to Determine the Residues of Selected PAHs in Surface Water
Abstract :A rapid precise and accurate method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of 6 PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, anthracene and pyrene) in water by HPLC and their distribution in surface water (water from Yamuna river in Wazirabad and Okhla region and Aakulam lake, Kerala) were undertaken. The High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation of 6 PAHs was carried out by C-18 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water with diode-array detection (DAD). The method was optimized by using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) with different solvent like hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and extract cleaned by adsorption column cleanup using different adsorbent like silica gel, alumina and florisil. Among the three solvents used for LLE, dichloromethane gave maximum extraction efficiency (70.27- 91.09%). For the cleanup of water extract, a florisil column using 20:80 acetone:hexane as the eluting solvent gave recovery of 91.2- 97.2 µg and 8.9-9.6 µg at 100 µg and 10 µg of PAHs loaded in the column, respectively. The total method recovery using dichloromethane as the extracting solvent and 20:80 acetone: hexane as the eluting solvent for florisil column clean up varied from 71.02-89.74%. Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantiûcation (LOQ), and correlation coefficients were found in the range of 0.1 to 1.5 ìg L-1, 0.5 to 4 ìg L-1 and 0.994 to 0.999, respectively. No residues of PAHs were detected in any of the water samples other than the Okhla water samples. The PAHs detected in Okhla water sample were phenanthrene (3.51 µg L-1) and fluoranthrene (4.61 µg L-1).
Title: Association Studies for Yield and its components in Green Gram
Abstract :
Twenty three genotypes of green gram were studied for genetic variability, correlation and path analysis for eight economically important traits. The genotypes viz. SG1, MH 709, ML 1278, Pant M 4, SG 21-5, OGG 56, CGG 973, ML 1354 and RVSM 11 were found promising for seed yield per plant. In general, PCV were higher than the corresponding GCV values for all the characters, suggesting the infl uence of environment in the expression of these traits. The broad sense heritability were high for plant height followed by 100-seed weight, pod length, seed yield per plant, days to fl owering, seeds per pod, days to maturity, pod fi lling percentage and pods per plant . Seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, pods per plant, pod fi lling percentage and pod length showed signifi cant positive correlations with seed yield per plant both at phenotypic and genotypic levels. Path analysis revealed that seeds per pod had the maximum direct eff ect on seed yield followed by 100 seed weight, pod fi lling percentage and pods per plant. Therefore, main emphasis should be given on these traits during phenotypic selection for developing high yielding genotypes of green gram.
Title: Uptake of NPK, Availability of NPK and Quality Parameters of Bt Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as Influenced by Different Bio-fertilizers and In-situ Green Manuring under Irrigation
Abstract :
A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2009-2010 at the Agriculture College Farm, Raichur, Karnataka (India) to study the response of Bt cotton to different fertilizer levels, bio-fertilizers and in-situ green manuring under irrigation. With respect to uptake and availability of NPK, application of sunnhemp in-situ green manuring found significantly higher N (128.27 kg ha-1 and 206.43 kg ha-1, respectively), P (30.63 kg ha-1 and 38.43 kg ha-1, respectively) and K (142.33 kg ha-1 and 342.14 kg ha-1,
respectively) over no green manuring. Among different fertilizer levels and bio-fertilizers, 150 % recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) recorded significantly higher uptake and availability of N (132.46 kg ha-1 and 212.48 kg ha-1, respectively), P (32.44 kg ha-1 and 39.21 kg ha-1, respectively) and K (147.21 kg ha-1 and 353.29 kg ha-1, respectively). Significantly higher ginning percentage and lint index were observed with sunnhemp in-situ green manuring (35.81 and 4.99, respectively) over no green manuring. Mean fibre length of Bt cotton was not significantly influenced by both use of in-situ green manuring and combined use of inorganic nutrients and bio-fertilizers.
Title: CO2, CH4 and N2O production potential of paddy soil after biogas byproducts application under waterlogged condition
Abstract :The increase in the biofuel production has generated a lot of byproducts. These are rich in various plant nutrients. The laboratory incubation can provide an idea of their effects on soil and environment, and fertilizer applicability before field application. In the present study, two types of biogas byproducts were selected as biochar and digested liquid. Two concentrations of each was applied to the paddy soil (Regosol), and incubated under the submerged conditions. Biochar treated soil produced the highest methane and carbon dioxide than the untreated soil due to high carbon content. Digested liquid treated soil produced the lowest concentration of both gases even lower than the control. It may be because of toxic effects of ammonium-N on methanogens. Digested liquid treated soil produced the highest nitrous oxide; whereas difference was not significantly different for the control and biochar treated soil. However, cumulative production of each gas showed that production of nitrous oxide was negligible in each treated soil due to the waterlogged condition. As expected, each treated soil produced little nitrate under this experimental set up.
Title: Phytoremediation for Defending Heavy Metal Stress in Weed Flora
Abstract :
Degradation of natural resources is perhaps one of the gravest lapses mankind has ever made in its journey of progress and development. Land, air and water resources are worst affected due to anthropogenic interventions. Heavy metal contamination is of special concern due to widespread reports emanating both from India and abroad about various diseases and disorders
observed both in human and livestock due to metal toxicity. The use of specially selected and engineered metal accumulating plants for environmental clean up is an emerging frontline technology called ‘Phytoremediation’ which describes a system wherein plants alone or in association with soil organisms can remove or transform contaminants into harmless and often valuable
forms. Excessive heavy metal accumulation can be toxic to most plants leading to reduction in seed germination, root growth and biomass production; inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis as well as disturbance in cellular metabolism and chromosome distortion. For studying the heavy metals load of sewage and sludge and their effect on crop quality in relation to non applied sites, solid sludge and leafy vegetable plants such as Amaranthus spp., Ipomoea spp, Basella spp. (Pui), Spinacia oleracea (Palak), were collected from seven STPs viz. Howrah, Garulia, Bhatpara, Nabadwip, Srirampur, Kona, Chandannager, and from the Periurban areas viz., Nadia/Chakdaha/Ektapur(N/C/E),Nadia/Chakdaha/Pumlia(N/C/P),Nadia/Chakdaha/Sikarpur(N/C/S), Nadia/ Chakdaha/Tatla(N/C/T). The results suggest that leafy vegetables like Amaranthus have more scavenging capacity for Cd and Pb, while Spinacia oleracea has more scavenging capacity for Cr. Therefore, if these plants are cultivated in sites abundant with
above heavy metals, these would scavenge the heavy metal toxicity from the soil.
Title: Effect of Plant Biostimulants on Growth, Chlorophyll Content, Flower Drop and Fruit Set of Pomegranate Cv. Kandhari Kabuli
Abstract :
The experiment was laid out in the pomegranate experimental block of the Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The experiment consisted of 19 treatments with three replications. The pomegranate trees under investigation were subjected to different concentrations of biostimulants viz. Vipul (TRIA) (5 ml/l, 10 ml/l, 15 ml/l), Spic cytozyme (1 ml/l, 2 ml/l, 4 ml/l), Homobrassinolides (Godrej Double) (0.5 ml/l, 1 ml/l, 1.5 ml/l),Biozyme Crop Plus (1 ml/l, 2 ml/l, 3 ml/l) and Vipul + Homobrassinolides (0.5 + 5 ml/l, 1 + 5 ml/l, 1.5 + 5 ml/l, 5 + 0.5 ml/l, 5 + 1 ml/l, 5 + 1.5 ml/l). The results revealed that the highest tree growth was recorded in trees treated with Spic cytozyme at 4 ml/l. The highest total chlorophyll content was observed with the application of Vipul 15ml/l, whereas the highest fruit set and minimum flower drop was recorded with the application of Vipul + Homobrassinolides (1.5 + 5 ml/l).
Title: Weed seeds stratification in contrasting soil texture on the bank of river godavari
Abstract :
The experiment was conducted at Central Tobacco Research Institute (CTRI), Rajahmundry, Andra Pradesh, 2013 to investigate the role of soil texture in weed seed germination and eff ect of depth of soil profi le on emergence of weed seeds. The soil samples were collected from 3 places viz. Rajahmundry, Katheru farm under CTRI both belong to East Godavari district and Chainnaigudem village in West Godavari district with sandy, clay and sandy loam in texture respectively. Soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm depth of soil profile using core sampler. Each site represents were approximately 1300 m2 area and 32 samples from 4 depths for every site. So, total 144 samples were collected to conduct the experiment. Germinated weeds identifi ed and counted every week and 10 weeks study was carried out. Sandy, sandy loam and clay soil texture found signifi cant non-linear relationship between weed germination and soil depth. All three places recorded signifi cant interaction between depth and seed germination. Soil depth upto 20 cm recorded maximum weed emergence both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous; however, dicotyledonous weeds recorded more in number than monocotyledon in four consecutive depths. Sandy soil found highest number of germinated weeds than sandy loam and clay texture soils.
Title: Yield and Yield Attributes of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Organic Practices in Semi Arid Region
Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive kharif seasons of research farm of Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur to study the effect of organic practices on the yield and yield attributes of groundnut in semi arid region with the treatments comprised of T1-Farmer’s practices, T2- 7.5 t FYM +PSB+ PSM+ Bio-Pesticides, T3- T2 + Seed
treatment with PSB+ PSM+ Bio-pesticides, T4 – T3 + Foliar spray of pseudo-monas, T5 – T3 + Foliar spray of NSKE @ 5 %, T6 - T3 + Foliar spray of Panchagavya and T7-Absolute control, T8-100% RDF (15kg N+ 60 kg 2O5/ha). The results revealed that in treatment T5, application of farmyard manure (FYM) (7.5 t/ha) inoculated with microbes (bio fertilizers+bio-pesticides) 15 days before sowing (heapit) and seed treatment with bio fertilizers+bio-pesticides at the time of sowing gave significantly higher pod yield (2750 kg/ha) over absolute control (2151 kg/ha) and FYM without inoculated with microbes but at par with other treatments.
The same trend was also observed in B:C Ratio (3.66) with treatment T5 (T3 + Foliar spray of NSKE @ 5 %). The study indicated that the groundnut showed greater response to the application of organic practices (i.e., organic farming) under semi arid region.
Title: Performance Evaluation of Solid State Digester for Biogas Production using Biologically Pretreated Straw
Abstract :
The present paper reports biogas production from biologically pretreated paddy straw in a solid state digester made of HDPE plastic (124litre capacity). The trial was conducted with a mixture of 10 kg pretreated paddy straw, 20 kg cattle dung slurry, 20 kg cattle dung and 20 litre water. The chemical and proximate analysis of the feed was done and biogas production profile was studied over a period of one month. Parallel trial was also conducted with untreated paddy straw. The result indicated that 253.89 litre biogas/kg pretreated paddy straw was produced, which is 39.3% higher than the untreated paddy straw.
Title: Development and Evaluation of Mechanical Weeder for Finger Millet Crop
Abstract :

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana)   is a main field crop in southern part of Karnataka commonly called ragi as it provides both stable food for the region and good fodder for cattles. Weeds management is a major problem in finger millet crop and are responsible for drastic reduction of yield. Weeding by traditional methods are laborious and time consuming which leads to high cost of production. Pertaining to this, blade type simple mechanical weeder was developed and evaluated under finger millet crop with 2 and 4 blade harrows for weeding 2 and 4 rows at a time respectively. The results obtained at 2 rows and 4 rows weeding condition, the weeding efficiency (88 & 85 %), plant damage (2.5 & 3.6 %), effective field capacity (0.108 & 0.144 ha/h), field efficiency (90 & 60 %), fuel consumption (4.181 & 3.424 L/ha) and cost of weeding (` 572 & ` 447.42 ha) respectively.

Title: Biotechnological Tools for Conservation of Bioresources
Abstract :The rate of loss of natural habitants including forest and bioresources are not only a serious but a complex issue due to several reasons viz. deforestation, agricultural land degradation, ignorance of people, escalating population density, immigration of people toward urban areas etc. On the other hand forest and bioresources offer a variety of habitants for plants, animals and microorganisms. Therefore, conservation and sustainable use of bioresources is the need of the hour. The preference of conservation methods and technologies depends upon the prevailing objective, conservation efforts, breeding methods, adoption and behaviour of the species in question as well as available resources including funds, infrastructure, trained personal, and technologies. The biotechnology implies an approach of creation, invention and innovation. Biotechnological tools can be used to improve and conserve agriculture, horticulture, animals, medicine and environment. In the present article, conservation of bioresources has been highlighted covering multifaceted tools of biotechnology viz. plant genetic resources, micropropagation, in vitro conservation, cryopreservation, tissue culture, molecular markers, somatic hybridization and genetic engineering.
Title: Studies on Genetic Characteristic of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
The considerable amount of genetic variability was exhibited among the accessions of local collection obtained from natural habitat of Eastern U. P. (India) under the UPCAR project. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for total number of grains per panicle, filled grains per panicle, number of effective tillers, leaf width and grain yield per plant. Positive and significant association was recorded by days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, leaf length, leaf width, filled grains per panicle and total number of grains per panicle among themselves and also with grain yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Days to maturity, plant height, number of filled grains per panicle and test weight exhibited positive direct effect both at genotypic and phenotypic levels.
Title: Reaction of Banana Hybrids (Phase-II) for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita
Abstract :
Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the major biotic stresses affecting banana production. Breeding works carried out at the Department of Fruit crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), India. The potential diploids and hybrids developed were crossed with commercial triploids to develop primary tetraploids and improved diploids. The susceptible check cultivar used was
Rasthali (AAB), while the resistant reference cultivar used Pisang Lilin (AA). Banana suckers of uniform size and weight were collected, pared and planted in earthen part containing 5 kg sterilized pot mixture. Egg masses of M. incognita were picked from roots, allowed to hatch in a beaker of distilled water and the hatched juveniles (J2) were inoculated in the rhizosphere of the
hybrids by soil injection method @ 5,000 nematodes / pot. Same set of replicated banana hybrids were also maintained as uninoculated check. The reactions of nineteen new synthetic banana phase II hybrids to Meloidogyne incognita was studied under field conditions as well as in controlled inoculation tests in pots. Hybrid H 531 (Poovan x Pisang Lilin) was found to be resistant and six hybrids, H-02-34, H-03-05, H-03-13, H-04-12, H-04-24 and NPH-02-01 were found to be toterant to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita while the remaining were rated as susceptible and highly susceptible ones. Total phenols and PO, PPO, PAL and enzymatic activity of the hybrids in defense mechanism in response to nematode invasion indicated higher activities in resistant genotypes compare to susceptible ones. Hybrid H 531 had the maximum biochemical content and enzyme
activity among the hybrids included in this study. The resistant and tolerant hybrids had enhanced contents of total phenol, PO, PPO and PAL.
Title: Antagonistic Activity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tomato Rhizosphere Against Soil Borne Fungal Plant Pathogens
Abstract :
The use of single strain inoculum with multiple plant growth promoting activities offers a new concept to address mode of action by combined use of multi-strain inoculum of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) each with specific capability and function. In the present work, bacterial isolates with plant growth promoting activities like P-solubilization, IAA production,
siderophore production and broad spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of tomato seedlings. In vitro antifungal antibiotic study revealed that among eleven isolates N11 showed maximum inhibition against F. oxysporum (82.85%), R. solani (76.45%) and S. sclerotiorum (74.71%) after seven days of incubation. The per cent growth inhibition increased with increase in bacterial cell density from O.D 0.25 to
1.50. The novelty of the isolates is that the antibiotic production is induced only in the presence of fungal host and lack of antifungal activity in culture filtrate. Bacterial isolate N11 showing maximum plant growth promoting activities and was identified to species level by biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing. Preliminary identification of bacterial isolate was made on the basis of morphological and biochemical characters and confirmed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which validated
N11 as Bacillus subtilis CKT1.Thus, the present study concludes that these bacterial isolate could serve as a proficient biocontrol PGPR inoculant in the integrated management of soil borne diseases of tomato.
Title: Comparison of Neuro-Fuzzy and Regression Models for Prediction of Outflow of on-farm Reservoir
Abstract :
Neuro-fuzzy and regression models predicting of outflow of an on farm reservoir of 300 m3 capacity, located at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi site of India, were developed and validated using crop water requirement, evaporation losses and farm pond inflow data. The outflow predicted by these two models was compared with each other. It is raveled that Neuro-Fuzzy model predicted the outflow with high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.98, model efficiency (E) of 0.97 and absolute average deviation (AAD) of 0.002. The regression model was found to be inferior with R2 = 0.940.78, E = 0.72 and AAD = 0.031. MATLAB software was used for development of Neuro-Fuzzy and regression model.
Title: Screening of Rose Varieties Against Black Spot Disease and its Management in East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
Rose varieties were evaluated in field against Diplocarpon rosae, which causes of black spot disease of rose. Black spot resistance was visually evaluated for thirty seven rose varieties against D. rosae. Out of thirty seven varieties evaluated, none of the varieties were found immune, very highly resistant, highly resistant, resistant and moderately resistant. However, three
varieties namely Paradise, Shabnam and Pixie showed moderately susceptible in reaction. Whereas, eleven varieties viz., Angelica Renae, Atago, Folklore, Granada, Hot Cocoa, Mardigrass, Midas Touch, Mrinalini, Revival, Tipus Flame and Victor Hugo showed susceptible reaction. Twelve varieties viz. Baccardi, Claudia Ribond, Charles Mallerin, Crimson Lace, Dr. Pal, Impatient, Madam Dulbourde, Marcopolo, Melody, Rainbow End, Sonia and Sugandha were highly susceptible reaction at 75 per cent disease
severity. Whereas, eleven varieties namely Angelique, Christian Dior, Gemini, Gladiator, Golden Jubilee, Priyadarsini, Sand. Centenary, R. R. M. Roy, Sweet Promise, Unforgotten and Vale of Cloyd were highly susceptible reaction at 95 per cent disease severity. Further, five fungicides [three systemic fungicides namely Carbendazim, Hexaconazole (Contaf) and Ridomil MZ 72 WP and two contact fungicides viz. Blitox-50 and Mancozeb] were evaluated in vitro for the management of D. rosae. Hexaconazole (Contaf) was found to inhibit the mycelial growth of D. rosae significantly at a concentration of 200 and 250 ppm followed by Ridomil MZ 72 WP at same concentration.
Title: New Innovations in Bacillus Thuringiensis Research- A Review
Abstract :
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) “Wonder insecticide” is a well-known entomopathogenic bacterium used worldwide as an environmentally compatible biopesticide. This review lightens on new innovations of Bt research, categorizes into isolation of novel Bt strains from various environmental sources, novel approaches for molecular characterization of Bt and diverse application
of Bt. These new findings will expands the world of Bt application in safe, specific, effective, economic and ecofriendly manner. It has also been observed that new innovative activities in the emerging fields of Bt technology are increasingly growing. Opportunities are immense and sky is the limit for researchers who are interested to take R&D in Bt technology.
Title: Influence of Vermicompost application alongwith Nitrogen on Growth, Nutrients uptake, Yield Attributes and Economics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of vermicompost application on growth, nutrients uptake, yield attributes
and economics of rice (variety ADT 43) at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during kharif season. Five main
plot treatments viz., M1- control, M2 - farmyard manure @ 12.5 t ha-1, M3- vermicompost @ 1.5 t ha-1, M4 - vermicompost @ 2.0 t ha-
1 and vermicompost @2.5 t ha-1 and three sub plot treatments viz., S1 – leaf colour chart critical value less than 3, S2 - leaf colour chart critical value less than 4 and S3- Recommended dose of nitrogen were replicated thrice in a split plot design. The results revealed that growth and growth attributes, yield attributes, N, P and K uptake and benefit :cost ratio were recorded higher
under application of vermicompost at the rate of 2.5 t ha-1 along with nitrogen addition based on leaf colour chart critical value less than 4. Application of vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 along with nitrogen addition based on leaf colour chart critical value less than 4 was registered highest benefit cost ratio of 2.14 when compared to control was 1.83.
Title: Efficacy of Newer Insecticides Against Sucking Insect Pests of Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted to find out the effective dose of some newer insecticides for the management of sucking insect pests of green gram. The treatments of experiment were Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 187.5g a.i./ha, Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 250g a.i./ha, Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 312g a.i./ha, Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 90g a.i./ha, Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 120g a.i./ha, Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 150g a.i./ha, Sseed treatment with Thiamethoxam 35 FS+ Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 3g/kg seed+25g a.i./ha, Thiamethoxam 25 WG (Std. Check) @ 25g a.i./ha and Triazophos 40 EC (Std. Check) @ 500g a.i./ha. The results of experiment revealed that Diafenthiuron 50 WP @ 312g a.i./ha was most promising treatment in reducing population of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), jassid (Empoasca kerri) and flower thrips (Caliothrips indicus) after both sprays followed by Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 150g a.i./ha as compared to standard checks Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g a.i./ha and Triazophos 40 EC @ 500g a.i./ha.

Title: Exploitation of Rhizobacteria for Functional Traits in Mungbean
Abstract :
The enrichment of plant rhizosphere with beneficial bacteria is a strategy that favours the production of more vigorous seedlings, which is essential for the success of legume cultivation. The aim of this study was to select rhizobacteria that are able to act as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). A total of 17 rhizobacteria belonging to genera Bacillus (8), Pseudomonas (5) and
Azotobacter (4) from mungbean rhizosphere were selected on the basis of their ability to solubilize phosphate. These selected rhizobacteria were further characterized for Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits for quantitative phosphate solubilisation, Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), organic acid production and Intrinsic antibiotic spectra (IAR), control of phytopathogen via siderophore and cellulase production and stress tolerant management by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Significantly
high phosphate was solubilized by strain of Bacillus sp. B2 (9.77 mg ml-100) followed by strain of Pseudomonas sp. P10 (9.14 mg ml-100) and strain of Azotobacter sp. A3 (8.98 mg ml-100). In the presence of L-trptophan P10, A3 and B2 were also able to produce significant high amount of IAA i.e. 55.6 µg ml-1, 52.6 µg ml-1 and 50.3 µg ml-1 respectively and they also produced organic acid, siderophore and cellulase. Of 17 rhizobacterial isolates, 11 were found compatible with Rhizobium sp. vigna (LSMR1) in-vitro.IAR pattern revealed 52.9 % of rhizobacteria resistant to ampicillin (10 µg disc-1) and chloramphenicol (25 µg disc-1). ACC deaminase activity was measured by their growth in DF medium supplemented with ACC (OD 600 ranged from 0.117 to 0.432) as nitrogen (N) source. In the present investigation, rhizobacterial isolates viz, B2, P10 and A3 were found most promising for
multiple activities (PGP traits, biocontrol and stress tolerant activities) and can be evaluated in-vivo for their possible role in mungbean growth and development.
Title: Development of Profitable Integrated Farming Systems for Small and Marginal Farmers of Hyderabad Karnataka Region Under Irrigated Condition
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted on performance of integrated farming system over conventional farming system for one ha. area at Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur, Karnataka for three successive years of 2010-11 to 2012-13 under irrigated conditions in medium black soils to explore the productivity and profitability under irrigated condition. Among the system
evaluated integrated farming system has recorded higher average net returns (Rs. 1,50,710) and benefit cost ratio (3.61) over conventional method as it records average net returns of Rs.65,000 with benefit cost ratio (2.85). The productivity and profitability during third year (2012-13) was more than second and first year under integrated farming system. During third year of integrated farming system records higher net returns (Rs. 2,45,398) with 4.63 B:C ratio than second year (Rs.1,29,442 net returns with 3.34 B:C
ratio) and first year (Rs.76968 net returns with 2.53 B:C ratio) respectively.
Title: Evaluation of Different Medium for Producing on farm Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculum
Abstract :
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a broad-spectrum non-specific organism known to colonize 85% of land plants hold considerable potential for use as inoculants. In the present perspective much attention is focussed on mass production of AMFinoculum, since this is of paramount importance in improving better uptake of nutrients, offers tolerance against a range of
soil stresses, plant production and enhances the chances of plant survival. Given these benefits, utilization of the AMF symbiosis should be an important tool in sustainable agricultural systems. Producing AMF inoculum is a complex procedure involving selection of a host plant , finding the right mix or medium and the inoculums starter . Seven different substrates were tested for the
production of AMF inoculum. Red earth in isolation or combination with solirite emerged as a suitable potential medium when compared to solirite for bulk production of pure, mature and infective AMF inoculum.
Title: Effect of Putrescine and Calcium on Colour Changes of Stored Peach Fruits
Abstract :
Peach is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit and it losses its quality in a short time after harvesting. During storage browning of fruits deteriorates its quality. Pre-harvest sprays of putrescine (PUT) and calcium nitrate at three concentrations each viz. 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mmol L-1 and 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% respectively were done 10 and 20 days before harvesting to maintain the quality during 40 days of storage. Physiologically mature peach fruits were harvested from treated plants, packed in CFB boxes and stored at 0 to
1° C and 90-95 % RH. Results revealed that all the treatments significantly effected the fruit colour development during storage. The maximum colour development was observed in control fruits, followed by calcium nitrate @ 0.5% (sprayed 20 days before harvesting) treatment. Fruits treated with putrescine @ 3 mmol L-1 showed mean minimum values of “a” and “b”, followed by putrescine @ 2 mmol L-1 and calcium nitrate @ 2% (sprayed 10 days before harvesting). It can be concluded that putrescine and
calcium nitrate treatments slowed the colour development process during storage.
Title: Impact of Water Saving Technology On Blue Wateruse and Productivity: Analysis fron North Gujarat Region, India
Abstract :
North Gujarat is an absolutely water scarce region in Gujarat, though it contributes around 40 per cent of total groundwater draft in the state. Excessive withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation is leading to alarming drops in groundwater levels in many parts of the region. Since scope of supply side intervention is limited, it is imperative to manage irrigation water from demand side interventions aimed at to reducing its use. Overall objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of water saving technologies on applied water productivity. A study on experimental plot revealed that highest physical water productivity was found for castor under drip irrigation with plastic mulching as compared to flood irrigation followed by crop with organic mulching and lowest under drip irrigation. In case of groundnut, highest physical water productivity was obtained from the crop irrigated
by easy drip method, whereas in case of sprinkler, highest physical water productivity was obtained from the micro-sprinkler. Potato crop was grown under drip and sprinkler methods of irrigation and highest physical water productivity was recorded from micro-sprinkler. From farmers’ field data, it was observed that farmers are using different types of water saving technologies for variety of crops. Before adoption of water saving technologies, on average blue water use for crop production was estimated to
be 8397 m3 per hectare which was reduced to 5175.45 m3 per hectare after adoption of water saving technology, showing a decline of 61.6 per cent. Per hectare net income received by farmers before adoption of water saving technology was Rs 54615.46 and it increased to Rs 95759.41 after adoption of water saving technology. The variation in physical water productivity for same crop under different types of water saving technologies, suggested that government/promotional agencies should promote suitable water saving technology for different crops, which would help in achieving water saving and improvement in crop production and productivity.
Title: Forecasting of Productivity and Pod Damage by Helicoverpa armigera using Artificial Neural Network Model in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)
Abstract :
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is one of the most important food legume, making it an ideal supplement to traditional cereals, which are generally protein-deficient. So, due to its high nutritional value and enormous losses caused by insect pests, it is very important to forecast the damage caused by major insect-pests and the yield of this crop. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to forecast productivity (Kg/ha) and percent pod damage by a key insect pest Helicoverpa armigera of long duration pigeonpea in North East Plain Zone (NEPZ) of India. The forecasted values of percent pod damage by
this pest and productivity of Pigeonpea during 2012-13 were obtained as 26.29% and 1137.40 kg/ha, respectively. The performance of the model was assessed by values of the mean squared error, and the model was found suitable for the problem under study.
Title: In vitro Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects of Plant Extracts and Synthetic Antibiotic ‘Aztreonam’ Against Extended Bacterial Spectrum
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to assess efficacies of the various plant extracts for their pharmacological potential and synergistic effect in limiting the bacterial growth for formulating new cost effective antimicrobial agent(s) for multi drug resistant organisms. The antimicrobial activities of plant extract of Pterocarpus santalinus, Tectona grandis, Gloriosa superba and its synergistic effects among them as well as with a synthetic antibiotic ‘Aztreonam’ were assessed against Gram positive bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441; Gram negative bacteria viz. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Acetone extract of Tectona grandis and Gloriosa superba, isopropyl alcohol (IPA)
extract of Pterocarpus santalinus were found most effective in restricting the growth of bacteria. The efficacies of the various extract combinations in each plant sample varied and the mminimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of acetone extract in comparison with ‘aztreonam’ using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were found to be around 0.312 – 0.50 mg/
ml for Pterocarpus santalinus, 0.62 – 1.10 mg/ml for Tectona grandis and 0.7 – 2.9 mg/ml for Gloriosa superba. The combination of plant extract of Gloriosa superba + Pterocarpus santalinus (2:1) showed the maximum inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the strongest synergistic effect. Similarly the maximum inhibition on Bacillus subtilis was observed by the combination of plant extract of Tectona grandis + Gloriosa superba (2:1) whereas, the plant extract of Tectona grandis + Gloriosa superba
inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to the maximum extent.
Title: Co-inoculated Biopriming with Trichoderma,Pseudomonas and Rhizobium Improves Crop Growth in Cicer arietinum and Phaseolus vulgaris
Abstract :A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of three rhizosphere competent microbial strains, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens OKC, Trichoderma asperellum T42 and Rhizobium sp. RH4, individually and in combination in bioprimed seeds of chickpea and rajma. Seeds were sown in pots and fields and the results demonstrated that bioprimed seeds showed higher germination percentage, and better plant growth in both the crops compared to non-bioprimed control plants. It was also observed that the combined application of the microbes enhanced seed germination and plant growth better than their individual application.Among the combinations all combinations comprising of Trichoderma showed better results compared to the others and the triple microbial combination demonstrated best results in terms of seed germination and seedling growth in both chickpea and rajma.
Title: Screening of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Recovered from Diverse Habitats in India for the Presence of Insect and Nematode-active cry Genes
Abstract :
Novel cry genes with different structure and mode of action are potential candidates for resistant management strategies. Isolation of novel genes needs thorough screening of large number of native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates collected from diverse habitats and ecotypes. In the present study, 63 Bt isolates recovered from different habitats in India have been investigated
for their insecticidal and nematicidal cry gene content. Bt isolates were screened through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the presence of cry1, cry1A and nematode-active cry genes. Among the collection of 63 Bt isolates 21 were found positive for the presence of cry1-type genes, 49 for cry1A-type genes and 20 for nematode-active cry genes. Nine Bt isolates were found positive for all three types of cry genes. The study also show that PCR based screening method is rapid and
highly useful for characterization of Bt isolates to reveal their insecticidal spectrum.
Title: Contents
Abstract :Contents of December, 2013
Title: Evaluation of Plaster of Paris and Some Fungicides for Management of Foot rot of Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
Abstract : Incidence of Foot rot disease of Elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume, syn: A. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson] caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is common in West Bengal. Occasionally it causes severe damage of the crop. When Plaster of Paris used on the diseased tissue in standing crop, it showed strong adverse effect on mycelial growth and survival of sclerotia. White mycelia and sclerotia produced on disease tissue lost their viability. Plant with small lesion grew normally indicating that the disease was checked without causing any phytotoxic effect. Plaster of Paris of commercial grade (CaSO4.½ H2O), available in synthetic bag in hardware shop. In laboratory test on viability of sclerotia, Plaster of Paris showed similar adverse effect. Eight fungicides (Indofil M-45, Bavistin, Blitox, Vitavax Power, Kavach, Curzet, Krilaxyl MZ) used in this test reduced sclerotial germination. Vitavax Power (Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% WP) totally inhibited sclerotial germination. Kavach (Chlorothalonil 75%) and Krilaxyl MZ (Metalaxyl 8% + Mancozeb 64%) reduced germination upto 95%. Application of Plaster of Paris at three different doses at the base of the plant (2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 grams/plant) did not cause any phytotoxic symptoms like necrosis, epinasty, hyponasty, wilting, leaf tip injury, leaf surface injury, vein clearing, rotting at collar region on six different crops i.e. elephant foot yam, groundnut, brinjal, chilli, basella and radish. Hence, it may be incorporated in Integrated Disease Management (IDM) programme.
Title: Growth Pattern of Soybean Cultivation in Madhya Pradesh: District wise Analysis
Abstract :
An attempt was made to examine the district wise compound growth rate in APY of soybean in Madhya Pradesh. Study found that among out of 39 districts only twenty two districts having the positive growth and two districts namely tikamgarh and sheopur found negative growth in area, production and yield. Four districts namely jabalpur, narsinghpur, shahdol and hosangabad
observed that negative CGR area and production but positive growth in yield. The negative growth in area and production was observed in Jabalpur district which was -16.29 and -15.04 per cent respectively. The maximum positive growth in area and production was observed in Anuppur district but it was examined for six years only therefore maximum positive was noted in
district shivpuri which was 9.00 and 10.14 per cent respectively. The substantial improvement in production has been noticed due to concerted efforts on soybean development in the state of Madhya Pradesh as well as in the country, resulting in a positive growth rate in area and production of Soybean.
Title: Efficiency of Halosulfuron Methyl (NC-319 75%WDG) on Weed Control in Sugrcane
Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the efficiency of halosulfuron methyl for the control of weeds in sugarcane. The treatments consisted of new herbicide formulation halosulfuron methyl (NC-319 75% WDG) in different doses (52.5, 60.0, 67.5, 75.0 and 150 g a.i. ha-1) at 3-4 leaf stages of Cyperus rotundus compared with recommended dose of PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 on 3 DAP + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP, hand weeding on 30 DAP
and earthing up on 60 DAP respectively and also with unweeded control. The results revealed that the sedge weed density was distinctly lower in application of halosulfuron methyl at all doses. But grass and broad leaved weed density was perceptibly lower in PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP followed by hand weeding on 30 DAP and earthing up on 60 DAP and halosulfuron methyl 60.0 g a.i. ha-1. The lowest total weed dry weight, higher weed control efficiency and cane yield were recorded in PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP followed by hand weeding on 30 DAP and earthing up on 60 DAP and halosulfuron methyl 60.0 g a.i. ha-1. The herbicide doses evaluated in this study did not exhibit residual effect on succeeding crops of pearlmillet, sunflower and cowpea.
Title: Economics of Value Added Products of Maize in Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

This research study was mainly done on the process of various types of value-added products prepared from maize and the cost and return of value-added products made from maize by street vendors and established vendors. To find out the constraints in marketing of value added products of maize and suggest suitable measures to overcome them. The study was conducted in Raipur city of Chhattisgarh state. In which the Raipur city different sample was collect in randomly way. Out of the more than 50 established vendors, total 10 vendors were selected. Street vendors only select the corn related food vendors and collect the sample data from 20 street food vendors was selected out of all vendors. The primary data was collected through pre-tested structured interview schedule. Simple average and percentage methods was used for analyzing the data.

Title: Fungal Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Tropical Homestead and Plantation Crops of Kerala
Abstract :A study was conducted on the fungal diversity in the home gardens of three important districts of Kerala. The rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples were collected from different homestead crops representing diverse and distinct areas of coastal region (Ernakulum district), High range (Wayanad) and Dry region (Palakkad district) districts of Kerala. Fungal population was highest (82 x103 cfu g-1 of soil) in black pepper (Wayanad) followed by coconut (70 x 103 cfu g-1 of soil) in Ernakulam and 22 x103 cfu g-1 of soil in banana (Palakkad). There was greater diversity of fungi in the homesteads of Ernakulam, Wayanad and Palakkad districts. In all the three districts surveyed, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were predominant fungi in most of the crops and or locations, even though other fungi were also recorded. However, there functional diversity needs to be studied and harnessed in order to assess the beneficial effects and relative efficiency on the host plants.
Title: Influence of Pretreatments and Varieties on Biochemical Quality during Aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) Murabba Preservation
Abstract :
Matured aonla fruits of three cultivars namely, Kanchan, Chakaiya and NA-7 were harvested and each variety was pretreated with water (control), salt 2%, alum 2% and salt+alum 2% so that a total of twelve different treatment combinations were made before processing in to murabba. Murabba was analyzed for quality during storage for six months. TSS and total sugars increased while ascorbic acid, titrable acidity and fiber content of the aonla murabba decreased during the storage period. For most of the biochemical parameters variety, NA-7 and pretreatment salt+alum 2% proved to be promising in retaining the quality.
Title: Floristic Structure, Composition and Functional Characteristics of Homegardens in Garhwal Region, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract :

In the present investigation was carried out to access the floristic structure, composition and functional characteristics of homegardens in Garhwal region, Uttarakhand during 2013-14. Here, we had selected two districts on the basis of maximum (Uttarkashi) and minimum (Rudraprayag) geographical area of the state. The result showed that floristic tree diversity was maximum contributed by agroforestry crops (64%, 53.84%, 62.5%, 66.7%) and followed by horticulture crops (36%, 46.16%, 37%, 33.3%) with respect to Malkhi, Khumera, Kurura and Panchan gaun village respectively. The contribution of forest and van panchayat for fuel-wood were 13.5 and 5 kg, 11.5 and 6.5 and 2.6 and 6.2 kg/day for group of farmers during rainy, winter and summer seasons, respectively. We observed that 35 species of trees (forest trees+ fruit trees), 18 species of agriculture crops, 13 species of vegetable crops, 9 species of grasses and 13 species of shrub were identified from the study area.

Title: Empowerment of Dairy Farmers Through ICT Enabled I-Kisan Project in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :
The present study was conducted in three districts namely, Anantapur, Ranga Reddy and Nalgonda of Andhra Pradesh State with a sample size of 240 dairy farmers (120 each of ICT users and non users) to measure their empowerment through ICT enabled ikisan project in Andhra Pradesh. Four components of empowerment of dairy farmers namely, knowledge regarding dairy farming, decision making ability, attitude towards dairying, and self confidence were selected based on relevancy, literature and experts opinion. The scale developed by Chaudhari et al., (2007), was used to measure decision making and self confidence, and test developed by Vijay babu (2009) was used to measure knowledge and Scale developed by Sah (2005) was used to measure attitude. It was observed that the mean values of components of empowerment of dairy farmers i.e., knowledge, decision making ability, attitude, and self confidence of ICT users were 40.70, 11.6, 9.80 and 4.60, and that of non users of ICT were 28.25, 9.24, 9.33 and 3.35
respectively. The mean values of overall empowerment of ICT users and non users of dairy farmers were found to be 16.59 and 12.54. Through Z-test it was also found that the components of empowerment namely knowledge, decision making, self confidence and overall empowerment of dairy farmers between ICT users and non users of ICT were found to have significant at 0.01 level of Probability, where as no significant difference was found between them as per as attitude is concerned.
Title: Effects of Temperature and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on seed Germination of Vicia sativa, Chenopodium album and Physalis minima
Abstract :
The interactions between temperature and GA3 are well known for their capacity to induce germination in dormant seeds of several weed plant species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of various temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations (50, 150, 250 and 350 ppm) on germination of Vicia sativa, Chenopodium album and
Physalis minima seeds incubated under continuous dark or light were carried out in 8/16 hr light and dark. Germination counts were taken until Day 13. We found that incubation temperature and GA3 significantly enhanced seed germination, as maximum germination was observed for V. sativa (79% at 20°C), C. album (69.8% at 15°C), and P. minima (62% at 20°C) in such treatments. Exogenous GA3 significantly promoted germination of V. sativa, C. album and P. minima. It was found that GA3 was more effective in the presence of light as compared to dark condition and lowest germination was found in weed seeds at control.
Title: Sustainable Land Resource Management Practices for Jute Cultivation through the Identification of Production Factors and Soil Nutrient Mapping
Abstract :
Jute is the second most important fibre crop in India after cotton. There is a problem of non-uniform productivity over 87 jute
growing districts located in varying agro-climatic regions of the country including 17 jute growing districts of West Bengal. In
West Bengal relatively higher productivity is observed in South Bengal than in North Bengal., Factors of production were identified through field survey and interaction with the farmers in a participatory mode. The experiment was conducted during 2007 to 2009 at Dakshin Dinajpur district of North Bengal with the aim of determining critical production factors of jute and also
to overcome the productivity constraints through soil mapping followed by soil fertility management. The results revealed that fertilizer management is the most critical factor of production followed by weed management. The soil resource mapping indicated that the experimental soils were having acute acidity problem followed by deficiency in some macro and micro nutrients which are certainly responsible for yield decline of jute in these areas.
Title: Identification of Oats (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars by Seed and Seedling Protein Electrophoresis
Abstract :
Soluble proteins were extracted from seed and seedlings of eleven oats cultivars to analyze the protein profile through SDS PAGE
method. In seed protein electrophoresis totally 14 bands were observed, in these six bands were common to all cultivars. Based on the seed protein banding pattern two of these cultivars were differentiated easily. The unique band at Rf value 0.151 was common for all cultivars, but it was absent in cv. UPO 94. Similarly the band at Rf value 0.662 was present in all cultivars but it was absent in cv. Sabzar. In seedling protein electrophoresis totally nine bands were observed, four bands at Rf value 0.370, 0.524, 0.543 and 0.855 were common for all cultivars. The presence of band at Rf value 0.340 was common in all cultivars, it was absent in UPO 94 and the band at Rf value 0.641 was absent in all cultivars it was present in cv. Sabzar. In both seed and seedling protein cv. Sabzar and UPO 94 expressed the discernible banding pattern when compared to others. The other cultivars are differentiated
based on the total numbers of bands, banding pattern, intensity of bands, specific presence or absence of bands.
Title: Milking method’ - Novel Technology for Venom Collection from Aculeate Hymenoptera and used for Screening of In- Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Against Pathogens
Abstract :
Wasps were collected live from the field by using a hand net/sweep net and were maintained in the laboratory under caged condition by providing sugar solution (1:1) along with proteinex. Venom was collected from wasps by ‘milking’. Initially wasps were forced to sting on potato blocks with the help of forceps but the wasps failed to sting on potato blocks. In later trials the
wasps were made to sting on sterile paper disc, the wasps were not able to sting on paper disc and did not appear to release the venom either. The wasps were then offered freshly prepared pre-sterilized two per cent agar blocks of approximately 1 cm3. The wasps were able to sting the agar block during this ‘milking’ process and the venom containing agar block was stored in the
eppendorf tube containing 50 per cent acetonitrile (ACN) with 0.1 per cent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Venom from the selected wasps was collected by ‘milking’ at regular intervals.Then, extract was further concentrated and lyophilized and checked for the biological activity.
Title: Seasonal Flactuations of Butterfly Population: A Study in Butterfly Garden at Peechi, Kerala, India
Abstract :
Seasonal abundance and diversity of butterfly population in the Butterfly Garden of KFRI at Peechi was examined. A total of 11,104 individuals belonging to 50 butterfly species from five families and 37 genera were recorded. Nymphalidae was the most dominant family with 21species followed by Papilionidae (11species), Lycaenidae (7 species), Hesperiidae (6 species) and Pieridae (5 species). By pooling the generated data, the overall butterfly population showing an increasing trend from January to December
with many butterfly population had an average sightings in January, minimum in April and maximum in November. Data generated in this study shows that butterflies requires appropriate climatic conditions and they respond quickly to even subtle changes in temperature and humidity. It has been observed that the pupal period of certain Papilionids may be extended from the normal days
in November and December months. The lifecycle of butterflies is directly depends on temperature and humidity. A steady increase in the butterfly population count among all families shows the importance of such gardens in attracting and sustaining the butterfly population. Butterfly gardens help in caring wild butterfly population and to maintain the biodiversity in natural
ecosystems, which in turn, may increase the existence of human beings.
Title: Variability in Physico-chemical Properties of Indian Olive (Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.) Grown under North Bengal Conditions
Abstract :

A study was conducted during the fruiting season of Jalpai or Indian olive a minor fruit of West Bengal, so as to determine the physio-chemical properties of the fruits and evaluate the best accession. The fruits were harvested from distinct locations on North Bengal and were analysed for their bio-chemical properties. The results showed that all the different accessions possessed specific and distinct characters. The plant ACC-11 exhibited a very high value of TSS (7.07OB) followed by ACC-25 with a high TSS value of 6.9OB. ACC-24 showed high fruit weight of 20.83g compared to other accessions.ACC-30 was characterized with a highest value of total sugar (7.50%) along with high reducing sugar content (2.35%). The accession, ACC-20 not only showed high TSS value but was also distinguished with higher amount of total sugar content (6.85%). Similar trend was observed in ACC-29 where a high TSS (18.7OB), high reducing sugar (2.17%) and total sugar content (5.77%) were recorded. It can be established that the ACC-11, ACC-20 and ACC-29 accessions yieldeda superior quality of Jalpai whereas ACC-30 produces fruit with high sugar and acid content.

Title: Next Generation Sequencing Platforms and its Applications in Genomics
Abstract :
DNA sequencing technology is undergoing a revolution with the commercialization of next generation technologies. Over the past eight to ten years massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms have become widely available with reducing the cost of DNA sequencing. Next generation platform (NGS) includes Helicos HeliscopeTM, Pacific Biosciences SMRT, Ion Torrent, Oxford Nanopore, etc. These platforms have the potential to dramatically accelerate biological research, by enabling the comprehensive analysis of genomes, transcriptomes and interactomes to become inexpensive, routine and widespread. Variant discovery by re-sequencing targeted regions of interest or whole genomes, de novo assemblies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Cataloguing the transcriptomes of cells, genome-wide profiling of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure is using other seq-based methods and species classification and gene discovery by metagenomics studies.
Title: Cloning and Molecular Characterization of LECASAI Lectin Gene from Garlic (Allium Sativum L.)
Abstract :
Lectins have always demonstrated their role in bearing insecticidal activity. They are although considered to be toxic for mammals but some studies have reported that the presence of mannose binding region is believed to impart non-toxic nature to lectins against mammals including humans. In the present investigation, the research was conducted to elucidate the relationship of
lectin gene LECASAI with other previously cloned lectins having insecticidal activity and to ensure the presence of the conserved mannose binding region/site in LECASAI. In this study, we report isolation of LECASAI via PCR, Cloning, Characterization & Bioinformatics analysis of LECASAI isolated from Garlic (Allium sativum L.). The full length gene sequence of LECASAI obtained from sequencing consisted of 1029bp which was subjected to In-silico analysis in order to determine its ancestral relationship
and the presence of the conserved mannose binding region within the sequence. Results from In-vitro analysis indicated a higher homology of LECASAI with those of insecticidal lectins and the presence of mannose binding region in LECASAI. This unique approach has not only helped us in understanding the relationship between these genes but may also enable us to obtain an insecticidal lectin carrying insecticidal activity to several insects pests (for which even Bt proteins have been reported to be ineffective), apart from being non-toxic for man, mammals and birds in the future.
Title: Characterization of Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus Strain CKMV1 as a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Abstract :
A bacterial collection of approximately thirty native strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil associated with the seedlings of Valeriana jatamansi grown in moist temperate forest located in and around Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. The strain CKMV1 showed PGP traits like, phosphate solubilization (257.0 mg l-1), indole acetic acid (7.0 µ gml-1) and siderophore production
(53.43%) at 35±2ºC. Besides, the strain also exhibited growth on nitrogen free medium, hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity against different fungal pathogens. Significant growth inhibition of fungal pathogens occurred in the order as S. rolfsii > R. solani > D. necatrix > Alternaria spp.> F. oxysporum. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native V.
jatamansi growing in their natural habitat of Chamba district of H.P. is a rich source of Bacillus sp., which have potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve crop productivity. Morphological, biochemical and molecular based characterization of a selected isolate CKMV1, based on sequence homology of a partial 1375-bp fragment of 16S rDNA amplicon with the ribosomal database sequence valiated the strain as Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus. Therefore, these results suggested that out of 30 isolates, Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 possessed multiple PGP traits thus can be further explored for its efficacy as effective PGPR.
Title: Influence Gamma Irradiation on Morphological Changes, Post Harvest Life and Mutagenesis in Gladiolus
Abstract :

Present investigation was carried out for 3 years (2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14) at Varanasi, India to find out influence of various gamma doses i.e. 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 kR along with untreated (control) in different varieties of gladiolus viz., Aldebaran, Jyotsana, Legend, Praha, Punjab Dawn, Pusa Kiran and Tiger Flame. Maximum number of opened florets in vase was recorded with control during 1st year, whereas during 2nd year it was higher with 2.5 kR. Among varieties maximum opened florets were exhibited with cvs. Jyotsana and Tiger Flame during 1st and 2nd, respectively. Gamma dose at 1.5 kR registered maximum number of opened florets at a time during both years. Longevity of first floret was more with 2.5 kR treatment. Maximum vase life was recorded with 5.5 and 2.5 kR during 1st and 2nd year respectively. Among the varieties, maximum vase life was recorded with cv. Punjab Dawn followed by cvs. Tiger Flame during 1st and 2nd years. Various morphological changes were observed with different doses (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 kR) and an unstable mutant in variety Pusa Kiran was observed at 2.5 kR. However, a stable mutant during 3rd year of investigation was recorded in cv. Tiger Flame at 3.5 kR gamma irradiation. This mutant has orange-yellow colour flowers. Variation on flower shape, size and colour was exhibited than parent.

Title: Isolation and Assessment of Plant Growth Promoting Activity of Siderophore Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens in Crops
Abstract :
The Pseudomonas fluorescens a major Rhizobacteria encourage the plant growth through producing yellowish green fluroscent siderophore involve in high affinity transport of iron into the cell. The P. fluorescens isolates grow in iron deficient media because of production capacity of siderophore depends on iron content. Fifty nine Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated in King’s B
media under 260 nm wavelengths from the rhizosphere and non-rhizospheric soil of cave, forest, fellow land and agriculture field in Chhattisgarh region. The amounts of siderophore produce by P. fluorescens isolates were screen in iron deficient succinate media and most of them were found positive for the production of much siderophores. One of the isolate from Pakhanjore area
“P3” produce highest siderophore, which further assessed for plant growth promotion activities of crops rice, urd, mung and arhar. The study showed significantly higher increase in root length over control plants was observed in Rice (68.45%) followed by Urd (40.1%), Mung (33.71%) and Arhar (29.53%). Similarly, significantly higher increase in shoot length over control plants was observed in Rice (68.925%) followed by Urd (43.42%), Mung (39.96%) and Arhar (19.45%). It has been shown that these bacteria competively colonize plant roots and cause the plant statistically significant root and shoot increases by stimulating plant growth and reduce the incidence of plant disease of above mention crops under green house of tray culture conditions.
Title: Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Contamination of Poultry Feeds in Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract :
A survey was conducted during 2013 in different regions of Tamil Nadu, India and a total of 51 poultry feed samples were collected from poultry farms and poultry feed dealers. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in the feeds was detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers based on the O-methyltransferase gene (omt-A) that is involved in the aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis. The contamination levels of Aflatoxin (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that 98% of the tested samples were contaminated with AFB1 and the levels ranged from 0 to 160.7 ppb and the levels of AFB1 in 29% of the samples exceeded 20 ppb. Aflatoxin B2 contamination was observed in more than 82 % of the samples tested and the levels of
AFB2 in 17 % of the samples exceeded 20 ppb. The levels of AFB2 ranged from 0 to 95.5 ppb. AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected in any of these samples. In the PCR analysis using omt-A primers, A. flavus specific 300-bp PCR product was amplified from DNA extracted from most of the AFB1 contaminated feeds. However, some of the feed samples even though contain AFB1 failed to amplify the 300-bp product in PCR.
Title: Estimates of genetic variability parameters for yield and yield attributes in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Abstract :
Groundnut is an important oilseed crop grown under diverse climatic conditions. The productivity of the crop is considerably aff ected by foliar fungal diseases, especially late leaf spot and rust which occur together and cause severe yield loss. With an objective of upgrading yield integrated with disease resistance, two cross derivatives in BC2F1 generation were developed by crossing foliar disease susceptible variety CO 7 and two foliar disease resistant parents viz., GPBD 4 and COG 0437 in groundnut. These backcrosses viz., CO 7 × GPBD 4 and CO 7 × COG 0437 were used to study their mean performance, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean for yield and yield a ributes. High percentage of PCV, GCV, heritability coupled with high GAM were recorded by both the backcrosses for kernel yield per plant, pod yield per plant, number of pods per plant and 100-pod weight. In addition, the characters viz., 100-kernel weight, shell weight, sound mature kernel per cent, late leaf spot and rust score exhibited high/medium coeffi cient of variation accompanied with high/moderate heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean which indicated the presence of additive gene eff ect. Thus, upshot of the study clearly indicating that there is a presence of wide spectrum of genetic variation for almost all the characters in both the crosses, suggesting that they respond to selection with greater effi cacy for amelioration of kernel and pod yield conjunction with foliar disease resistance in groundnut.
Title: Estimation of Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Gain for Wood Density and Fibre Length in 36 Clones of White Willow (Salix Alba L.)
Abstract :
Variability of wood density and fibre length was determined in 36 genotypes of Salix alba L. procured from seven different European countries namely Italy, Hungary, U.K, Netherlands, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Croatia. Genetic parameters were worked
out with regards to estimate of heritability (broad sense), genetic advance, genetic gain as per cent of mean and correlation coefficient among them. Wood density was recorded in the range of 0.30-0.53 with mean value 0.40gcm-3 whereas fibre length ranged from 0.45-0.65 with mean 0.55mm. High heritability values show that the genetic control is stronger for wood density (h2=90.30) than for fibre length (h2=78.20). Both the characters were having high heritability with good genetic gain. Clone 84/22 from Turkey had given best performance in view of both the character. Further control crossing is underway to produce ideotype with regard to different end users.
Title: Photodynamic Potential Of Curcumin Nanoparticle With Chitosan On Adherent Canine Tumour Cell Line A72
Abstract :
Cancer is a highly incomprehensible and complex disease. Current treatment strategies are associated with adverse toxicities like multidrug resistance by cancer cells, destruction of normal cells, hair loss etc. The present work was aimed to use the natural photo sensitizer curcumin from C. longa and C.aromatica in nanoscale along with chitosan for the Photo Dynamic Therapy of cancer using adherent canine tumour cell line A72.Curcumin was extracted from C. longa and C.aromatica with water, acetone and ethanol. Light Source used for PDT was 12V Philips Endura LED 7W MR16 dimmable lamp. Photo sensitizers and nano materials were characterized by AFM and UV-Vis spectrum. Photosensitizers from 50µg/50µl to 0.393µg/50µl was used for toxicity assay . Toxicity of all photosensitizers were evaluated in darkness and light by MTT assay. Acetone extraction of C.longa yielded comparatively more curcumin than ethanol and water. Yield of curcumin was 0.25%, 0.16and 0.05% in acetone, ethanol and water respectively . UV-Vis absorption spectrum of curcumin showed peak at 425 nm. In darkness the toxicity of curcumin to A72 was 9% and curcumin nano particle was 11% at a concentration of 50 µg/50µl .Cellular toxicity by light alone was found to be 2%.
Title: Chromium (VI) Affected Nutritive Value of Forage Clusterbean (Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba L.)
Abstract :
Hexavalent chromium is highly reactive and shown to be toxic for plants at higher concentrations. In present study, a pot experiment was conducted with important forage crop ‘clusterbean’ to determine the toxic effect of hexavalent chromium on its nutritive value on advancement of plant growth. The plants were grown in soil containing varying chromium concentration ranging from 0.0-4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil. Nutritive parameters viz structural carbohydrates, protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility were studied in different plant parts and growth stages. Toxic effects of hexavalent chromium were reflected by no survival of plants at 4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil, upto 28% reduction in protein content and high variation in structural carbohydrates contents. Irrespective of these changes, the in vitro dry matter digestibility largely remains unaffected with very less change (0-6%). The study concludes that hexavalent chromium adversely affected nutritive value of clusterbean at higher concentrations.
Title: Soil moisture distribution under different lateral and dripper spacing of surface drip irrigation system in clay loam soil
Abstract :
The status, availability and distribution of moisture distribution within a crop’s root zone aff ect the yield and growth of crops. To increase the effi ciency of the water use while reducing water losses due to evaporation, the precise distribution of water around the emi
Title: Microencapsulation of Probiotic Bacteria and its Potential Application in Food Technology
Abstract :
Today the use of probiotic bacteria in food is of increasing interest to provide beneficial health effects in the food industry. Microencapsulation technology can be used to maintain the viability of probiotic bacteria during food product processing and storage. However, it is unknown to consumers how these beneficial bacteria sustain viability in food products and in our bodies.
These microcapsules are artificially created to support the growth of the probiotic and provide protection from harsh external environments. Polysaccharides like alginate, gelan, carrageenan, chitosan and starch are the most commonly used materials in microencapsulation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Techniques commonly applied for probiotic microencapsulation are emulsion, extrusion, spray drying, and adhesion to starch. It is done on bakery products, ready to eat cereals, dairy products etc. Now a days aseptic microencapsulation is introduced to biodegradable material. New creation and future progress will be carried by double microencapsulation, improving strain & culture.
Title: Gene effects and genetic analysis of indigenous land races and improved cultivars for yield and yield components in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
Rice is one of the crucial staple food crops and its unique grains assist to hold two third of world population. Generation mean analysis is commonly used in studies of inheritance of quantitative traits. Experimental material consisted of ten parents which included six high yielding varieties used as female parents and four traditional landraces used as male parents, F1, F2 and F3 generation of six crosses viz., IR 72 x Veeradangan, ADT 39 x Kavuni, ADT 45 x Kavuni, ADT 43 x Navara, ASD 16 x Navara and
TPS 4 x Kathanellu. Seven biometrical characters indicated that additive and dominance x dominance gene actions were predominant with duplicate type of gene action for fi ve biometrical characters viz., plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fi lled grains per panicle and single plant yield. The epiststic eff ects, additive x additive [i] and dominance x dominance [h] were highly signifi cant in most cases. The signs of (h) and (l) were opposite in all studied traits for most crosses. Non-allelic gene interaction was operating in the control of genetic variation in most studied traits. Also, the inheritance of all studied traits was controlled by additive and non-additive genetic eff ects, but dominance gene eff ects play the major role in controlling the genetic variation of the most studied traits. Present study indicated that early generation selection is eff ective and should be
practiced for future breeding program. 
Title: Genetic variability, Heritability and Correlation Analysis in F2 Populations of Ratoon Upland Cotton Hybrids
Abstract :

The success of crop improvement programs depends on variability and heritability of desirable traits. An investigation was carried out to assess the extent of variability generated by hybridization to estimate the heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean and correlation analysis for seed cotton yield and yield component traits and fibre quality traits in F2 main crop and F2 ratoon crop generations of 32 novel upland cotton hybrids. The segregating population was evaluated for fifteen traits. It was found that the F2 main crop and F2 ratoon crop populations are superior to the parents and expressed highly significant differences for all the traits. The high phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation were recorded for traits number of monopodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant and seed cotton yield per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advances was recorded for traits number of monopodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, lint index, seed cotton yield per plant and fibre fineness. As results of the correlation analysis, seed cotton yield was significantly positively associated with days to first flowering, number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, lint index, seed index, ginning out turn and fibre fineness. Results further revealed that F2 main crop and F2 ratoon crop generations with larger genetic potential, moderate to high heritability and positive association between yield and yield contributing traits and fibre quality traits could guide intensive selection for improvement in segregating populations.

Title: Insect-Based Medicines: A Review of Present Status and Prospects of Entomo-Therapeutic Resources for Human Ailment
Abstract :

Insects and products derived from them have been consistently used as medicinal resources by human civilizations all over the world. The immunological, analgesic, antibacterial, diuretic, anesthetic and anti rheumatic property in the bodies of insects is now well recognized; however the immense scope for its exploration still remains untapped. The chemicals generated by insects for self defense can be used as medicinal drugs of enormous potentiality. Insects have long been utilized as significant dietary factor and remedy for illnesses in folk tradition. Such entomotherapeutic potential of insects can also make important contribution in conserving the biodiversity of insects. At present, insect based medicines are gradually on the rise and gaining popularity and relevance. Products based on insect-derived substances with conventional technologies will help in yielding further benefits. This review collates the most important works conducted on insects used for different medicine and includes a discussion of the potentialities of such medicines.

Title: Optimization of Protoplast Isolation Protocols from Callus Culture of Anacardium occidentale L.
Abstract :

Protoplast technology endeavors a unique single cell system that promotes several aspects of modern biotechnology. In the present study, an efficient protocol to isolate the protoplast from callus culture of a valuable plantation crop, Anacardium occidentale was developed. The phenolic compound released during digestion process caused protoplast injury resulted in low yielding. Further investigations revealed that pH 5.0 and osmotic concentration 0.5M mannitol were found suitable for maximum protoplasts yield. The results also indicated that the age of the callus tissues plays a key role in the yield of protoplasts in A.occidentale. During the study, youngcalli showed maximum protoplast yield when treated with cellulase (2.5 %), pectinase (2.5 %), hemicellulase (1.5%) and 20mM CaCl2 in 0.5M mannitol. Meanwhile, an incubationperiod of 4hours with enzyme solution resulted in the maximum yield of protoplasts (4.71 ± 0.15)×103 protoplasts/g FW. In short, the results generated in the study can be used as a platform to work out the protoplast technology in A.occidentale.

Title: Bioinformatics Information of Leguminosae Family in Gujarat State
Abstract :
Bioinformatics is the computational analysis of biological data, consisting of the information stored in the form of DNA, Protein and Genome sequences in various biological databases. Leguminosae family is one of the largest families that contain thousands of species of Plants, Herbs, Shrubs and Trees worldwide. There are more than 250 species of this family which are found in Gujarat state. There are three subfamilies of Leguminosae family which are Fabaceae (Papilionoideae), Caesalpiniaceace and Mimosaceae. Gujarat is a state in north-western India. It has an area of 78,687 sq mi (203,800 km2) with a coastline of 1,600 km; its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. In this paper authors have collected Bioinformatics information available of 148 out of 266 Leguminosae family species like DNA, PROTEIN and Genome information of Leguminosae family from NCBI database.
Title: Studies on Physico-Chemical Constituents in Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato under West Bengal Condition
Abstract :

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is a low-input crop that can produce stable yields under suboptimal conditions. It is a nutritious and ample food source for humans and animals as well as a raw material for manufacturing. The experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Research Stationand AICRP Tuber Crops laboratory of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India from 2012-2014 to study the variability existing among the tubers after harvest. It has been found that the different cultivars had plant length (79.26-130.36 cm.), number of shoots/plant (7-13.67), number of leaves/plant (56.33-120), and number of tubers/plant (2.67-7), tuber weight (80.23-175.87 gm.), length (17.07-24.05 cm.), girth (3.42-5.28 cm.), yield/plant (2.97-10.78 kg/plant)and these varied significantly among the cultivars. The cultivars were observed to have good biochemical properties with moisture content (74.74-150.74 %), dry matter (18.42-31.62 %), TSS (6.43-11.25 °Brix), ascorbic acid (12.84-25.91 mg/100gm), total sugars (2.17-3.68 %), carbohydrate (15.67-28.42 mg/100g), protein (1.09-3.08 %)and starch (8.23-15.56%).They have also high sensory scores (7.20-8.55) based on the results obtained from overall acceptability. Cultivar IGSP-15, S-61 and ST-14 were identified to be superior considering all qualitative aspects like morphological characteristics, overall acceptability, biochemical compositions like good nutritional value, antioxidant property and suitable for processing purposes which can be selected for further improvement and can be promoted for cultivation. Results show that these sweet potato varieties have potentials of biological properties and could have wide utility in food, alcohol and sugar industries. In addition, it could serve as a promising source of protein and its consumption could be utilized in the management of diseases that implicate free radicals.

Title: Optimization of Culture Condition and Influence of Mediators on Degradation of Reactive Magenta-HB Dye Using Ganoderma cupreum AG-1
Abstract :
Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from the textile industries. Utilization of microbes including white rot fungi for decolorization of synthetic dyes is one promising strategy of an environmental friendly and cost-competitive alternative to physico-chemical decomposition processes for the treatment of industrial effluents. The present study investigates the
biodegradation and decolorization of reactive dyes using white rot fungi Ganoderma cupreum AG-1. Physico-chemical parameters including carbon and nitrogen sources, initial glucose and yeast extract concentration, pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, along with the effect of various metal ions and mediators were studied for the decolorization of Reactive Magenta-HB dye. The fungal isolate efficiently decolorized Reactive Magenta HB within 48 h at 28°C, at pH 5.0 and under optimized conditions 94.20
±1% dye decolorization was obtained within 48 h. The effect of mediators on laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and manganese independent peroxidase (MnIP) were also studied. The decolorization of Reactive Magenta-HB dye was monitored by UV–Visible spectroscopy while dye degradation was studied by HPTLC and FTIR spectroscopy.
Title: Evaluation of Siderophore Production and Antimicrobial Activity by Fluorescent Pseudomonas Diversity Associated with Rhizosphere of Apple and Pear
Abstract :

Replant problem is very serious problem which suppresses growth and yield of apple and pear in all major fruit growing areas of the world. Fluorescent Pseudomonas has potential to synthesize different secondary metabolites with diverse PGPR activities which enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. Under this study, twenty- six Pseudomonas strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of apple and pear plants from their normal and replant sites. All the isolates were positive for catalase, oxidase, denitrification test, lecithinase test and tween 80 hydrolysis. They were further screened for antifungal and siderophore production. Maximum siderophore production was recorded in isolates AN-1-UHF, AN-3-UHF, PN- 7-UHF and PN-13-UHF whereas, maximum antifungal activity against Dematophora sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria sp. and Pythium sp. was recorded in isolates AN-1-UHF, AN-3-UHF and PN-13-UHF. It was found that Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the replant sites showed comparatively less siderophore and antifungal activities. These potential isolates could be further used as biocontrol agents against various fungal pathogens in apple and pear orchards.

Title: Effect of plant growth regulators and micronutrients on growth and yield of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle) in hasta bahar
Abstract :
Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, famous for quality citrus production and acid lime is one of the important member of citrus group. Regulation of fl owering in Hasta bahar is important for obtaining off
season acid lime fruits. Keeping in view all these considerations, an experiment was carried out to study the eff ect of plant growth regulators (GA3, cycocel and paclobutrazol), KNO3 and micronutrients like zinc and boron on growth and yield of acid lime in Hasta bahar. The study revealed that application of GA3 50 ppm in June + Cycocel 1000 - 2000 ppm, Paclobutrazol 2.5 and 3.5 g a.i. / tree and 1000 - 2000 ppm in September + KNO3 (0.2%), Zinc (0.3%) and Boron (0.1%) in October showed be er performance in
plant height, mean plant spread and canopy volume. Maximum yield was obtained with the application of GAз 50 ppm + Cycocel 2000 ppm + KNOз 0.2% + Zn 0.3% + Boron 0.1%.
Title: Genetics of fertility restoration and agronomic performance of CMS based hybrids in pigeonpea
Abstract :

In the study, CMS based hybrid combination involving two male sterile lines (Cajanus cajanifolius) and four restorer lines in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) were studied to determine the genetics of fertility restoration in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). Based on the pollen fertility and pod setting, F2 segregating populations were categorised. Out of two major genes governing the fertility restoration, one gene segregated in the ratio of 9:3:4 whereas the second gene in 12:3:1 due to the allelic differences. The ICPA 2043/ LRG 41 and ICPA 2043/NDA 1 hybrids fits best for agronomical aspects as they showed earliness with respect to flowering and maturity having more number of pods plant-1, increase in pod length along with more seed yield plant-1. CMS system is a useful tool serving to increase seed yield production of various crops and consummate the demands of increasing populations.

Title: Adaptation Potential of Low Chill Peach Varieties to Inter-annual Climatic Variability in the Lower Shiwalik Himalayas
Abstract :
Fruit tree production is a mid to long term investment in which only few adjustments can be done once the crop has become established. Targeting of existing varieties for expected climatic variability is therefore critical for any fruit grower. In the current studies inter-annual variability in climatic variables has been desired to be confirmed with its potential impact on variation in the
phenological, production and quality traits of peach germplasm grown under the subtropical Himalayan eco-system. Different meteorological variables were monitored and behaviour of ten peach varieties were studied for their date of first bloom, full bloom fruit maturity, yield and fruit quality parameters during the years 2006-07 to 2012-13. Higher inter-annual variability in climatic variables has been confirmed together with the variation in the phenological traits. Yield and fruit quality performance of these varieties has also been evaluated. The resilience potential of varieites to climate change was ranked (in decresing order) as: Early Grande> Shan-i-Punjab> Pratap> Florida Prince> May Fire.
Title: Adaptability Measures for Wheat Genotypes Evaluated under Northern Hills Zone of Country for Irrigated Timely Sown Conditions
Abstract :

Wheat genotypes were evaluated under multi environment trials for Northern Hills Zone of India to study the adaptability performance. Genotypes HS612, HS507 and HPW430 were of high yield and better adaptability by analytic measures of adaptability based on BLUP values during 2015-16. Two interaction principal components, accounted for 89.9 % of total GxE interaction sum of squares in biplot analysis. HPW428, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 had specific adaptations to Almora and Malan while HS616, HPW423, HPW430, VL2021, HPW426 expressed for Shimla and Khudwani locations. Wheat genotypes HS612, HS507 and HPW430 were cited by analytic measures as per BLUE values. HPW429, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 had specific adaptations to Almora and Malan while HS616, HS618, HPW425, HPW426, HPW430, VL2023, VL2021, HPW426 observed for Shimla and Khudwani. Second year (2017-18) had seen high yield and better adaptability of HS631, HS632, VL2030, VL2025 genotypes as per BLUP values. Biplot analysis expressed specific adaptations of HPW429, HS613, VL2020, VL2024 to Almora and Malan locations. BLUE values based measures showed high yield and better adaptability of HS631, HS632, VL2030, VL2025 genotypes. Biplot analysis while utilizing 79.5 % of total GxE interaction sum of squares exhibited specific adaptations of HPW446, VL907, HS632, VL2025, VL2030 to Almora and Shimla. Stratification of wheat genotypes as per BLUP values was more efficient than that by BLUE. Biplot analysis exhibited more of GxE interactions sum of squares by first two significant principal components based on BLUP as compared to BLUE values.

Title: Effect of Agro-chemicals on Severity of Bacterial Blight and Fruit Quality in Pomegranate
Abstract :

Bacterial blight of pomegranate caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae is a wide spread disease affecting pomegranate production and quality of fruit in Punjab. In-vitro evaluation of agrochemicals indicated that blitox at 3000 ppm followed by kocide 2500 ppm successfully managed the disease. A field experiment was also conducted for its management at New orchard, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during, 2013. Three sprays of the agro-chemicals were done at 15 days interval starting from end June to end July on Mridula variety of pomegranate. Among the various treatments, blitox (0.3%) + streptocycline (250 ppm) proved most effective in reducing per cent disease index, per cent fruit cracking and providing maximum disease control. Quality parameters viz., TSS, acidity, weight, pulp colour, juice weight etc. were also studied. Maximum TSS, fruit weight, juice weight, pulp weight, 100 grain weight and total grain weight were observed in blitox (0.3%) + streptocycline (250 ppm) followed by kocide (0.25%) + streptocycline (250 ppm) sprayed fruits.

Title: Microbiological Quality of Water Stored in Copper, Earthenware and Stainless Steel Vessels
Abstract :
A study was conducted to compare the effect of storage of water in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels on coliform count and aerobic plate count. Water samples contaminated with animal excreta was collected from farms and aerobic plate count and coliform count was estimated. The samples were then stored in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels for ten days at room temperature and the counts were taken on third, sixth and tenth days. Initial mean aerobic plate count of sample was 9.18±0.38 log10 cfu/ml, which came down to 4.99±0.12 log10 cfu/ml, 5.87±0.47 log10 cfu/ml and 5.21±0.42 log10 cfu/ml respectively, in copper, earthenware and stainless steel vessels on third day of storage. By tenth day of storage of water, copper vessel could eliminate 83 per cent of aerobic bacteria, earthenware vessel could eliminate 77 per cent of aerobic bacteria and stainless steel vessel could eliminate only 70 per cent of aerobic bacteria. Coliforms were completely eliminated from copper vessel by third day of storage. Whereas, earthenware vessel retained 66 percent of initial coliforms on third day of storage, and it took seven to ten days for complete removal of coliforms from earthenware vessel. Stainless steel vessel retained 23.5 per cent of initial coliforms on
tenth day of storage. It could be concluded that use of copper vessels for storing drinking water in households is an effective water purification method.
Title: Irradiation as an Alternative Method for Post–harvest Disease Management: An Overview
Abstract :

Considering the high economic worldwide loss due to the post-harvest decay of fruit and vegetables, and the frequent development of pathogen isolates that are resistant to synthetic fungicides, there is a need to develop more eco-friendly alternatives for controlling post-harvest diseases. Irradiation (Gamma and UV-C) is one such physical method which is promising, but when used separately is not as effective as fungicides. Therefore, to improve its effectiveness and persistence, irradiation method can be combined with other complementary control measures such as sodium carbonate, heat treatment, chemicals, cold storage and bio-control agents as apart of integrated disease management strategies. Low doses of UV radiation, particularly UV-C have proven to be effective in delaying ripening and senescence, diminishing decay and even in increasing the content of beneficial compounds owing to its germicidal properties. It mainly inactivates microorganisms, especially pathogens by creating damage in the genetic material (DNA) of the cell. These methods can be efficiently used to delay the ripening of fruits, to inhibit germination, improve nutritional quality, minimize insect infestation and deactivate viruses. Short shelf life of mushroom can be extended by inhibiting cap opening and browning, stalk elongation, reducing the level of microbial contamination and finally by increasing the concentration of vitamin D2 significantly, without causing any adverse effect on its taste. This review deals with the information of maximum benefit which can be achieved from irradiation technology, and when combined with other chemical and physical methods with integrated strategy will provide synergistic effects for post-harvest disease control.

Title: Current Trends in Extraction Methodologies for Pesticide Residues in Food Matrices
Abstract :
Inevitable presence of pesticides in foods demands development of efficient multiresidue methods for risk evaluation. Extraction of pesticide trace contaminants from foodstuffs is a laborious task. Development of reliable sample preparation procedures, characterized by the simplicity of both the operations and the devices involved in analytical process is need of the hour. Effective minimization of sample sizes; and the amount of solvents used in extraction is also a priority. Traditional solvent dedicated approach such as liquid- liquid extraction have been taken over by integrated techniques (SFE, SPE, MSPD) and automated microextraction based methods. Moreover, introduction of solventless techniques
have become a benchmark to so-called “green chemistry”, in analytical perspective. The review accounts upcoming trends and aspects of extraction methodologies, involved in pesticide analysis of food and future prospects in the view of same.
Title: Design, development and field evaluation of manually operated rice transplanter for system of rice intensification
Abstract :
A 2-row plug type rice transplanter with revolving magazine metering mechanism was developed and fi eld evaluated for rice (Oryza sativa) crop. The seedlings of rice crop were grown in paper pot (80GSM). Plug technology was developed for the effi cient production of high-quality seedlings for transplanting. Seedling parameters like root length, plant height, stem thickness and stem width and machine parameters like plant to plant spacing, planting depth, field capacity, field effi ciency, total time of operation, speed of operation were recorded during fi eld evaluation. The cost and time saved over manual transplanting without considering paddy seed cost was about 59.9 and 79.85 per cent. The cost of transplanting with considering seed cost was ` 3101 h-1. The fi eld effi ciency and fi eld capacity of the transplanter was observed to be 83.22 % and 0.014 ha h-1 respectively.
Title: Assessment of SSR Specific Genetic Diversity for Fertility Restorer Gene (rf1) Among Various Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) Genotypes
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to evaluate the genetic variations for fertility restorer gene among various sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) genotypes by SSR analysis. The experiment was conducted in UG Plant Biotechnology Lab of the Deptt. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (U.S. Nagar). A total of five SSR primers were used for the estimation of allelic diversity in thirty sorghum genotypes consisting, ten male sterile lines (female), ten maintainer lines and ten pollinator (male) lines. All primers were found to be polymorphic for all sorghum genotypes with polymorphism ranged from 80% (Xtxp250 and TS304T) to 100% (Drenshsbm 95 and TS050). Among all 34 alleles, the number of alleles per locus varied from 5 (Xtxp250 and TS050) to 10 (TS304T), with average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The PIC for all 5 primers varied from 0.45 (Drenshsbm 95) to 0.88 (TS304T), with a mean of 0.70. The genetic similarity (GS) was varied from 0.70 to 1.0 for all genotypes. Dendrogram revealed that male sterile lines ICSA264, SP55609A, ICSA702, 32A2 and ICSA293 showed more genetic diversity (30%) with restorers UPC2, HC260 and M35-1 and these combinations can be used as heterotic parents in improvement breeding program of sorghum.

Title: An Efficient Micropropagation Protocol for Rauvolfia hookeri Srinivas and Chithra and Assessment of Clonal Fidelity by RAPD Analysis
Abstract :
An efficient in vitro propagation protocol via shoot multiplication was developed for Rauvolfia hookeri, a rare medicinal species endemic to the southern Western Ghats of India. Shoot tip explants cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, 6-furfurylaminopurine and Thidiazuron) either alone or in combinations produced multiple shoots. When either cytokinin was used alone, 6- enzylaminopurine
was found nearly twice more successful than 6-urfurylaminopurine. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained when 6-benzylaminopurine and 6-furfurylaminopurine was used at 22.2 µM and 4.64 µM respectively. Thidiazuron gave the lowest response for shoot proliferation. The effect of indole-3-butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid was evaluated for in vitro root induction. Rhizogenesis of excised shoots was of the shoots was readily achieved on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium containing various concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid and naphthale ne acetic acid. Indole-3- butyric acid was found to be more effective than naphthalene acetic acid and resulted in the highest frequency of shoots that rooted (86.5%) and mean number of roots per shoot (3.66) when used at 7.38 µM concentration. The micropropagated plants were hardened and transferred to green house condition wherein 70% plants established and were morphologically similar to mother plant. Genetic stability of regenerated plants has been checked by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA using ten selected decamer primers.
Title: Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables, Fruits, Soil and Water – A Critical Review
Abstract :

India has diverse agro-climate and produces a wide range of fruits and vegetables. It is the 2nd largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. It produces 74 million tones of fruits and 146 million tonnes of vegetables. Fruits and vegetables not only provide us nutritional and healthy foods, but also generate a considerable cash income for growers. Quality assurance is a prerequisite for high value fresh fruits and vegetables. The quality of fresh fruits and vegetables has a decisive effect on their value. This is a particularly true when consumers have a high income and the market provides a wide choice of produce. Fruit and vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers and also have beneficial antioxidative effects. However, the intake of heavy metal-contaminated fruit and vegetables may pose a risk to human health; hence the heavy metal contamination of food is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance.

Title: Trichoderma viride 2% W.P. (Strain No. BHU-2953) Formulation Suppresses Tomato wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Chilli Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum Effectively under Different Agroclimatic Conditions
Abstract :
Field experiments of a 2% W.P. Trichoderma viride (Strain No. BHU-2953, Accession No. NAIMCC-F-02976) formulation were conducted at experimental farms of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and SASRD, Nagaland University, Medziphema. The experiments were conducted in two seasons during 2007-08 & 2008-09 to test the bioefficacy of the formulation against the tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum and chilli damping-off pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum. The formulation was applied as seed treatment and furrow application. The results revealed that the seed and furrow application of the formulation significantly reduced the wilt disease of tomato and damping-off of chilli. The yields of tomato and chilli were also significantly enhanced. Further, the formulation did not have any phyto-toxic effect either on tomato or chilli plants at all the doses levels tested for field bio-efficacy. The T. viride formulation also did not have any adverse effect on the beneficial rhizospheric microbes, like Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (Glomus spp.) in tomato and chilli rhizosphere at all dosages as confirmed with microscopic observations. Based on the above findings, the T. viride 2% W.P. formulation is found safe and effective for using as an efficient and ecologically-safe alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of wilt of tomato and damping-off of chilli as well as for obtaining higher yields.
Title: Efficacy of imazethapyr and other herbicides on weed growth and yield of kharif blackgram
Abstract :

A two year field experiment was conducted during the the kharif season of 2014 and 2015 at Agricultural Farm, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal, with blackgram variety ‘WBU-108’ to study the effect of imazethapyr and other herbicides on weed growth, productivity and economics of kharif blackgram. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications and eight treatments. From the investigation it revealed that Digitaria sanguinalis among the grasses; Cyperus iria among the sedges and Ludwigia parviflora and Croton bonplandianum among the broadleaved weeds were predominant throughout the cropping period. Higher doses of imazethapyr (75, 100 and 125 g ha-1) applied at 20 DAS effectively controlled the grasses, broadleaved and sedges in blackgram at 45 DAS. Yield reduction due to weed competition was to the extent of 26-29% in kharif blackgram. Lower values of weed density, total weed dry weight, weed index and higher values of weed control efficiency, seed yield, net return and return per rupee invested were registered with application of imazethapyr at 75 g ha-1 at 20 DAS which was at par with by imazethapyr at 100 g ha-1 at 20 DAS. These treatments may be recommended for managing complex weed flora and obtaining higher yield and net return of kharif blackgram in the lateritic belt of West Bengal, India.

Title: Effect of Zinc and Iron Ferti-Fortification on Growth, Pod Yield and Zinc Uptake of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 at Agronomy field unit, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Raichur to study the effect of zinc and iron ferti-fortification on growth, pod yield and zinc uptake of groundnut genotypes. The soil of the experimental site was deep black, clay in texture with pH 8.4, deficient in DTPA extractable zinc and iron. Three groundnut genotypes in main plots and seven micronutrient treatments comprising of one control and three each of zinc and iron as soil, foliar and both were assigned in the sub-plot in a split-plot design replicated thrice. Results revealed that the groundnut genotype ICGV-00351 recorded significantly higher plant height and leaf area at harvest (40.05 cm and 5.40 dm2 plant-1, respectively), pod yield (2656 kg ha-1) and Zn uptake by kernels, haulm and total (59.29, 130.46 and 189.75 g ha-1, respectively) when compared to other genotypes. Among the micronutrients soil (25 kg ha-1) and foliar (0.5 %) application of ZnSO4 recorded significantly higher plant height and leaf area at harvest (42.09 cm and 6.30 dm2 plant-1, respectively), pod yield (2656 kg ha-1) and Zn uptake by kernels, haulm and total (67.42, 153.61 and 221.03 g ha-1, respectively) when compared to other treatments.

Title: Nutrient Management in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) in India
Abstract :

In India finger millet is mostly cultivated in resource poor soils of tropics and sub-tropics. Synchronizing nutrient supply with crop demand is essential to maximize yield and fertilizer use efficiency. It has been found that incorporation of N fertilizer during seeding stage increased yield as compared to broadcasting of fertilizer. The continuous application of inorganic N fertilizer reduced the soil organic carbon level. The foliar application of 2% urea produced higher grain and straw yield. Application of fertilizer P @ 125% recommended dose of phosphorus (RDP) with recommended N, K and FYM in different fertility soils recorded higher grain and straw yield. Nutrient management for targeting production and sustainability, integrated nutrient management (INM) will be the most suitable option. Application of 100% NPK along with FYM @ 10 t ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield and enriched the soil organic carbon. Application of farmyard manure (FYM) alone or in a combination with chemical fertilizers contributed to higher amounts of carbon inputs and build up a higher soil organic carbon pool in rain fed groundnut–finger millet rotation in alfisol of semi-arid region. Cropping system approach either sequential or intercropping with legume was found beneficial. Treating seeds with Azospirillum brasilense (N fixing bacterium) and Aspergillus awamori (P Solubilizing fungus) @ 25 g kg-1 seed of finger millet found to be beneficial. Soil test crop response (STCR) need to be considered for supplying nutrients more precisely with a target yield output. In the present paper, the available literature on different options of nutrients application to finger millet for sustainable productivity is reviewed.

Title: Impact of Elevated CO2 on Growth and Yield of Wheat Crop: A Review
Abstract :

In this manuscript, 19 research studies with 79 experiments from 9 countries of the world based on growth, yield and their components of Wheat (Tritium aestivum L.), under various CO2 levels was analyzed. Only the recently published research studies (excluding models and mathematical tools based research) were considered in the study. Most of the selected experiment confirmed that elevated CO2 have positive impact on growth, yield and its components. Majority of the observations confirm that the elevated CO2 improved the growth & development processes as well as the yield & yield attributes of Wheat crop. No doubt elevated CO2 have positive impact on various growth and yield parameters but when we consider the impact of climate change (elevated temperature, drought, and increasing concentration of anthropogenic gases like SO2, CO, CH4 etc.) the response of CO2 will become negative. Even though elevated levels of CO2 has potential to compensate the impact of other changes in climate and may create a path in future to meet the demand of burgeoning world population.

Title: Management of Damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum ) in chilli (Capsicum annum cv VNS-4 ) by Pseudomonas fluorescens
Abstract :
Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% W.P. formulation applied as seed and furrow (soil application) in Chilli significantly reduced the damping off disease of chilli caused by P. aphanidermatum. The yield of chilli was also significantly enhanced. The formulation did not have any phyto-toxic effect on chilli plants at all the dosage levels tested for bioefficacy. The Pseudomonas fluorescens
0.5% W.P. application had no adverse effect on the beneficial rhizospheric microbes, like Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (Glomus spp.) in chilli rhizosphere at all dosages which were confirmed by microscopic observations. Based on the above findings, the Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% W.P. formulation is found safe and effective and may be used as an efficient & eco-safe alternative
of synthetic fungicides for the management of damping off disease of chilli and for obtaining higher yields.
Title: Future Strategies for Sustainable Livelihood of small and marginal farmers in Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :

The aim of the contribution was to determine the Future strategies for sustainable livelihood of small and marginal farmers in Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir. There are 160 Gram panchayats, 385 villages and 4 towns viz. Rajouri, Thanamandi, Nowshera and Sunderbani. The district constitutes 8.81 percent of the geographical area of the state. There are 7 revenue tehsils viz; Rajouri, Thanamandi, Nowshera, Sunderbani, Budhal and Darhal with a total of 9 revenue blocks. The study based on the primary data in Rajouri district covering equal samples under major farming systems was elicited through survey method for the period 2014-15. It was observed that there is a need to focus on sustaining the productivity gains in the irrigated agriculture, the major emphasis should, however, be on the development of rainfed agriculture, promotion of integrated farming, high value agriculture, transfer of technology, secondary and specialty agriculture need to be accorded high priority. Since the Rajouri district has focused on the organic production in the proposed plan so the high priority is to be given for the action research and extension relating to the organic cultivation. Organic cost/produce certification and marketing of farmers produce at reasonable prices is another crucial issues affecting farm profitability which need immediate attention

Title: Sclerotinia Rot of Ocimum sanctum and the Host Range of its Pathogen
Abstract :

Sclerotinia rot of Ocimum sanctum caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been recorded for last three years during winter season (2011-2014) at Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The disease appeared in first week of December and progress of the disease continued up to the end of February. Drooping of leaves in one or more young twigs was the first symptom of the disease. Light brown discolouration on the twig and presence of white sclerotia might be associated with the initial symptom. Gradually more and more twigs were affected followed by death and drying of the infected twigs. In humid condition, prominent cotton white mycelia developed on the affected tissue. Towards end of February many plants became dead. Black matured sclerotia were found on the dead branches. On artificial inoculation the causal organism, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infected fifty plants indicating that the pathogen did not have host specificity. But susceptibility of seventeen plants (Capsicum annum var. grosser, Trichosanthes dioica, Cucurbita pepo, Abelmoschus esculentus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Amaranthus tricolor, Portulaca oleracea, Pachyrrhizus erosus, Ipomoea batatas, Lathyrus satires, Ricinus Communis, Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Carica papaya, Chrysanthemum indium, Chenopodium album) is recorded first time in India.

Title: Molecular characterization of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L.) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica l.) genotypes through PCR based molecular markers
Abstract :
The present study was carried out for the comparison of RAPD and ISSR markers for polymorphism pa ern and molecular diversity analysis among 17 ridge gourd (Luff a acutangula L.) and sponge gourd (Luff a cylindrica L.) genotypes using 20 RAPD and 12 ISSR markers. Twenty RAPD primers generated total of 94 bands of which 81 bands were polymorphic showing 86.17% polymorphism. The average bands per primer were found 4.05. The polymorphic information content (PIC) was recorded from 0.4828 to 0.8842 for RAPD. Jaccard’s similarity coeffi cient ranged from 30.8% to 78.6% for RAPD. However, out of 30 ISSR primers screened, twelve ISSR primers produced 79 bands of which 66 bands were polymorphic and 83.54% polymorphism with an average of 7.16 bands per primer. The PIC ranged between 0.6548 and 0.8939 for ISSR. Jaccard’s similarity coeffi cient ranged from 22.7 % to 81.2% for ISSR. This study showed that RAPD and ISSR markers produced specifi c DNA fragments for identifi cation of ridge gourd and sponge gourd genotypes.
Title: Bioactive Metabolite from Aphyllophorales sp. an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Breguiera Cylindrica
Abstract :
The significance of natural products in the drug discovery and development has been reported extensively. The natural products from mangrove fungi, which are known to be a rich source of bioactive metabolites, are of biotechnological interest. As most of these fungi grow in a unique and extreme habitat, they certainly will play a crucial role in meeting the demand for screening novel bioactive compounds. This is the first report on isolation of basidiomycete endophytic fungus, Aphyllophorales sp. (JQ34006)
from mangrove plants, Breguiera cylindrica. Among the 44 strains isolated, the ethyl acetate extract of Aphyllophorales sp. exhibited pronounced activity in preliminary antimicrobial screening. The isolated bioactive compound showed an Rf value of 1.5 in Thin layer chromatograpy (TLC) analysis. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a prominent peak was detected at retention time 2.314 minutes. The FT-IR analysis showed the presence of a benzene ring in the compound represented by characteristic functional group vibrations. The isolate exhibited protease activity. The results indicated that further investigations are still needed to discover other potential of this isolate.
Title: Leaf proteome alterations in tolerant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) genotype under water stress
Abstract :
Drought tolerant pearl millet genotype was used for diff erential physiological and proteomic analysis. The water stress was imposed on 20 days seedling up to fi ve days. The physiological parameters viz. soil moisture content, relative water content (RWC), shoot length (cm) were studied from drought and control seedling a er 25 days. The results showed signifi cant changes on RWC and soil moisture content was decreased under water stress. Proteome analysis of 2D gel electrophoresis indicates around 1262 well resolved spots within the 4-7 pH and 10-110 kDa ranges. Image analysis revealed the presence of both, qualitative and quantitative changes between two treatments. The proteomic changes were observed in tolerance genotype J-2340 resulted total 84 spots protein (22.5-97.4 kDa, pH- 4.00 to 6.73) matches with control and water stress treatments. However, 32 proteins up regulated (29.0-97.4 kDa, pH 4.20-7.00) and eight down regulated (57.9-97.4kDa, pH 4.00 to 6.68) were observed a er imposing water stress.
Title: Effect of Ethanol on Membrane Stability in Oreochromis Mossambicus (Peters)
Abstract :
Excess production and usage of ethanol as an alternative fuel has resulted in frequent ethanol spillage, which brings about massive fish kills arising due to depletion in oxygen content by ethanol, and data available so far on the impact of ethanol on aquatic ecosystems are scarce. The present investigates the alterations in the membrane stability after in vitro and in vivo exposure of fish erythrocytes and lysosomes to ethanol at different sub lethal concentrations. Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) was selected as an animal model and the LC50 value of ethanol was found to be 13.01 g/l. Ethanol brings about considerable damage to the RBCs when subjected to in vitro and in vivo conditions of different ethanol concentrations and it was
found to be highly significant at 0.1% level. Similarly a significant decrease (P<0.001) in lysosomal fraction of â-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activities were observed both in in vitro and in vivo studies. Ethanol induced mutilations to the membrane of RBCs and lysosomes when subjected to different concentrations of ethanol both in in-vivo and in vitro conditions are found to be very momentous.
Title: Effect of mulch on soil thermal regimes - A review
Abstract :
Any material spread over the soil to assist soil and water conservation, and increase the productivity of soil is called mulch. The application of diff erent types of mulch to soil is one of the corner stones of agriculture. Mulch may be organic or inorganic/synthetic in nature. Mulches are well-known for modifying the heat/energy and water balance at the surface of soils and creating more favorable conditions for plant growth. Soil thermal regimes can be modifi ed by using diff erent kinds of mulches. Soil temperature is agriculturally more signifi cant than aerial temperature. Extensive research in the past indicates that mulches modify soil hydrothermal regimes in crop root zone, conserve soil moisture, keep down weeds and promote soil productivity. Mulch infl uences the hydrothermal regimes by changing radiation balance, rate of heat and water vapor transfer and heat capacity of soil. However, the magnitude of the desired eff ects depends on the quality, quantity, durability of mulch material, soil type and climatic conditions. In the era of climate change, mulching materials should be extensively used especially under rainfed conditions for soil and moisture/water conservation, temperature moderation, soil health maintenance and finally towards the increased agricultural productivity. The economics and environmental concerns should also be taken into account while selecting the mulch material.
Title: Efficiency of Storage Device for Long term Storage of Cowpea Seeds
Abstract :
A study was conducted for the assessment of an appropriate storage device for long term storage of cowpea seeds. Cowpea seeds were stored in four different containers viz. tin container, polythene bag, earthen pot and gunny bag for six months at room temperature. Samples were taken out at monthly interval beginning from the first month of storage to determine the moisture content, germination percentage, vigor index and different fungi associated during storage. The seed moisture content and prevalence of fungi associated during storage were found highest in gunny bag resulting in lowest germination percentage and vigor. Fungal contamination and moisture content increased and seed germination and vigor decreased with the increase in storage period. But seeds stored in tin container maintained excellent germination percentage and vigor index as the moisture content and fungal contamination were less compared to other storage
devices throughout the storage period. Comparing all the storage devices, it was found that tin container is the best and secure device for long term storage of cowpea seeds.
Title: Studies on Heterosis for yield and its Attributing Traits in Tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.)
Abstract :
Twenty eight hybrids of tomato developed using eight parents (PusaRohini, PusaGaurav, Roma, Cherry Orange, Selection-1, Taiwan, N-5 and C-10-15-27-3) in half diallelfashion were studied for estimation of heterosis for yield and its attributing traits. Hybrids PusaGaurav x Taiwan, PusaRohini x PusaGaurav and PusaRohini x Roma were found most promising for yield and its
contributing traits. These hybrid exhibited heterosis to the tune of 48.14%, 44.47% and 73.41% over better parents and 83.43%, 76.78% and 74.24%, respectively over the check cultivar for fruit yield per plant. The cross combination PusaGaurav x Taiwan expressed highest significant standard parent heterosis and SCA estimates
Title: In silico Target Deconvolution of Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Abstract :
In relation to its antiviral properties, curcumin at higher concentrations is found to lower the growth of Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) infected with RSV. However the mechanism of action curcumin in RSV remains unknown. This analysis unlocks the ways to increase the killing of RSV even at lower concentrations of
curcumin, also preventing apoptosis of the host cells when concentration of curcumin is increased (if a higher concentration is needed). The study has identified the viral proteins RNA polymerase L and Ribonucleoprotein N to be susceptible targets in RSV for binding of curcumin or curcumin bioconjugates to combat the virus
Title: Upgrading Biogas  to Biomethane  by Physical Absorption Process
Abstract :

Biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes by microorganisms. It is a relatively simple and economical method to produce a fuel from waste. It has a composition of methane as the main component with 50-70 percent, carbon dioxide around 30-40 percent and, hydrogen sulphide and moisture in trace quantities. The composition of biogas varies depending upon the substrates used. The raw biogas from the biogas digesters is properly scrubbed and purified to remove the unwanted gases like CO2, H2S and moisture up to a certain required level. In this work, a biogas upgrading system of 2 m3/h capacity has been developed for the removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide from biogas, is indispensable to get Biomethane. Developed biogas upgrading system, upgrades the biogas up to 96- 97% Biomethane at 10 bar column-operating pressure with 1.5- 2.5 m3 /h of biogas in-flow rate and 1.75 m3/h of water inflow rate.

Title: Bio-efficacy of chemical Insecticides against Spotted Pod Borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) on Cowpea
Abstract :
Studies were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Kharif 2010 and 2011 to know the efficacy of some new molecule insecticides (azadirachtin, Bt, endosulfan 35% EC, thiodicarb 75% WP, spinosad 45% SC, lambda cyhalothrin 5% EC, indoxacarb 14.5% SC, profenophos 50% EC and acetamiprid 20% SP) against spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) on mungbean. The spinosad 45% SC and indoxacarb 14.5 % SC were the most effective treatments and significantly superior to other treatments with 80.7 and 79.2 per cent larval reduction over control. The least effective treatment
was acetamiprid 20%SP, followed by azadirachtin with 38.8 and 44.9 per cent reduction in larval population over control. The maximum yield was recorded in treatment indoxacarb 14.5%SC (11.8q/ha) followed by spinosad 45%SC (11.1q/ha) which were at par with each other. While lowest yield was recorded in azadirachtin (9.7q/ha).
Title: Extremophiles: An Overview of Microorganism from Extreme Environment
Abstract :
Extremophilic organisms are primarily prokaryotic (archaea and bacteria), with few eukaryotic examples. Extremophiles are defined by the environmental conditions in which they grow optimally. The organisms may be described as acidophilic (optimal growth between pH 1 and pH 5); alkaliphilic (optimal growth above pH 9); halophilic (optimal growth in environments with high concentrations of salt); thermophilic (optimal growth between 60 and 80 °C); hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80 °C); psychrophilic (optimal growth at 15 °C or lower, with a maximum tolerant temperature of 20 °C and minimal growth at or below 0 °C); piezophilic, or barophilic (optimal growth at high hydrostatic pressure); oligotrophic (growth in nutritionally limitedenvironments); endolithic (growth within rock or within pores of mineral grains); and xerophilic (growth in dry conditions, with low water availability). Some extremophiles are adapted  imultaneously to multiple stresses (polyextremophile); common examples include hermoacidophiles and haloalkaliphiles. Extremophiles are of biotechnological interest, as they produce extremozymes, defined as enzymes that are functional under extreme conditions. Extremozymes are useful in industrial production procedures and research applications because of their ability to remain active under the severe conditions typically employed in these processes. The study of extremophiles provides an understanding of the physicochemical parameters defining life on Earth and may provide insight into how life on Earth originated. The postulations that extreme environmental conditions existed on primitive Earth and that life arose in hot environments have led to the theory that extremophiles are vestiges of primordial organisms and thus are models of ancient life.
Title: A Novel Approach for Enhancement of Lovastatin Production using Aspergillus Species
Abstract :
Submerged cultures (SmF) of filamentous fungi (Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus) are widely used to produce commercially important metabolite lovastatin. Limited investigations have been made on optimization of the different nutrients and process parameters using standard optimization methods. No previous work has used statistical analysis in documenting the interactions between nutritional and process parameters in lovastatin production. With this lacunae, Plackett-Burman experimental design
was used for the first time to screen and investigate the effects of the nine factors —i.e. Source (lactose, glycerol and honey) and concentrations of carbon (40–80 g/L), source (mycological peptone and yeast extract) and concentrations of Nitrogen (5–25 g/L); pH of the fermentation process (6.0-7.6); Temperature of the fermentation process (24 oC –32 oC) ; Agitation (120 – 200 rpm) and Fermentation time (5–13 days) —on the concentrations of lovastatin produced in batch cultures (SmF) of Aspergillus terreus
(newly discovered strains (nhceup) MTCC-11045, Aspergillus terreus (NHCEUPBT) MTCC-11395, Aspergillus flavus (NHCEUPBTE) MTCC-11396 and Aspergillus terreus MTCC-1782. Lovastatin in the sample was confirmed and estimated by UV Spectrophotometry, HPLC and FTIR analysis; Plackett-Burman design identified the “source and concentrations of C, N, pH and incubation period” were the principal factor influencing the production of lovastatin.
Title: Traditional Knowledge on Medicinal Plants used by the Tribal People of Birbhum District of West Bengal in India
Abstract :

The present paper deals with observation on ethno medicinal uses of plants by the tribal people of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Tribal medicine is an age-old therapeutic system which is traditionally practiced among different tribal communities for their primary health care needs. The tribal people of this district mainly depend upon the forest flora for their livelihood and use herbal medicines in curing the ailments and diseases. Altogether 30 plant species belonging to different families have been recorded from the district. These plant species are effective for various common human ailments. Considering individual plant parts it is found that leaf is used in 20 cases, bark in 12 cases, fruits in 6 cases, stem in 3 cases, latex and flowers in 2 cases, sap and rhizome in 1 cases. Finally, the recorded plant taxa have been enumerated according to their botanical names along with families, local or tribal names, parts used, disease cured, mode of administration, etc. This folk knowledge on medicine should be documented immediately and therapeutic validation of these herbal medicines is emphasized. To avoid biodiversity extinction some measures would be taken, like, cultivation of rare medicinal plants, provision of training and extension services to farmers engaged in cultivation of medicinal plants, establishment of herbal gardens in forest areas and creation of seed bank.

Title: Characterization of Pectinase from Cashew Shell Cake Using Aspergillus niger with Unique Kinetic Properties
Abstract :
The main purpose of the study was to provide a value addition; to a cashew industry by-product:- Cashew Shell. Production of newly Pectinase enzyme by Solid State Fermentation and the enzyme has been optimized by using Cashew Shell as substrate has been standardized. Strain has been selected by assessing the fungal strains having the better survival capacity in CNSL and
based on the Pectinase production studies (MTCC 1344). Optimum Pectinase production by SSF was obtained when incubated for 96 hours at 45ºC and pH 5.The enzyme activity of Pectinase (Polygalactouronase) was determined by measuring the release of reducing groups from polygalactouronic acid. Partially Purified Pectinase powder was obtained by acetone precipitation; followed by filtering the enzyme through Whatman No: 1 filter paper using a vacuum pump.
Title: Low Cost Tissue Culture Technology for the Regeneration of Some Economically Important Plants for Developing Countries
Abstract :
Plant tissue culture, an ecofriendly technology includes micropropagation which leads to mass propagation of true to type, high quality planting material of ornamentals, medicinal crops plantation crops, fruit and forest trees etc within a limited period . It has provided challenging opportunities in global trading of tissue culture saplings as well as cut flowers for export as well as for domestic use in developing countries like India. This area has created new avenues for entreprenureurs. But the main bottleneck is the high cost of tissue culture planting materials compared to the conventionally propagated saplings. It is a capital-intensive industry, and in some cases the unit cost per plant becomes unaffordable. Hence, it is necessary to adopt strategies to reduce
production cost and lower the cost per plant. This paper deals with various low cost tissue culture techniques which can be adopted by small scale entreprenures in Indian conditions Bioreactors provide more precise control of the plant growth gaseous exchange, illumination, medium agitation, temperature and pH than the conventional culture vessels. However, to be costeffective, use of bioreactors requires indexed plant cultures, and attention to aseptic procedures during handling of plant material otherwise culture contamination leads to massive economic loss. Plants hardened under natural light are sturdy, and withstand transplantation better in the field. Careful planning of a facility can make large savings both in the construction costs and day-to day operations in the facility. The primary application of micropropagation has been to produce elite planting material irrespective
of season or crop, which in turn leads to increased productivity in agriculture as well as better economy to developing nations like India.
Title: Comparative Studies on Simultaneous Adsorption and Biodegradation, Adsorption and Biodegradation for Treatment of Wastewater containing Cyanide and Phenol
Abstract :

This paper presents a comparative study of the efficiency of biodegradation, adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) process for the remediation of industrial wastewaters containing both cyanide and phenol. Adsorption was carried out using granular activated carbon (GAC), while biodegradation was achieved by co-fermentation with Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum. During co-metabolism P. putida utilized phenol as carbon source while A. chroococcum utilized cyanide as nitrogen source for growth. The biodegradation efficiency decreased with increasing concentrations of phenol and cyanide and was observed as 99.99, 92.45, 86.12, 75.21 and 60.34% for cyanide and 99.61, 85.62, 79.15, 64.21 and 56.63% for phenol respectively after 60 h of agitation when initial concentration was increased from 50-350 mg L-1. With adsorption on GAC, the removal efficiencies were found to be 85.8, 77.67, 75.51, 58.25 and 50.73% for cyanide and 73.92, 72.99, 71.23, 60.13 and 51.55% for phenol respectively after 72 h of agitation. However SAB process was found to be better than biodegradation or adsorption alone in terms of both removal efficiency and time required for remediation with removal efficiencies > 94% for initial cyanide and phenol concentrations of 50 and 100 mg L-1.

Title: Biological Efficiency of Legume Intercrops in Baby Corn (Zea Mays L.)
Abstract :

Field experiments were conducted at the Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of crop geometry, intercropping and topping on the productivity and biological efficiency of baby corn. Crop geometry (60 x 20 cm and 75 x 16 cm) and intercropping (baby corn alone, baby corn + fenugreek (greens), baby corn + fodder cowpea) were assigned to main plots. Four topping practices (detasseling alone, topping beyond 9th, 10th and 11th internodes) was allotted to sub plots. The results revealed that baby corn raised at 75 x 16 cm produced higher green cob yield over 60 x 20 cm. Intercropping systems did not have positive influence on yield of baby corn. The highest green cob yield was obtained with topping beyond 10th internode. Higher baby corn equivalent yield (BEY) was obtained with baby corn + fenugreek grown under 75 cm row spacing combined with topping beyond 10th internode. Biological use efficiency as measured by the indices like LER, AHER, LEC, MER and RNRI were higher with baby corn + fenugreek grown under 75 cm row spacing combined with topping beyond 10th internode. However, baby corn intercropped with fodder cowpea at 75 cm row spacing combined with topping beyond 10th internode registered the higher ATER than the other treatment combinations.

Title: Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Storage of Baramasi lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm)
Abstract :

The harvesting period of winter crop of Baramasi lemon coincides with the cooler part of the year and there is often a glut like situation in the market at its peak harvest time. This results in low returns to the growers. A study was planned to enhance the storage life of baramasi lemon fruits and fruits were harvested at green mature stage along with small pedicel in the month of January. Only healthy fruits were dipped in 0.1% bavistin solution for 2 minutes and after shade drying fruits were packed (four fruits in each pack) in high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. Fruits were also waxed with Citrashine wax in one treatment. Packed/treated fruits were packed in corrugated fibre board (CFB) boxes and kept at ambient conditions. Fruit samples were analysed after 20, 35 and 50 days of storage for various physico-chemical characteristics. Results revealed that fruits treated with bavistin @ 0.1% and packed in LDPE bags maintained the best fruit quality in terms of high sensory quality, juice content, acidity and low spoilage and physiological loss in weight during 50 days of ambient storage

Title: Contents IJAEB Vol 13 Issue 1 March 2020
Abstract :
Title: Impact of Climate Change on Vegetable Cultivation - A Review
Abstract :
Vegetables are an important component of human diet as they are the only source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. They are also good remunerative to the farmer as they fetch higher price in the market. Likewise other crops, they are also being hit by the consequences of climate change such as global warming, changes in seasonal and monsoon pattern and biotic and abiotic
factors. Under changing climatic situations crop failures, shortage of yields, reduction in quality and increasing pest and disease problems are common and they render the vegetable cultivation unprofitable. As many physiological processes and enzymatic activities are temperature dependent, they are going to be largely effected. Drought and salinity are the two important consequences of increase in temperature worsening vegetable cultivation. Increase in CO2 may increase crop yields due to increased CO2
fertilization, but decreases after some extent. Anthropogenic air pollutants such as CO2, CH4 and CFC’s are contributing to the global warming and dioxides of nitrogen and sulphur are causing depletion of ozone layer and permitting the entry of harmful UV rays. These affects of climate change also influence the pest and disease occurrences, host-pathogen interactions, distribution and ecology of insects, time of appearance, migration to new places and their overwintering capacity, there by becoming major
setback to vegetable cultivation. Potato, among the all vegetables, is most vulnerable to climate change due to its exact climatic requirement for various physiological processes.
Title: An economic analysis of farm risk under water stress production environment in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
Agriculture is the single largest private sector occupation and is also considered to be the riskiest business since it mostly depends on the vagaries of nature. It is important for all decision makers to
know the degree of risk involved in each activity. Once the risk corresponding to an a ainable level of expected return is known, depending on the risk taking ability, diff erent farm plans having diff erent level of risk can be taken up by diff erent farmer. In this context, the present study a empts to analyze the agricultural production risk in Namakkal district because of the availability of dry farms. In this
study, survey was conducted in four blocks of the same district. The overall objective of the study is to analyze the farm risk to derive optimal input use and optimal cropping pa ern under the conditions
of risk by an appropriate risk programming models. In the case of cost of cultivation of selected crops, total cost was high i.e. ` 62208 for banana and followed by tomato i.e. ` 38976. Banana and tomato
generated higher returns viz. ` 97976 and ` 49516 when compared to maize and groundnut. The results of quadratic production function concluded that when risk level increases, optimum quantity of inputs
used for the production was decreased. The results showed that even though decline trend in income, the resources which were used in the cultivation as an effi ciency factor
Title: Rapid in vitro Multiplication of Eulophia Cullenii (Wight) Blume - a Rare, Endemic and Exquisite Orchid of Southern Western Ghats
Abstract :
As part of a conservation programme to multiply Western Ghats orchids, green pod culture of Eulophia cullenii, a rare, endemic exquisite and therapeutically important orchid of Western Ghats was attempted. Green pod culture of E. cullenii, was tested in three different culture media viz. Mitra et al., Knudson C, and Wimber media. Mature seeds released from a three month old the green pod of E. cullenii were cultured in the above mentioned liquid nutrient media supplemented with different organic additives
like casein acid hydrolysate (CH), peptone (P), yeast extract (YE) and coconut water (CW). Mitra nutrient medium supplemented with 0.05% CH (w/v) supported highest percentage (70%) seed germination. CW was found be inhibitory for seed germination in all the media tried. Protocorm after 60 days in liquid medium were transferred to solid Mitra medium containing same additives. Protocorm proliferation was noticed in Mitra basal and organic supplemented medium and maximum of an average of 15 daughter protocorms within 8 weeks of culture in solid basal Mitra medium. Proliferated protocorm when transferred to Mitra basal medium within 8 weeks leafy shoots with root initials and initiation of in vitro rhizome were obtained. These seedling again transferred to fresh basal medium healthy seedling with in vitro derived rhizome were formed within 8 weeks of culture. After the third subculture in solid medium, the healthy rooted seedlings with in vitro developed rhizome obtained were transferred to community pots
containing sand and farmyard manure (1:1) and 79% survival rate was obtained after one year of establishment.
Title: Molecular Diversity Analysis of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Genotypes Determined by ISSR and RAPD Markers
Abstract :
The present study was carried out for the comparison of ISSR and RAPD markers for polymorphism pattern andmolecular diversity analysis among ten cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes. Out of 50 ISSR primers, 18 primers produced total 103 bands across ten cowpea genotypes, of which 49 bands were polymorphic. A maximum polymorphism (85.70%) was obtained by UBC 815. Average numbers of polymorphic bands per UBC primer was 2.72. The UBC 834 was the best primer resulting good amplification with maximum PIC value (0.890). However, out of 50 RAPD primers,
14 RAPD primers produced 120 bands across ten genotypes, of which 81 bands were polymorphic. A maximum polymorphism (90.0%) was obtained with OPV-16 primer. Average number of polymorphic bands per RAPD primer was 5.78. The primer OPD-08 was the best primer resulting good amplification with maximum PIC value (0.923). Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 68.40% to 92.90% for ISSR, for RAPD are 57.10% to 81.00% and for ISSR-RAPD coefficient data ranged from 85.70% to 63.50%.
Title: Management of Nutritional and Climatic factors for Silkworm Rearing in West Bengal: A Review
Abstract :

The development and reproduction of insects are greatly influenced by a variety of nutritional and climatic factors. These factors may exert their effects on insects either directly or indirectly. Under natural conditions organisms are subjected to a combination of nutritional and climatic factors, and it is this combination that ultimately determines the distribution and abundance of a species. Frequently the effect of one facto modifies the normal response of an organism to another factor. For example climatic factor light, by inducing diapauses may make an insect unresponsive or unaffected by temperature fluctuations. Major silk producing insect Bombyx mori L is also not an exception. Bombyx mori L is a domesticated and delicate insect. Improper maintenance of nutritional and climatic factors affect the genotypic expression in the form of phenotypic output of silkworm crop such as cocoon weight, shell weight, and cocoon shell ratio. Besides it is not easy to manage silkworm rearing in West Bengal due to prevalence of high temperature and high humidity most of the time during the silkworm rearing. These climatic factors also influence the various nutritional factors. As per example humidity in the rearing room may affect the types of leaf fed to silkworm larvae in different instars. The present review paper discuss in details about the role of various nutritional and climatic factors on growth and development of silkworm and it also indicates future strategies to be taken for the management various climatic and nutritional factors for successful cocoon crop in West Bengal.

Title: Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Tomato Production in Adamawa State, Nigeria
Abstract :

The study examined the technical efficiency of tomato production in Guyuk Local Government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 100 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule.The result of the stochastic frontier production function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (δ2) and the gamma (γ) were statistically significant at 1% level for tomato production. The coefficient of farm size and seed were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the farm size and quantity of seed, and decreasing the use of manual labor. Mean efficiency were 0.69, Farmers operated at 31.03% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, Gender and family size have negative prior sign and in consonance with the prior expectation. Better use of technology dissemination was suggested to enhance the production level at farmers field and optimum utilization of resources.

Title: Growth, Yield and Quality of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cv. Dolly Orange as influenced by Biofertilizers in combination with Phosphorous
Abstract :

A pot experiment was conducted in the screen-house of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to investigate the potential effect of biofertilizers (PSB and mycorrhiza) and different levels of phosphorus (0, 10, 15 and 20 g/m2) on growth, yield and quality of chrysanthemum. The conjunctive effect of biofertilizers and different levels of phosphorus was found to be significant for both the years. The maximum plant height (31.77 and 33.33 cm), fresh weight of plant (100.90 and 96.77 g) and dry weight of plant (10.85 and 10.15 g) were recorded with PSB + phosphorus 15 g/m2 in the year 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. The minimum number of days taken for bud initiation (61.67 and 63.33 days) and number of days to first flowering (75.00 and 75.67 days) were also obtained with PSB + phosphorus 15 g/m2 in both the years, respectively. The maximum number of buds per plant (32.33 and 32.00), number of flowers per plant (29.00 and 29.33), the longest flower stalk (6.33 and 6.33 cm) were noticed with PSB + phosphorus 15 g/m2 in the year 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. The maximum number of days taken for bud initiation (79.00 and 80.33 days) was recorded with mycorrhiza application (alone) during both the years, respectively. The interaction effect between the biofertilizers and levels of phosphorous on number of suckers per plant was found to be non-significant during both the years of experimentation.

Title: Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Surface and Ground Water Sources Under Different Land Uses in Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Investigations were carried out on analysis of water samples for heavy metals viz. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Iron and Zinc from surface and ground water from 39 sampling sites under different land uses (agriculture, forest and urban) during different seasons (rainy, winter and summer) in adjoining to Kandaghat town of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh, India. This study had been carried out from 2011-2012 in order to elucidate the fate of heavy metals in surface and ground water. The maximum As (0.39 ppb), Cd (0.07 ppb), Pb (0.66 ppb), Fe (0.03 ppb) and Zn (0.09 ppb) of surface water was recorded under urban land use. Maximum As (0.25 ppb), Cd (0.06 ppb), Pb (0.59 ppb) and Fe (0.03 ppb) of surface water was recorded during summer season whereas Zn (0.06 ppb) was recorded during rainy season. In ground water, maximum Cd (0.06 ppb), Pb (0.02 ppb) and Fe (0.03 ppb) was recorded under urban land use, whereas As (0.15 ppb), Pb (0.02 ppb) and Zn (0.15 ppb) were recorded under agriculture land use. Maximum Cd (0.06 ppb) and Fe (0.03 ppb) of ground water were recorded during summer season, whereas As (0.06 ppb), Pb (0.02 ppb) and Zn (0.15 ppb) were maximum during rainy season.

Title: Phosphorus Availability and Proton Efflux of Nodulated-root Varies among Common-bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Rhizobox
Abstract :
In this study we compared between six RILs of (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in growth, nodulation, phosphorus use efficiency for N2 fixation and proton release in response to two levels of P in nutrient solution. For plants grown at 250 and 75 ìmol P pl-1 week-1 for 42 days. For this propose Glass house experiment in rhizobox was conducted to evaluate six common bean genotypes for their growth behavior at two levels of soil phosphorus, deficient (75 µmol week-1 plant-1) and sufficient (250 µmol week-1 plant-1) using 24g soil per rhizobox. Genotypes showed differential behavior at both P levels for all parameters. Shoot biomass and nodule biomass were observed higher in sufficient P than in deficient P. Difference
for phosphorus utilization efficiency and phosphorus uptake were also observed where RILs 34,75 and 147 were the higher efficient in use and uptake of P under sufficient P than deficient P. and also greater in H+ efflux for these RILs under sufficient than deficient P. It concluded that these RILs have the possibility to enrich the poor phosphorus soils by available P and improve the soil fertility.
Title: Assessment of diversity in aloe barbadensis miller using morphological and molecular markers
Abstract :
In this study, genetic diversity of 38 accessions of Aloe barbadensis, collected from diff erent parts of India were evaluated using morphological and random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data. Statistical analysis showed signifi cant diff erences for all morphological characteristics among the accessions, suggesting that selection for relevant characteristics could be possible. The analysis of molecular diversity was used the RAPD technique, with 14 random primers of 10-mer oligonucleotides. RAPD analysis was performed with 14 primers chosen a er a previous screening. Signifi cant genetic variability among those 38 cultivars was obtained both at the morphological and molecular level. This study demonstrated that for determining the genetic variability among some cultivars, the molecular
markers technique is more precise than the morphological traits.
Title: Field Efficacy, Net Profit and Cost Benefit Ratio of Certain Insecticides against Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in Tomato
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the field efficacy, net profit and cost benefit ratio of certain insecticides against fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in tomato during Rabi season 2008. The pooled and statistical data indicated that spraying of endosulfan 35 EC was found to be most effective as it recorded lowest larval population (2.33 larvae per plant) as compared to control (7.02 larvae per plant). Endosulfan 35 EC recorded significantly lowest fruit damage (22.85 per cent). Further, the present findings revealed that the per cent of fruit damage caused by fruit borer was highest at the beginning of the picking seasons and as the number of pickings increased there was a decrease in the fruit damage. All the insecticidal treatments significantly recorded lower fruit yield losses as compared to control (50.85
per cent). Maximum fruit yield was registered by treatment endosulfan (69.50 q/ha) which was followed by cypermethrin
(64 q /ha) and fenvalerate (61.33 q/ha) and lowest in control (20.33 q/ha). The net profit ranged from ` 7,424/- per ha (ë-cyhalothrin) to ` 38,528/- per ha (endosulfan). Spraying of cypermethrin twice on tomato crop, gave maximum cost benefit ratio (1:0.98) which was obviously due to its low price as compared to other insecticides.
Title: Shelf life extension of fresh-cut spinach
Abstract :
Fresh-cut vegetables are an important and rapidly developing class of convenience foods. Their storage life may be greatly reduced due to their high rates of respiration and transpiration and the possibility of enzymatic and microbiological deterioration. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the shelf life and the failure a ribute that conditioned the shelf life of fresh-cut spinach packaged in
diff erent packaging materials.Packaging of fresh vegetables is one of the most important steps in the long and complicated journey from grower to consumer. Spinach has a relatively short shelf life. “Shelf
life is defi ned as the time period that a product can be expected to maintain a predetermined level of quality under specifi ed storage conditions”. Shelf life is a function of time, environmental factors, and susceptibility of product to quality change.The maximum shelf life for spinach was observed as 3 days and 14 days when stored in LDPE bags with 5% perforation at ambient and cold storage conditions, respectively.
Title: Chemopreventive Potential of Methanolic Extract of Leucas aspera Against N-Nitrosodiethyl Amine (NDEA) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Abstract :
N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), a chemical carcinogen present in many environmental factors. It induces oxidative stress and celluar injury due to enhanced generaion of reactive oxygen species. Free radical scavangers protect the membranes from NDEAinduced damage. Objectives:The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of methanolc extract of Leucas aspera (MELA) against NDEA induced liver toxicity in male wistar rats. Methods:NDEA was administered for 20 weeks.
Daily doses of (MELA) at doses 100 and 200mg and standard drug Silymarin at a dose of 50 mg/kg bodyweight were administered
one week before the onset of NDEA intoxication and continued for 20 weeks. Results:Rats intoxicated with NDEA had elevated levels of serum alpha-fetoprotin((AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA), aspartate amino tranferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GGT), bilirubin, tissue lipid peroxides (TBARS & CD) and decreased levels of serum total protein, albumin & uric acid levels whereas MELA and Silymarin treatment showed decreased
levels of AFP, CEA, uric acid, hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxide levels, protein and albumin to near normal. Histopathological observation also substantiated NEDA-induced hepatoxicity and the effect was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by Leucas aspera extract and Silymarin treatment. Conclusions:The study reveals that (MELA) at a dose of 200mg/kg effectively reversed the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats. Histopathological studies also confirmed that MELA reduced tumor
incidence and reversed the damaged hepatocytes to near normal.
Title: Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides on Human Health and Environment: A Review
Abstract :

In developing country like India, a marketable surplus of agriculture is the most important factor which influences the economic development of a country. To meet the demands of agriculture goods adequately and to feed the increasing population, the phenomenon of Green Revolution came into existence. Green Revolution, allowed developing countries like India to overcome continual food scarcity by producing more food and other agricultural products by using high-yielding varieties of seeds, modifying farm equipment, and substantially increasing use of chemical fertilizers. For an optimum production of agriculture produce and to feed the growing population, application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has become necessary. Such type of agriculture practices allowed growth and sustainability of food grains but at the same time have the major impact on the environment and human health. This article provides a sketch of effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on human health and environment.

Title: Chemical profile and amino acids composition of edible mushroom
Abstract :
Study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of popularly cultivated mushrooms viz., white bu on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus pulmonarius. Both types of mushroom exhibited high moisture, crude protein and amino acid content. The Pleurotus and Agaricus mushrooms contained 3.26% and 1.78% soluble protein, respectively. Further, the qualitative amino acid analysis revealed these proteins to be rich source of essential amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids were qualitatively identifi ed in the fresh samples of both types of mushrooms. The Thin Layer Chromatography separation of amino acids showed that all the nine essential amino acid were present
in Agaricus bisporus whereas, only five are present in Pleurotus pulmonarius. Hence, the supplementation of these mushrooms with cereal diet can help to overcome essential amino acids defi ciency and reduce the post-harvest losses of this high value perishable crop
Title: Forms of Sulphur and Evaluation to the Sulphur Test Methods for Moongbean in Some terai Soils of Eastern India
Abstract :
Surface soil samples of some terai soils of Eastern India were collected and analysed to evaluate different forms of sulphur status and soil test methods for predicting response of moong bean crop to sulphur application. The range of water soluble, sulphate, adsorbed, organic form and total sulphur were 6.91 to 26.23 (mean 16.69), 13.73 to 30.38 (mean 20.67), 3.19 to 42.91 (mean 18.37), 150.27 to 372.73 (mean 229.57) and 178.57 to 433.09 (mean 264.63) ppm, respectively. Soil pH, organic carbon, cation exchange
capacity and total N content in soil were positively correlated to the all forms of sulphur. Although clay content was negatively correlated to water soluble and sulphate sulphur, but silt+clay content in soil was positively correlated to water soluble sulphur and negatively correlated to adsorbed sulphur content in these soils. Amongst the five chemical extractants employed, relative
suitability of the extractants for predicting available sulphur status for these soils with reference to moong bean crop were in the order: Morgan > monocalcium phosphate 500ppm P > 0.15% CaCl2 > 1 N NH4OAc > 1% NaCl. Therefore, Morgan’s extractant may be used as an index of available sulphur for moong bean (B1, Sonali) grown on acid soils of terai tract of Eastern India, the critical level being 18.0 mg kg-1.
Title: Integrated Rizi-Pisciculture: An approach towards livelihood and nutritional security for the tribal community of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :

An approach was made to evaluate the feasibility and economic viability of rice fish culture (RFC) by conducting trials in 8 different villages viz. Ngorlung, Niglok, Balek, Mirem, Sikatode, Ayeng, Rayang and Seren of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh during Kharif seasons of 2011 to 2014. In the multilocational trials on rizi-pisciculture survival rate of advanced fry was recorded between 44.5 % and 48.7 % with an average weight of 83 g to 91 g at the harvest. During the study period average total cost of cultivation of RFC and sole cropping of rice was calculated to be ` 42,700 and ` 26,612 respectively. Average gross income and net income increased by ` 61,937 and ` 44,849 respectively by practicing RFC over the sole cropping of rice and it also raised the benefit-cost ratio of the system (2.61).

Title: Assessment of Phytotoxic Proclivities of Jatropha curcas L. on Germination and Seedling Establishment of Some Field Crops
Abstract :
To elucidate the phytotoxic response of Jatropha curcas L. on performance of some economical crops under nursery, present investigation was undertaken. Three test crops viz. Zea mays, Vigna radiata and Brassica campestries were evaluated for various germination and growth parameters. Different soil media has treatment combinations of field soil and soil beneath Jatropha monoculture fields significantly influenced the germination, seedling growth and vigour of all test crops. Highest germination capacity was noted in control and a gradual suppression trend was seen thereafter. Growth measurements (shoot and
root length, collar diameter, vigour index) and phytomass (fresh shoot and root weight, dry shoot and root weight) exerts maximum increment when supplied to 50 % field soil and 50 % Jatropha rhizosphere soil (JRS). Maximum inhibition in all parameters was pronounced at 100 % Jatropha rhizosphere soil for each of considered parameters. Highest germination % (82) was traced in mustard followed by maize (77) seeds. Best germination and dry biomass (7.57 gm) extent was eminent in Brassica campestries
but seedling growth (66.24 cm) and fresh biomass (14.62 gm) concern were higher in Zea mays. Vigna radiata adversely affected in germination (64 %), seedling growth (17.24 cm), vigour (965.44), fresh biomass (1.2 gm) and dry biomass (0.24 gm) respectively. Higher concentration of Jatropha rhizosphere soil (JRS) gives suppretory behavior in survival and development of examined
crops. The allelopathic perspective within test crops can be arranged as a Vigna radiata > Brassica campestries > Zea mays.
Title: Cellulase from Cashew Shell Cake using Aspergillus niger Production, Purification and Potential Applications
Abstract :
The Cellulose content in the Cashew Shell Cake was utilized for the production of enzyme Cellulase CEPC-C11; induced by Aspergillus niger (MTCC- 1344) using the Solid-State Fermentation (SSF). Optimised conditions by SSF for Cellulase production were at 30ºC, pH 7.0 and 216 hours of incubation. The enzyme activity of Cellulase was found through C1 and Cx Cellulase Combined Assay. Partially Purified Cellulase was concentrated and powdered by acetone precipitation method. Purified Cellulase showed a maximum specific enzyme activity of 15.322 U/mg of protein at 50ºC, pH 5.0 and on 30 minutes of incubation. Thus cellulase enzyme yield of 20% /Kg of substrate showing Km and Vmax of 1.786 and 19.45 U/mg respectively was obtained. This enzyme which is capable of hydrolyzing native cellulose; that has functional temperature ranging from 25ºC to 70ºC and pH ranging from 3.5 to 8.0 respectively; could find various industrial applications
Title: Traditional medicinal plants used by the Adi, Idu and Khamba tribes of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state in North Eastern India and is a centre of rich biological diversity. It is the home of tribal people belonging to 26 major tribes and over 110 sub-tribes of the Indo-Mongoloid racial stock. The Adis the Idus and Khambas are some of the dominant tribes among them. Most of these communities are ethnically similar but their geographical isolation
from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress, and customs. They use the diverse flora in their daily life. These tribes are well versed with knowledge of edible greens, vegetables, fruits, seeds and other materials. They have good knowledge of treatment of many ailments by the local plants. 55 plant species belonging to 49 genera
and 36 families were found used for medicinal purpose by the Adis and the Idus of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve (DDBR). About 93 formulations were prepared from 55 plant species. Some formulations were made from single plant; while others were of more plants and were categorized into different types as per curative properties with which they were associated. These medicinal plants have been used traditionally either by eating them as raw drugs, as vegetable or apply it directly to the affected area. The
manner in which the plants are used for the treatment of animal bite, cut, wounds, swellings, skin diseases, dental diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, pain, fever and headache, jaundice, leprosy, cholera, cancer, cough and cold, malaria, ostiological problems and others are presented in this paper.
Title: Effect of growing media, Pgrs and seasonal variability on rooting ability and survival of lemon (Citrus Limon L.) cuttings
Abstract :
The eff ect of diff erent growing media (soil, soil+FYM, soil+vermicompost, soil+cocopeat, soil+sand+FYM, soil+sand+vermicompost and soil+sand+cocopeat), hormonal treatments (Control, IBA 500 ppm, NAA 500ppm and IBA+NAA 500ppm each) and growing seasons (rainy and spring) on the number of sprout per cu ing, number of primary roots per cu ing, number of secondary roots per cu ing and survival percentage of cu ings of lemon cv. Pant Lemon-1, was evaluated. Among the diff erent growing medium, number of sprouts per cu ing (2.58) with soil+sand+vermicompost, number of primary roots per cu ing (9.03) and number of secondary roots per cu ing (16.67) with soil+sand+cocopeat and survival percentage (82.23) with soil+sand+FYM, recorded maximum. Growth hormones IBA 500 ppm resulted maximum (2.42) number of sprouts per cu ing as well as highest survival percentage (81.68). Hormonal combination of IBA 500 ppm+NAA 500 ppm were resulted maximum number of primary roots (7.74) and secondary roots (16.19) per cu ing. Over all compare between spring and rainy seasons, spring season was found superior regarding number of sprout per cu ing (2.29) and number of primary roots per cu ing (7.30). Whereas, number of secondary roots per cu ing (15.30) and survival percentage
(77.37), were more in spring season. 
Title: Importance of Plants in the Restoration and Environment Development – A Case Study
Abstract :
St. Francis Assisi called sun “My brother sun” and moon “My sister moon”. This Fransican thought has come to the present day world more amplified. Now we know that we, human beings are not isolated beings. We are related to grass, trees, birds, spiders, animals, earth, air and water. Everyone is a part of universal web.
Title: Effect of Herbal Extract on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Drug Resistant Burn Wound Isolates
Abstract :
Major problems of wound management and therapy are bacterial infection and wound sepsis, which in worst case may lead to mortality. The status of infection determines the class of wound. Invasive infection is injurious to host cells. Wound healing is becoming challenging due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbes. The present study evaluates the use of neem,
turmeric, kuppaimeni, aleovera along with penicillin, ciprofloxacin, metrogel, cefadroxil, , gentamycin, and neomycin against pathogens isolated from burn wound. Among the isolates the predominant pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics and herbal formulations were performed by agar well
diffusion and disk diffusion method. All P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to penicillin, metrogel, cefadroxil,, gentamycin,and neomycin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and bacitracin. E.coli isolates were resistant to vancomycin, penicillin, metrogel and cefadroxil.
Title: Response Surface Optimization of Extraction Parameters of Green Tea
Abstract :

Green tea is one of the most popular beverage in the world. Green tea (Camellia sinensis ) is a rich source of bioactive components so it has been used in traditional medicine. In the present study, green tea is extracted with water to obtain maximum nutritional quality and antioxidant activity. The optimal conditions for extraction of green tea was determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent factors, leaf to water ratio (1:10, 1:30 1:50), temperature (40 to 50°C) and extraction time (15 to 45 min). Optimal conditions were, extraction temperature of 51.44°C, time 29.48 min and water to solid ratio of 1:47.80 with highest total polyphenols, total flavonoid, caffeine, antioxidant activity and lowest tannin.

Title: Characterization of Sugar Binding Lectins Isolated from Different Parts of Eudrilus Eugeniae
Abstract :
Lectins occur widely in animal and plant kingdom. In animals there is wide range of reports of presence of lectin in vertebrates and invertebrates, but their function is not fully understood in invertebrates. It may either have a role in the developmental stages or in the defense mechanism by providing immunity. In earthworm species like Eudrilus eugeniae presence of lectin like proteins, were reported. The aim of this study is to isolate the sugar binding lectin like proteins from Coelomocytes (CC), muscles (MC), gut/whole body (WE) & vermicompost (VC) of earthworms and characterize them. Partially purified lectins were estimated for their protein content by Biuret method and it was observed that lectins isolated from CC have more protein content of 0.178 mg/ml as compared to any other source. Their sugar binding specificity was checked by DNS method and it was observed that CC lectins
and VC lectins have more affinity for glucose (CC glu & VC glu) while MC lectin and WE lectins have more affinity for galactose (MC gal & WE gal).
Title: Screening of Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas spp. for their Biocontrol Potential against Phytopathogens of Vanilla
Abstract :
Fungal pathogens of vanilla such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii were isolated from naturally infected vanilla plants and an attempt were made to minimize the damage caused by the pathogen using biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from soil. The combined inoculation of of Trichoderma harzianum
with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment showed maximum disease suppression followed by the single inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida, Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. The results clearly indicated that these bio-control agents suppressing the disease incidence. Concerning the interaction effect between used antagonistic microorganisms and method of treatments, there was a highly significant effect. These results suggested that
using of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens through soil mixing plus root dipping treatment could be provided not only additional protection against crop loss due to Fusarium diseases but also significantly increased vegetative growth of vanilla. The mechanism of biocontrol involved the production of volatile and non volatile organic acids, siderophore,
chitinase, peroxidise and salicylic acid. Application of biocontrol agents for crop protection is very significant as it has several advantages such as possibility of multiple pathogen suppression, low cost and promotion of soil fertility.
Title: Production and Purification of Cellulase Enzyme by Endophytic Bacillus sp. Isolated from Rhizophora Mucronata
Abstract :
Mangroves occupy a relatively unexplored site in endophytic microorganism isolation so they can represent a new source in obtaining more enzymes with different potentialities. The present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Bacillus sp isolated from mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata for the production of Cellulase enzyme. After production, Proteins from the culture filtrate were precipitated by Ammonium Sulfate (60%). The precipitate was reconstituted with assay buffer and dialyzed against same buffer. Then the dialyzed sample applied on DEAE Cellulose column and eluted with 1M NaCl in buffer. Purified enzyme was found to be 65KDa by SDS PAGE. The optimum conditions for the enzyme activity were found to be at a temperature 37°C and PH 7.0. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme were 1.25mg/ml and 14.6 IU/ml, respectively.
Title: Bio efficacy and Persistence of Oxyfluorfen in Aerobic Rice
Abstract :

A field study was conducted at ZARS, V.C. Farm Mandya to determine bio efficacy and persistence of oxyfluorfen residue in soil and aerobic rice crop. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was applied (100 g a.i ha-1 and 200 g a.i ha-1) to crop (Var MAS 946-1). Soil samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90 days after sowing and at harvest. Plant samples were collected at 60, 90 days after sowing and at harvest. Both the samples were analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 82.6% for soil and 92.6% for plant samples at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.05 µg g-1. Higher persistence of oxyfluorfen was noticed in treatment which received oxyfluorfen at 200 g a.i ha-1 + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 ranging between 0.61 µg g-1 and 0.08 µg g-1 at 0 and 60 days after treatment whereas oxyfluorfen did not persist in rice at any growth stages. A higher half life of 7.0 days and lower rate constant of 9.8 × 10-3 day-1 were also recorded in the same treatment.

Title: Temporal Abundance of Different Floral Visitors on Egyptian Clover (Trifolium Alexandrinum L.) and Correlation with Weather Parameters
Abstract :

The temporal abundance of different floral visitors on Egyptian clover, Trifolium alexandrinum l. and correlation with weather parameters was studied at Forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2012 and 2013. The mean temporal abundance of A. dorsata was the maximum (4.90/m2/5 min.) followed by A. mellifera (2.69), H. armigera (2.24), Eristalinus spp. (1.59) and A. florea (1.20/m2/5 min.) during 2012. During 2013, A. dorsata abundance decreased to and it 3.08/m2/5 min. followed by A. mellifera (2.61), P. brassicae (2.03), Eristalinus spp. (1.91), Coccinella septempunctata (1.63) and A. florea (1.62/m2/5 min.). A. cerana abundance during 2012 was 0.30/m2/5 min. but became almost negligible (0.06) in 2013. Floral visitor’s abundance was maximum at 1400 h (2.97/m2/5 min.) followed by at 1200 noon (2.66) and 1600 h (2.50) and least during the morning hours of 0600 (0.09) and 0800 h (0.42/m2/5 minutes). Abundance of A. mellifera and A. dorsata during 2012 had a highly significant positive correlation with wind speed (r=0.77 and 0.86) at 0800 h while the later was also correlated with maximum (negative) and minimum relative humidity at 1800 h (r=-0.89 and 0.85, respectively).

Title: Influence of Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel Fertilizer Composite on Enzymes, Biomolecules and Yield of Abelmoschus Esculentus
Abstract :
Increase in population accompanied by decrease in the availability of cultivable lands and limited supply of water resources necessitates the urge to improve agricultural productivity in the available land. In the present study, the influence of Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel (CAPNG), urea, diammonium phosphate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (FC) and Calcium Phosphate Nano Gel Fertilizer Composite (CAPNGFC) on germination, specific activity of amylase, protease, nitrate reductase, carbohydrates,
proteins, free aminoacids and yield performance of Abelmoschus esculentus was evaluated. CAPNG was prepared by coprecipatation method. CAPNG was characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD. Enzyme activities were assessed by the micromoles of product formed/min/mg protein and expressed in Units/mg protein. Aggregated network of CAPNG was observed with the size of 100 nm. The most intense peaks in XRD were in the range of 30 to 35°, which coincides with the peak of the amorphous nature. FTIR
spectra showed peaks at 603.68 cm-1 corresponding to phosphate.
Title: Efficiency of conservation agriculture: Evidences from wheat farms in Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
India is the second largest producer of wheat in the world and U ar Pradesh is the largest wheatgrowing state in the country. The major challenge to wheat production in the state is the enhancing of
its productivity and profi tability. Adoption of zero tillage technique is one such step in this direction. The paper has compared the economics and effi ciency of wheat production in U ar Pradesh with zero tillage (ZT) adopters and non-adopters and assessed the contribution of technology and inputs to the increased productivity due to zero tillage for the years 2013-14. For the study, CACP cost concept and Cob-Douglas production function were used to fi nd out the economics and effi ciency of wheat in zero till system. The result indicates that the net return was found 80 % higher in case of adopters than nonadopters. The study has also observed that ZT technology has potential to provide additional income to farmers and help in conservation of scarce resources. The resource use effi ciency analysis showed that zero tillage adoption saved machine labour and seed than under conventional method.
Title: Fibrous Root Distribution in Blood Red Sweet Orange Trees under Semi- arid Irrigated Ecosystem
Abstract :
Fibrous root distribution pattern of mature trees of sweet orange cultivar Blood Red budded on rough lemon with her cleoptera and troyer citrange rootstocks were studied by root excavation method. The roots excavated from four radial distances i.e.0-75,75-150,150-225 and 225-300 cm from the tree trunk and three depths i.e.0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm from the ground level indicated that fibrous root dry weight density and proportion of dry weight differed significantly at various depths and radial distances. Cleoptera has more feeder roots as compared to rough lemon and troyer. Feeder root dry weight density and dry weight proportion was almost the same between 0-15 & 15-30 cm depth and at deeper horizon there was significant decrease in all the root stocks. Approximately 70% of the total feeder roots in all rootstocks were within 0-30 cm depth i.e. intensive vertical development. The highest feeder root dry weight density was recorded at 0-75cm radial distance after that there was a sharp decrease. Troyer citrange, cleoptera and rough lemon contain about 65, 61 and 50% feeder roots up to 150 cm radial distance from the trunk. Hence, feeder roots, in troyer citrange and cleoptera may be exemplified as intensive lateral development. Rough lemon bears extensive lateral development as it has substantial amount of feeder roots at 150-225cm radial distance. 
Title: Role of Antioxidative Enzymes Activity in Salt Stress and Salinity Screening in Rice Grown Under in vitro Condition
Abstract :
Role of antioxidative enzyme activity in salt stress and salinity screening was studied in the callus of two rice cultivars (White ponni and BPT-5204). The antioxidant activities of the rice callus were determined by analyzing three enzymes activity namely, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) grown under saline condition. Enzymes were analysed in 15 days old rice callus culture grown under slat stress and non-saline conditions. All the three enzyme activities were varied according to salt concentrations in the medium. SOD and CAT activities were higher in BPT-5204 but APX activities were higher in White ponni. Among the NaCl treatment, medium contained 40 mM NaCl observed higher enzyme activity than 20, 30 mM NaCl. Under non saline condition there is no significant difference were noticed in the enzymatic activities and callus growth parameter in both the cultivars. Observation was carried out on
the change in callus growth parameter like weight and color of the callus. There was a significant reduction in weight and also change in colour of the callus was noticed with respect to higher salt concentration (30 and 40 mM NaCl) in the medium for both the cultivars. The observed data indicated that rice plant responds well to salt-induced oxidative stress by increasing their enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. The antioxidant enzyme activity play vital role in defense against salt stress and this may help to screen the salt tolerant line grown under in vitro condition in early callus stage itself.
Title: Differential Response of Trifloxystrobin in Combination with Tebuconazole on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University to evaluate the influence of trifloxystrobin in combination with tebuconazole (Nativo) on the nutrient uptake, yield attributes and yield of rice. Foliar spray of Nativo was taken up at 50-55 days after sowing (DAS) and 70-75 DAS and observations were recorded at panicle initiation (60-65 DAS), flowering
(80-85 DAS) and maturity (100-105 DAS) stages. The result indicated that Nativo significantly improved the root length, total dry matter production (TDMP) and nutrient uptake, but inhibited the shoot length. Among the different concentrations, Nativo @ 400 g ha-1 performed better by increasing the fertility co-efficient, 1000 grain weight, panicle length and the grain yield in rice.
Title: Leaf Anatomical Studies of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Relation to Tolerance and Susceptibility to Turcicum Leaf Blight Disease
Abstract :
Screening of a set of 12 different composite and commercial hybrid varieties/land races against Turcicum leaf blight disease showed differences in disease reaction. These varieties differed  ignificantly and Percent Disease index (PDI) ranged from 10 to 62 %. Among the different varieties, Allrounder, Prabal, DKC- 9081 showed significantly less (P=0.05) disease as compared to other varieties. Keeping this in mind, they were classified as Tolerant Type and Susceptible Type. The studies on leaf structural anatomy of the both the types reveled that difference in number of stomata per unit area, size of vascular bundle, lower and upper epidermis and number of trichomes per unit area. It may be concluded that the
structural anatomy of maize leaf may play an important role in resistance and susceptibility to the Turcicum leaf blight disease.
Title: Disparities in socio-economic development: A district level analysis in Karnataka
Abstract :

The level of development was estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The level of development has been separately estimated for agriculture, Animal husbandry, industry and transport and communication. In case of transport and communication sector, Bengaluru district ranked first and Chamarajnagar was least in development. Wide disparities were obtained in the level of development among different districts. Positive and significant association is found between the agriculture and industrial sector. Karnataka require improvement in various dimensions for enhancing the level of overall socio-economic development for unified balanced integration of curative, preventive and promotional services.

Title: Isolation and characterization of nitrogen fixing burkholderia Sp.
Abstract :
The bacterium Burkholderia has been isolated from the rhizosphere soils of Mimosa, Lemon, Maize, Sugarcane, Sunfl ower, Rice, Bhendhi, Sunhemp, Co on and Chilly from the diff erent farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Biochemical and physiological characterization was done for the obtained isolates to screen for further studies by using starch hydrolysis, lipid hydrolysis, casein hydrolysis and catalase test, etc. The isolates were checked for their ability to fi x nitrogen by using diff erent medium like BMGM and N free BMGM medium. The isolates were also checked for nitrogenase activity by using gas chromatography. B1 and R1 isolates showed high nitrogenase activity (7.99 and 7.15 n moles of ethylene /hr./mg of cell protein respectively). Total genomic DNA was isolated and PCR with 16S rRNA gene specifi c primers carried out to yields amplicons of 1300 bp size in Burkholderia. The PCR was carried out with specifi c primers of nifH gene primer for selected isolates. It showed that selected four isolates were found to have nifH gene with 400 bp. The present study revealed that some
of the Burkholderia sp. helps in plant growth promoting activities by fi xing nitrogen to enhance the yield of crop plants that can be exploited as bioinoculant in agriculture
Title: Morphological, Cytological and Biochemical Characterization of wheat Aegilops Longissima Derivatives BC1F6 and BC2F4 with High Grain Micronutrient
Abstract :
Micronutrient deficiency (Iron and Zinc) is the major problem worldwide mostly in the developing countries with high dependence on staple foods. Biofortification of staple cereal and tuber crops has been considered and taken up as the most effective, feasible and economic approach for alleviating micronutrient deficiency. The present study was the initiative towards biofortification of wheat where the previous work of wide hybridization between HD2687 and Aegilops longissima accession 3506 and subsequent backcrossing with Triticum aestivum cultivar WL711 has been continued. In this study the alien chromosome introgression, chromosomal stability of BC1F6 and BC2F4 wheat-Ae. longissima derivatives has been investigated for their potential as germplasm for future breeding and biofortification program through morphological, cytological and biochemical analysis. We found that the selected derivatives showed stable 42, 44 and 46 chromosomes for most of the plants where single plant reported for each 41, 43 and 45 chromosomes with 19-22 bivalents and few
trivalent. The GISH analysis of derivative 79-1-4-8-1-2-2 revealed introgression of two univalent Sl chromosomes. Finally four derivatives were selected from BC1F6 (79-1-4-8-10-2-2, 79-1-4-8-10-2-5, 79-2-4-4-1-1-3 and 79-2-4-4-1-1- 5) and three from BC2F4 (HD2687/L3506//WL711-3///WL711-1-2-7-1, D2687/L3506//WL711-3///WL711-1-2-7-3, HD2687/L3506//WL711-3///WL711-1-2-7-5) as stable biofortified lines for future breeding to alleviate hidden hunger.
Title: Principal Component and Cluster Analysis of Fibre Yield in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)
Abstract :
Genetic diversity plays an important role in crop improvement, because the segregants between lines of diverse origin generally display an improved performance than those between closely related parental genotypes. Sixty genotypes of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were evaluated to study genetic divergence of fibre yield contributing quantitative characters by using principal component and cluster analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified four principal components with eigen values more than one which contributed 73.859 percent of cumulative variance. The first principal component (PC1-) contributed maximum towards variability with significant loading of plant height, fibre length per plant, and fibre yield per plant. The plot of PC1and PC2 showed characters differentiation of genotypes according to their cluster membership for each cluster. The mean scores of genotypes were used as input for clustering in order to group the genotypes into
various clusters. Hierarchical clustering procedure (complete linkage dendrogram) was followed to group the genotypes into 8 clusters, the clustering pattern of genotypes was to be independent of their eco-geographical origin. The comparative study of PCA and Complete Linkage Dendrogram indicated the similarity in the clustering pattern, resulted to clustering of divergent genotypes into different clusters against the geographical origin. The genotypes REX-1, ER-1, AHS-188, AMV-5, AMV-4, AHS-161, HS-4270, AR-104, JRRM-9-2 and R-83 in the different clusters if inter crossed may generate wider variability for sustainable improvement of fibre yield.
Title: Influence of Priming Treatments on Stress Tolerance During Seed Germination of Rice
Abstract :
In many crop species, seed germination and early seedling growth are the most sensitive stages to any stress. In order to evaluate the effect of different seed priming techniques on germination of paddy under different temperatures a factorial experiment was conducted with six varieties. Seeds were primed for 12h in seven priming media (salicylic acid 50 ppm, ascorbic acid 200ppm, citric acid 200ppm, proline 0.2%, calcium chloride 2%, Na2HPO4 100ppm and distilled water) at three different temperatures (300C, 380C and 430C) to observe the germination and related parameters. Results indicated that an increase in heat stress decreased germination components such as germination percentage, speed of germination, root length, shoot length and vigour index. Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid pre-treatment @ 200ppm and 50ppm respectively results in improvement of germination properties of paddy under heat stress condition because of its antioxidant capacity.The other treatments also enhanced the germination properties. Priming treatments including hydropriming resulted in the increased activity of α-amylase which in turn has resulted in better mobilization of stored carbohydrate reserves resulted in improvement of germination and other related parameters.
Title: Assessment of Genetic Divergence in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits
Abstract :
Genetic diversity using Mahalanobis D-square (D2) techniques was studied for yield and yield contributing traits for 19 potato genotypes at West Bengal. These genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. Cluster VII had maximum divergence with four genotypes followed by cluster IV having maximum five genotypes. Rest five clusters are digenotypic having two genotypes each. The inter cluster distance were greater than the intra cluster distance revealing that considerable amount of genetic diversity existed among the accession. The maximum and minimum divergence was revealed between cluster VI with IV and cluster I with III respectively. Cluster VI exhibited high mean values for characters like total tuber yield, marketable tuber yield, dry matter%, harvest index, polar and equatorial diameter of tuber. These characters
combining with plant height are the major traits causing genetic divergence among the accessions. The genotypes belonging to different clusters are having maximum divergence and can be successfully utilized in hybridization programmes to get desirable transgressive segregants. It is assumed that maximum amount of heterosis will be manifested in cross combinations involving the parents belonging to most divergent clusters.
Title: Exploring Entagonistic Effect of Endophytic Microorganisms Against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (McCulloch & Pirone) Vauterin Causing Bacterial Blight of Anthurium
Abstract :
One of the major constraint in anthurium cut flower production is bacterial blight incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Dieffenbachiae (Xad). It causes considerable economic loss. Considering the serious nature of the disease the present investigation was undertaken to harness the potential of  ntagonistic endophytes against bacterial blight pathogen. Endophytic microorganisms were isolated from healthy anthurium plants collected from different locations. A quantitative estimation
of endophytic micro organisms revealed the abundance of bacteria than fungi. Moreover, more number of endophytes were isolated from roots than from petiole and leaves. Based on cultural characters of endophytic microorganisms, 14 fungal and 37 bacterial endophytes were selected. Antagonistic action of these endophytes against pathogen was studied in comparison with that of reference culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens (KAU), P.fluorescens (TNAU), Trichoderma viride (KAU) and T. harzianum (IISR). The study revealed that, only eight bacterial and two fungal cultures showed antagonistic action against the pathogen. Since fungal endophytes showed less inhibition, they were not selected for further studies. The selected endophytes were subjected to various tests for understanding parameters that may act to produce antagonism as well as enhanced growth of the plants. All the antagonists inhibited growth of the pathogen, promoted plant growth, produced IAA and ammonia. Only two isolates viz., EB-14 and EB-31 are found cyanogenic.Only four isolates viz., EB-15, EB-31, EB-26 and EB-12 were found capable of solubilizing hosphate. All isolates except EB-12 were found capable of producing siderophores.
Title: Effects of liming, soil moisture regimes and application of sulphur and some micronutrients on soil plant availability of nutrients and yield of rice (Oriza Sativa L) in acid laterite soil
Abstract :
The productivity of wetland rice is constrained by the reduced availability of S and micronutrients like B, Cu, and Zn in acid laterite soils of West Bengal, India. A greenhouse study was conducted using acid laterite (Ultisol, Salboni loam) to evaluate the eff ects of liming, soil moisture regime and application of sulfur, boron, copper and zinc on the availability of applied nutrients, growth and yield of rice. The eff ects of application of lime (2.0 t/ha) over no lime; alternate fl ooding and drying (AFD) over continuous fl ooding (CF) and moisture regime maintained at fi eld capacity (FC); and nutrients viz., S, B, Cu and Zn on growth and yield of rice were assessed. Rice cv. IR 36 was grown with NPK applied @ 60
mg N, 30 mg P2O5 and 30 mg K2O/kg soil. S, B, Cu, and Zn were applied @ 10, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg/kg of soil, respectively. Application of 22.4 kg S, 1.12 kg B, 3.36 kg Cu, and 11.2 kg Zn/ha signifi cantly enhanced the growth and yield of rice over control in acid laterite soil. Yield response of rice to the application of S, B, Cu and Zn was further improved by liming and alternate flooding and drying during the growing season.
Title: Determination and Uncertainty Analysis of Imidacloprid Residue in Flue Cured Leaf Matrix of Nicotiana Tabacum L.
Abstract :
Presence of pesticide residues in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf matrix increases health risk of the consumer, and hence, determination of pesticide residues in tobacco is an issue of serious concern around the world. Present study details the sample preparation and analysis of imidacloprid residues in the Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultra-violet (UV) detector. The extraction method involves mechanical agitation of tobacco leaf matrix with acetone (1:10) for 45 min at 200 rpm, followed by sequential liquidliquid- partitioning and clean-up with florisil. The method provided 83.7-97.5% recovery with precision relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 10%. Matrix induced signal suppression was recorded at lower level of pesticide spike mention concentration to specify what do mean by lower level). The method provided acceptable intra-laboratory precision (HorRat ratio mostly < 0.5) and global uncertainty (11.72% at guidance residue level (GRL) of 5 µg g-1 for imidacloprid in tobacco), which complies with the international regulatory specifications. By considering efficiency of method, economics of analysis and analyst’s safety, the present method can be adopted by laboratories to monitor imidacloprid residue in FCV tobacco leaf matrix for consumers’ safety.
Title: Photocatalytic Activity of Zinc Sulphate Nano Material on Phytopathogens
Abstract :
Phytopathogens cause both qualitative and quantitative loss in all areas of agricultural practices. Phytopathogens are controlled by pesticides but it is associated with side effects. Most organisms develop resistance to pesticides and high concentration of pesticide is phyto toxic. Hence the present study is aimed to assess the potential application of nano dimensional zinc sulphate
as a photo catalyst to control Xanthomonas campestris, X.malvacearum, Pseudomonas solanacearum and P.syringae. Nano material of zinc sulphate was produced by ball milling method. It was characterized by SEM and XRD. Antimicrobial activity of Zinc sulphate was evaluated by well diffusion method. 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 1.0% of zinc sulphate nano material was used to study its influence on growth and death kinetics of all phytopathogens. Size of zinc sulphatenano material was 100 nm and it showed sharp peaks in XRDcorresponding to zinc sulphate. Zinc sulphate at a concentration of 100 µg/100 µl exhibited microbicidal activity with an inhibition zone of 18mm, 14mm, 12mm, 10 mm against P.solanacearum, P.syringae, X.malvacearum and X.campestris respectively.In growth kinetics study, P.solanacearum without any photocatalyst had a lag phase up to 30 minutes and the
presence of photocatalyst extended it upto 90 minutes. At 90min the cfu/ml was 38.5 x 108, 11.7 x 108, 10.73 x 108,10.22 x 108 ,1.93 x
108 in control,0.01%,0.05%,0.1% and 1.0 % respectively.1% of Zinc sulphatenano material was very effective in controlling and destroying all phytopathogens from one hour onwards. Hence the present study explores the possibility of applying zinc nano material as a photo catalyst to control phytopathogens.
Title: Response of Drip Irrigation and Plastic Mulch on Quality of Sapota (Achras Zapota) Fruits
Abstract :

The field experiment was conducted to study the response of sapota (Achras zapota) crop under drip irrigation and plastic mulch. Different amounts of irrigation water application through drip and ring basin irrigation methods along with plastic mulch treatments were experimented with five replications. The Sapota crop water requirement was estimated using reference evapotranspiration data and crop co-efficient for different crop growth stages. Reference evapotranspiration was estimated using FAO-56 Penman Monteith approach. The irrigation water was applied at 60%, 80%, and 100% of the crop water requirement using drip and ring basin irrigation system. The quality analysis of sapota fruit was performed to investigate the effect of different treatments. Economic analysis was carried out to study the economic feasibility of using drip irrigation and plastic mulch for sapota cultivation. The water requirement of sapota crop varies between 10.71 L per day per plant in winter and 34.43 L in summer for the treatment of 100% water requirement of the sapota plant. The physical properties like fruit weight, volume, dimension, peel-pulp ratio was found to be increased due to increase in amount of irrigation water application from 60% to 100% using drip irrigation. A small decrease in true density of fruit was observed with the increase of size of fruit. The pH of fruit increased with decrease in irrigation water application through drip system. The TSS, total sugar and reducing sugar were estimated to increase with reduced irrigation water application. Sweetness of the fruit increased with reduced irrigation water application. Increase in Sapota fruit yield varied from 7.62% to 41% in mulched treatments. Increase in fruit yield by 21.05% for the drip treated plants was over ring basin. Based on the water use efficiency, benefit-cost analysis and fruit quality analysis 80% irrigation requirement supplied through drip system along with plastic mulch treatment can be recommended for Sapota irrigation.

Title: Weed Dynamics and Dry Seeded Rice Productivity in Relation to Sowing Time, Variety and Weed Control in Sub-Tropical and Semi-arid Region of Punjab
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted at Ludhiana, during kharif 2008 to study effects of sowing time, variety and weed control on weed dynamics and productivity of dry/direct seeded rice. Six sowing dates (dry seeding on 0 (June 5), 7, 14, 21, 28 days after nursery sowing (DANS) and transplanting 28 DANS) in main plots and combinations of two varieties (PR 115 and PAU 201) and two weed control treatments (3 hand hoeings at 20, 40, 60 days and pendimethalin 0.75 kg pre-emergence followed by bispyribac-sodium 0.030 kg/ha as post emergence) in sub plots were evaluated in a split plot design with three replications. Transplanted crop recorded the lower population of all weeds sp and similar in dry seeding on 0 DANS. Population of all weed sp was lower under early sowing of crop on 0, 7 and 14 DANS as compared to delayed sowings. Population of Echinochloa sp, Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria sanguinalis, Cyperus rotundus and Cyperus iria did not vary among seeding dates; Ammania baccifera and Caesulia axillaris intensity was significantly higher in 21 and 28 DANS as compared to early seeding dates. Weed density did not vary among rice varieties. Sequential application of herbicides effectively controlled Echinochloa sp and D sanguinalis while control of Eragrostis sp and L chinensis was very poor. Herbicides control broad leaf weeds and sedges except Cyperus rotundus. Transplanted crop recorded the highest rice grain yield and was at par to dry seeding 0 DANS but significantly higher than dry seeding on later dates. The grain yield of transplanted crop was 11.9, 22.1, 20.8, 41.7 and 71.4% higher as compared to dry seeding
on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 DANS, respectively. Rice varieties recorded similar grain yield. Three hand hoeings gave significantly higher grain yield than herbicides. Rice seeding directly on 0, 7 and 14 DANS produced similar grain yield under herbicides and three hand hoeings; further delay in seeding significantly reduced grain yield under herbicides as compared to hand hoeings.
Title: Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis in Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
Abstract :
Twenty-two genotypes of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) were evaluated for 12 quantitative traits for two years and the pooled data was analyzed. The mean, range, genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability in broad sense and genetic advance were calculated. Path coefficient analysis was carried out using correlation coefficients to know the yield-contributing
traits having true associations with seed yield. The low differences between the phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations indicated low environmental influences on the expression of the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance for yield/day to maturity, yield/day to seed fill, harvest index, panicle girth and seed yield/plant was observed. All the traits except days to seed fill possessed positive association with grain yield. Harvest index was positively correlated with days to maturity. Harvest index, aerial biomass/plant and days to maturity also ad high phenotypic and genotypic direct effects on seed yield/plant, revealing that indirect selection for these traits would be effective in improving seed yield.
Title: Putative endophytic fungi from taro (Colocasia Esculenta), greater yam (Dioscorea Alata) and elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius)
Abstract :

Endophytic microorganisms which remain asymptomatically inside plants have the potential to be used widely in agricultural field and valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance. Tuber crops are the second most important group of crop plants and among them tropical root and tuber crops which include cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids, are essential as staple food and are utmost important for world food security. Research on these crops has been neglected and regarding endophytic colonisation, some of these tuber crops have been examined. Healthy asymptomatic leaves of three tropical tuber crops viz. taro (Colocasia esculenta), greater yam (Dioscorea alata) and elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) were inoculated on potato dextrose agar media to detect endophytic colonisation. Total six different putative endophytic fungi were isolated from these crops which were found to be non-sporulating when observed under microscope. Further works are being carried out for the identification and utilisation of these organisms in tuber crops improvement. This communication is to report the presence of putative endophytic fungi in taro, yam and elephant foot yam for the first time.

Title: Role of Pulse Sprouts Extract Foliar Spray in Seed Yield of Paddy Cultivars
Abstract :
To evaluate the performance pulse sprout extract foliar spray, SRI method of cultivation and their interaction effect on seed yield attributes in different rice cultivars, the field experiment was conducted with split split plot design. The experiment consisted of planting method as main plot treatment [SRI (P1) with 25x25 cm spacing and Conventional (P2) with 25 x 15 cm spacing]; short duration cultivars as sub plot treatment [ADT 43 (V1), ADT 47 (V2) and IR 50 (V3)] and foliar spray as sub sub plot treatment [Pulse sprout extract (2% cowpea) spray (T1) and Micronutrients mixture spray (Zinc, Iron, Boron) (T2)]. The results revealed that all the cultivars performed better under SRI method (P1) of planting and registered maximum growth, physiological and yield attributes such as number of tillers per hill, number of leaves per hill, leaf length and breadth, dry matter production per hill, leaf
area index, number of productive tillers per hill, panicle length, single ear head weight, number of seeds per panicle and 21.66 per cent increase in seed yield over the conventional method of planting. Among the foliar spray treatments, the pulse sprout extract (T1) registered 21.88 per cent increase in seed yield over foliar spray of micronutrients mixture (T2). Hence, the SRI method of
planting and foliar spray of pulse sprout (2% cowpea) extract (T1) can be recommended for seed production of paddy short duration cultivars.
Title: Bio-Effectiveness of a Pro-Insecticide, Diafenthiuron 50% WP Against Diamond Back Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lin.) in Cabbage in Gangetic Alluvial Plains of West Bengal
Abstract :

Diamond back moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Lin.) has crippled the production of cabbage all over the world having the capacity to dwindle down yield and cause even up to 100% crop loss. Since chemical control has been the most effective means of management over decades, an attempt was made to evaluate diafenthiuron 50% WP on the basis of its bio-effectiveness, non-target toxicity and phytotoxicity in the present experiment. The results exhibited that diafenthiuron 50 % WP at the rate of 600 ml/ha provided most effective reduction of DBM population (88.68%-90.82% reduction of pest over control) with substantial increase in yield (184.75 q/ha) subsequently the highest cost benefit ratio of 1:5.89. All the doses of test molecule were found to be soft against prevailing coccinellids and hymenopteran parasitoids. Further it was observed that the test chemical did not produce any phytotoxic symptoms.

Title: Screening of Urdbean Germplasm for Resistance Against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn Causing Web Blight Disease
Abstract :
Present study on screening of urdbean germplasm for resistance against Rhizoctonia solani kühn causing web blight disease revealed that in detached leaf technique, 42 genotypes of Urdbean were evaluated for web blight resistance. Out of these fourteen genotypes i.e. IPU-2-43, KPU-1-10, KU-1106, CoBG-10-5, LBG 752, VBG-10-024, NUL-7, ACM 05- 007, Uttara-3, UH-08-05, UH-07-06, CoBG-761, NDU-11-202 and KUG-580 were found moderately resistant to web blight. During field screening in 2011 and 2012, lines LBG-752, VBG-10-024, NUL-7, ACM-05-007, Uttara-3, UH-08-05, UH-07-06, CoBG-761, NDU-11-202, KUG-586, IPU-2-43, KPU-1-10, KU-1106 and CoBG-10-5 showed moderately resistant reaction to web blight disease and rest of the lines shows susceptible reaction.
Title: Generation of DNA barcodes in Indian mottled EEL (Anguilla Bengalensis): A threatened ichthyofauna of Assam, India
Abstract :
Eels have always been a source of fascination because of their charismatic shape and size. They are good source of animal protein and bear high food values. Dwindling population of eels has meanwhile led certain species to IUCN threatened categories. In spite of these, scientifi c investigations on the only species of this genus, Anguilla bengalensis, in this region have not been reported much. Many biological questions of the catadromous fi sh are still unanswered. Quick but authentic identifi cation of threatened
species is vital to unveil such query and frame out conservation and management strategies. DNA barcodes utilising partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene and nuclear rhodopsin gene were developed in this current study. Conventional taxonomic information has also been included contemplating inevitable role of it in unambiguous species level discrimination. The study has generated novel barcode of the species from this region to decipher implications on congeneric and conspecific divergence
Title: Comparative Study of Organic Matter Vis-a-Vis Humic Acid on Change in Nutrients Availability in Rice-Mustard Cropping Sequence
Abstract :
The influence of organic matter vis-a-vis humic acids on the availability of nutrient status and its impact on the cultivation of rice (Variety MTU 1010) followed by mustard (Variety B-9), was studied in Typic Fluvaquent soil under Old Alluvial zone of West Bengal, India. Important physical and chemical properties of the soil texture were identified as sandy clay loam, bulk density 1.34 Mg m-3, oxidizable organic carbon 1.16 g 100gm-1, pH 6.34, total nitrogen 0.14 g 100gm-1, available phosphorus 25.90 kg ha-1, available
potash 127.40 kg ha-1, available sulphate 39.56 kg ha-1, respectively. The C: N ratio of the added FYM, Commercial and FYM extracted humic acid were 32:11, 32:61, and 13:53 respectively. The soil received recommended doses of fertilizer for the cultivation of paddy (N:P2O5:K2O::60:30:30) followed by mustard (N:P2O5:K2O::80:40:40) along with FYM at 5.0 and 2.5 t ha-1, Commercial humic acid at 0.5, 0.25 kg ha-1 and FYM extracted humic acid at 0.5, 0.25 kg ha-1, respectively as per the treatments combination. The
study selected the Randomized Block Design (RBD). Periodical analysis for the collected rhizosphere soil (0-15 cm) and the plant samples in the C: N ratio was done, along with the available amount of phosphate, potash and sulphur with their integral effect on the crops growth. At the panicle initiation
and branching stages of paddy and mustard, the highest content of the available phosphate, potash and sulphur were recorded. This content gradually decreases toward the harvesting stage. FYM extracted humic acid showed the highest availability of phosphate, potash and sulphur whereas Commercial humic acid enhanced the content of potash in soil, which signified the uptake of phosphorus, potash and sulphur within plants, which resulted in the qualitative enrichment through biometric parameters and yield of paddy and mustard.
Title: An Efficient Protocol for Large-Scale Plantlet Production from the Apical Meristem of Musa Paradisiaca L. cv ‘Nendran
Abstract :
Banana is the most popular commercial fruit crop grown in more than 132 countries throughout the world. India is the most productive, producing 26.2 million tons of fruits in 2008, with a yield of 3,698 kg/ha . In vitro micropropagation has played a key role in clonal propagation of banana for obtaining large numbers of homogenous plants and breeding of plantains and bananas . Regeneration via a callus phase is a less desirable for in vitro plant recovery due to high frequencies of genetic aberrations .Plant multiplication from meristems, shoot tips, and other tissues without intermediate callus formations is therefore more desirable, enabling higher frequencies of plants which are genetically stable and homogenous. Among several varieties of banana cultivated in Kerala, the Nendran variety occupies the first choice among Keralites as the fruit is in good demand in the State. The present
study was carried out to develop a rapid multiple shoot production for large scale cultivation of this variety.
Title: Callus Induction and Regeneration from In Vitro anther Culture of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
The standardization of anther culture media for callus induction, and regeneration from anther derived callus of Azucena and Budda rice varieties. Anthers from panicles in which the distance between flag leaf and subtending leaf was 11cm in Azucena and 8 cm in Budda were used for anther culture.At this stage of development, anthers contained uni-nucleate pollen grains. Panicles were subjected to cold pretreatment of 5°C for 8 days. Callus induction frequency in different media combination ranged from 0.66% to 6.66% was observed in N6 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg-l,2,
4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 2.0 mg-l α-Naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg-l Kinetin. In Azucena variety, highest callus induction (6.66%) while no callusing was found in Budda variety. Highest shoot regeneration (0.33%) from callus was observed in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg-l 6- Benzyl amino purine, 0.5 mg-l Kinetin and 80 mg-ladenine sulphate.
Title: A Study of Air Pollution Status by Estimation of APTI of Certain Plant Species Around Pratapnagar Circle in Udaipur City
Abstract :

The sensitivity level of plants to air pollutants is evaluated by air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Parameters of leaf like pH, relative water content, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid were analyzed for the computation of air pollution tolerance index (APTI). In the present research, leaf sample of different plant species like Ficus religiosa (Peepal), Nerium indicum (Kaner), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Mangifera indica (Aam), Cassia fistula (Amal tas), Eucalyptus (Nilgiri), Ficus religiosa (Peepal) and Calotropis procera (Aak) were taken from Pratapnagar Circle of Udaipur city, which is connected from national highways and has a heavy load of vehicles. The results obtained showed highest APTI values of Eucalyptus (Nilgiri), followed by Mangifera indica (Aam), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ficus religiosa (Peepal) and Nerium indicum (Kaner).

Title: Respiration behaviour and heat of respiration of mango (cv. Langdo) under different storage conditions
Abstract :

Individual agricultural commodity has substantial rate of respiration which varies from commodity to commodity and cultivar to cultivar. Quantification of rate of respiration and thereby heat generated due to respiration is require to develop controlled, modified or cold storage system and to predict the shelf life. A scientific study was carried out to determine the effect of different storage conditions on rate of respiration and heat of respiration of mango fruits (cv. Langdo). Air tight multi-chamber temperature and RH control system was developed to conduct the experiment at various temperatures. Mango fruits were stored at 10, 15, 20, 25°C and ambient temperature in the developed air tight multi-chamber system. Rate of respiration and heat of respiration was determined for different storage conditions. At the beginning maximum rate of respiration,61.44, 71.76, 80.03, 83.93, 100.42 mlCO2/kg/h and heat of respiration, 7164.84, 8221.14, 9009.34, 9287.19, 10745.55 kcal/metric ton/day was observed at 10, 15, 20, 25°C and ambient temperature respectively. It was found that under steady state storage condition the rate of respiration and heat of respiration was increased with increase in temperature whereas decreased with time for all storage conditions.

Title: Effect of Paclobutrazol on Growth and Yield of Kharif Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Abstract :

A field experiment was done during 2013 and 2014 to reduce the unnecessary vegetative growth of kharif groundnut through application of paclobutrazol (PBZ), a growth retardant and to study its impact on yield. The experiment was laid out in split–plot design with six treatments in main plot (PBZ @ 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ppm and control) and three treatments in sub–plot (Single spraying at 30 Days after emergence (DAE), single spraying at 50 DAE and double spraying at 30 and 50 DAE) and replicated thrice. PBZ in different concentration had the positive response to reduce the plant height during later stages of growth. In case of time of application, significant variation in crop growth rate (CGR) was found before harvesting. Among different yield attributes, pod dry weight (g) plant-1 was increased upto 32% with increase in concentration of PBZ and upto 28% with time of application as compared to control and single application, respectively. PBZ @ 250ppm with double spraying remarkably augmented total kernel yield (Kg ha-1), harvest index as well as oil percentage of this crop and ultimately improved the net return: cost ratio.

Title: Metallothioneins from a Hyperaccumulating Plant Prosopis juliflora Show Difference in Heavy Metal Accumulation in Transgenic Tobacco
Abstract :
Overexpression studies in plants have demonstrated the ability of metallothioneins (MTs) to hyperaccumulate heavy metals, but comparative analysis of heavy metal accumulation by different types of MTs from the same species is largely unavailable. Our previous study on three types of MTs (PjMT1, PjMT2, PjMT3) from heavy metal accumulating phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora reported that PjMT1 showed enhanced binding to cadmium, copper and zinc than other two types in E. coli. The present study, an extension of the previous work, compares the ability of PjMT1 and PjMT2 to
impart heavy metal tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. PjMT1 and PjMT2 were cloned separately in plant transformation vector under constitutive promoter along with GUS screening marker and transformed into Nicotiana tabacum. When  subjected to 0.3 mM CdSO4, both PjMT1 and PjMT2 expressing transgenic plants demonstrated better survival and higher accumulation of Cd than wild type plants. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed PjMT1 and PjMT2 transformed tobacco plants exhibiting nine fold and five fold higher Cd accumulation respectively, in comparison to non-transgenic plants. Measurement of chlorophyll degradation upon cadmium stress also indicated more chlorophyll retention in PjMT1
and PjMT2 transgenics compared to wild type plants. The results of the study identify PjMT1 as a better candidate gene for phytoremediation of cadmium.
Title: Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Capacity of Check Dam Reservoirs in Barkachha, a Part of Central Vindhyan Plateau of Mirzapur District, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :
Barkachha, a part of central Vindhyan plateau is rocky and undulating land having many small rivulets and channels which quickly drain away the bounties of rainwater along with the fine crust of the top fertile soil. To overcome this situation, two check dam were constructed by the Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Department, during 2001. The present study was under taken to evaluate the
rainwater harvesting capacity of these reservoirs for supplementary irrigation of the cultivated crops, viz cereal, pulses and oil seeds. The runoff water accumulated from July and remains up to February/March. Maximum volume of the harvested rainwater in both the reservoirs was during September with a capacity 22550 m3 and 121170 m3 in reservoir No. 1 and reservoir No. 2,
respectively. There was no water during the month of April to June in both the reservoirs. The crop producing area under these reservoirs through supplementary irrigation for the last one decade varied from 17.5 to 26.1 ha.
Title: Impact of KVK Interventions on Socio-economic Status of Beneficiary Households in Dharwad District
Abstract :
The government and non-government agencies have started many projects and programmes with an aim to eradicate poverty, unemployment and enhance income among the rural poor. The turning point and giant leap in this direction came with the establishment of Farm Science Centre or Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) by ICAR in 1974. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), the light house for rural people, is an innovative science based institution, which undertakes vocational training of farmers, farm women, and rural youths, conducts on-farm research for technology refinement and organizes frontline demonstration to promptly demonstrate the latest agriculture technologies to the farmers as well as the extension workers. The study was conducted in Dharwad district of Karnataka and KVK, Dharwad was purposively selected. Further, a sample of 40 respondents who were influenced by the three most important income and employment enhancing interventions namely household enterprise, vermicomposting and seed production were selected randomly. Thus, the total sample consisted of 120 respondents. It was clear that before the KVK intervention, majority of the respondents were under the low category of socio-economic status. These selected KVK interventions made farmers to generate adequate income, by acting as a subsidiary source of income. This led to the transformation of respondents from low socio-economic status to the medium category
Title: Study of Effective Implementation of Agricultural Technology Management Agency through Case Studies in Bihar
Abstract :
The present study was formulated to document the successful and  nsuccessful cases of implementation of Strategic Research and Extension Plan under ATMA in Bihar to identify the important lessons in terms of facilitating and hindering factors for success in agri-entrepreneurship. Study was undertaken in Patna and Muzaffarpur districts of Bihar. From these districts, two
Farmers Interest Groups and two individual farmers were purposively selected as per discussion with ATMA officials for in-depth study. The data were collected from selected farmers and farm women through personal interview and focused group discussion. Three successful and one unsuccessful case were documented. After analyzing the successful cases it was found that ‘formation of commodity specific farmers group’, ‘providing training and exposure visit to these farmers on new enterprises such as
cultivation of high value vegetable crops, mushroom cultivation and bee keeping’, ‘providing them technical as well as financial support through banks’ and ‘helping them market their produce’ were the major factors which contributed to the success of individual or farmer’s group. It was also found that linkage of farmers with KVK scientists, BTT members, ATMA officials at district level and officers of agriculture/horticulture departments were crucial to the success of individual farmers/farmers group.
Title: Rootstock breeding for abiotic stress tolerance in fruit crops
Abstract :

In the present era of climate change, drastically increasing or decreasing temperature, irregular or heavy rainfall, increasing level of CO2, soil degradation etc. limiting the crop production in different parts of the world. Due to their rapid and unpredictable effects, it became very difficult for agricultural scientists and farmers to respond to challenges posed by biotic and abiotic stresses. The use of rootstocks tolerant to different abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, temperature abnormality etc. may be an alternative approach to face these challenges. Fruit crops are perennial in nature and mostly propagated through vegetative means to meet the early and quality production requirements. The use of desirable scion and rootstock not only meet the requirement of early and quality production but also provides an alternative approach to face the challenges posed by biotic and abiotic stresses. Keeping in mind challenges of environmental stresses and quality fruit production in stress prone areas, the present need before researchers and growers is to fight with the era of changing climate. So, implication of rootstock breeding in fruit production technology is really instrumental for farmers.

Title: Molecular Characterization and virulence pattern studies of rice (Oryza Sativa) blast (Magnaporthe Oryzae) disease
Abstract :

Rice blast, major fungal pathogen attacking rice limits the yield in all major rice growing regions of the world, especially in warm, high humid and dry upland environments. The population genetics of M.oryza were analyzed in three locations i.e. Mandya (Southern dry zone), Ponnampet (Hilly zone) and Bangalore for (pathogenicity test). Disease was evaluated for their pathogenic virulence and genetic characterization using Avr gene specific markers. Isolates were classified into three groups based on pathogenicity viz., seven- severely pathogenic (isolates), 11 moderately pathogenic and three mildly pathogenic isolates. Study revealed, among 21 isolates collected, Avr genes were found in 18 isolates for gene Avr Pita, 15 for Avr-Pitz, four for Avr- Co-39, 12 in Avr-Pia and 8 in Avr- Pik gene. The isolates of Mandya were highly variable than Ponnampet (through cluster analysis). This study helps in understanding the response of different rice accessions to blast in different locations, the distribution and contribution of Avr genes for host plant resistance.

Title: Effects of Salicylic acid (SA) and Azospirillum on growth and bulb yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Agrifound L
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out during Rabi season of 2014-2015 and laid out in a Randomized Block Design with three replications at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, J.N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh).The experimental material for the study was comprised of 18 novel treatments combination of Salicylic acid (SA) and Azospirillum to estimate the best treatment combination in Rabi onion under particular region. The growth parameters under present investigation noted under T17 recorded maximum plant height (cm) at 30, 60, 90,120 DAT (33.28 cm), (37.58 cm), (45.22 cm) and (48.46 cm) respectively, length of leaves (cm) at 30 DAT (32.57 cm), 60 DAT (36.29 cm) under (T17) and T11 (41.75 cm) at 60 DAT and T12 (44.15 cm) at 120 DAT respectively, maximum number of leaf at 30 DAT (8.09) in T14, 60,90 DAT (12.99,17.92) in T17 and at 120 DAT (19.37) in T11respectively, neck thickness (mm) at 120 DAT (13.71 mm) under T11, dry weight of leaf (g) at 120 DAT (3.92 g). The yield parameters also reported best under T17 as average weight of bulb (88.07g), equatorial diameter (67.38mm), polar diameter (60.37mm), double bulb(2.38%)T11, bolting per cent lowest (1.18%), A, B and C grade bulb (on weight basis) (37.22%)T5, (65.09%) and (34.19%) respectively, bulb yield polt 1(14.77kg), marketable bulb yield (26.28t/ha.) T13, total bulb yield estimated in T16 (30.47 t/ha). T11 recorded highest gross monitory return (` 450705/ha), net return (` 385020/ha) and benefit cost ratio 5.86.

Title: Assessment of drought characteristics for Dhasan basin in Bundelkhand region
Abstract :

Drought monitoring is an important aspect for assessing and forecasting the drought risk for an area. The various types of drought including the meteorological drought and groundwater drought have been analysed using the appropriate drought indicators for Dhasan basin. This has helped in understanding the spatio-temporal variation of droughts including duration, severity and also helped to capture the progression and withdrawal of droughts during various months of the identified drought years. Based on the Effective Drought Index (EDI), four major drought events have been identified during 1981-82, 1988-89, 2002-03 and 2007-08. The drought severity assessment based on the EDI, indicates that the maximum drought severity of -33.49 had occurred during September 2006 and May 2008 and it was of longest duration (21 months) in the area under Banda rain gauging station. An increasing trend of meteorological drought severity has been observed for all the rain gauging stations in Dhasan basin. Hydrological drought characteristics have been evaluated using Groundwater Drought Index (GDI), which indicates that the groundwater drought severity is increasing gradually in the study area. During August 2002, about 0.78 sq. km. area was under severe drought whereas, during November 2002 about 46.01 sq. km. of the area was under severe drought and only 0.62 sq. km. area was under extreme drought conditions.

Title: Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Bioactive components from different Parts of Pineapple Waste
Abstract :

Waste accumulation is a serious problem in recent times as they cause serious effects to the environment. Pineapple waste is one among them and it includes the peel, core, stem and crown, which is obtained after processing and various bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, antioxidants and the protein digesting enzyme bromelain, are also present in pineapple waste. In the present study, the extraction of bioactive compounds from the pineapple peel and core was done using Ultrasound assisted extraction(UAE). The extraction conditions was optimised using the Response surface methodology by using the variables time(min), amplitude (%) and ethanol concentration. Protein samples obtained were purified using acetone precipitation and dialysis to determine the bromelain activity and protein pattern along with activity staining to confirm presence of bromelain enzyme.

Title: Studies on Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance and Correlation in Maize (Zea mays L.)
Abstract :

The present investigation was undertaken to study association between different characters, the direct and indirect contribution of the component characters on the yield, genetic advance, heritability for various characters and to assess the extent of variability through genetic divergence in 40 genotypes (38 inbreds and 2 hybrids) of maize. The treatment differences were statistically significant for all the characters and also the magnitude of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation indicated the presence of good amount of variability. Grain yield per plant showed the highest heritability (98.00%) followed by plant height, number of kernels per row and 100 grain weight. Grain yield per plant exhibited highest genetic advance which was followed by plant height and ear head height. The grain yield per plant showed highly significant positive correlation with ear circumference, number of kernels per row, ear length and plant height. Path analysis studies revealed that days to maturity, plant height, ear length, numbers of kernel row per cob and 100 grain weight exhibited high direct effects on grain yield indicating true and perfect relationship between them. This also suggests that direct selection for these traits will help in improvement of grain yield in maize.

Title: Effect of pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed fresh-cut banana pseudo stem
Abstract :
The market for fresh-cut vegetables had been grown rapidly due to the changes in lifestyle pa ern and also health benefi ts associated with these foods. The pre-treatment of fresh-cut banana pseudo stem was done with two diff erent anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, potassium meta bi-sulphite (KMS)) at 1% for 15 min to determine the eff ect of a change in color (browning). The samples pre-treated with KMS had minimum decrease in color value of ‘L’ (70.41) and ‘b’ (20.94) value whereas there was a minimum increase of ‘a’ (1.28) value in 35 days of storage at 8±2°C which is the most desired quality for reducing the browning eff ect. The optimized pre-treated fresh-cut banana pseudo stem packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was stored at two diff erent storage temperatures of 27±2°C and 8±2°C. Among which minimum quality changes were seen at 8±2°C with physiological loss in weight (2.3 %), colour values such as ‘L’ (70.41), ‘a’ (3.30) and ‘b’ (17.1) and fi bre content (0.8 g/100g) remained same during its storage days. The minimum growth of bacteria and fungi was also found as 3.64 × 105CFU/g and 2.76 ×103 CFU/g in 35 days of storage. The sensory evaluation of minimally processed fresh-cut banana pseudo stem had maximum overall acceptability of 8
Title: Farmers perception, knowledge and attitude towards Biotech (GM) crops at Agrowon AgriExpo – A survey.
Abstract :
Public including farmers perceptions about Biotech Crops (GM crops ) is infl uenced by a broad range of issues, including environmental safety, ethics, cultural diversity, political environment, educational status, religious conviction, legal repercussions, economic gain, and socioeconomic impact. The present survey was done to spread the awareness about GM crops and Agriculture Biotechnology among the farmers and to know the extent of farmer’s perception, knowledge, readiness and support for genetically
modifi ed crops and biotechnological applications. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted with randomly selected 173 farmer respondents. The results of the survey revealed that the farmers are ready to adopt GM crops for plantation as it off ers improved yield in low production cost and would like to promote the GM food to the consumers, but combined appropriate policies, awareness and communications strategy, eff ective regulatory system is need of time to cope with the ever-increasing misconception spread by the anti-GM lobby without any scientifi c background. GM crops concerns coined by the anti-GM crops sightseer visited to the “Agri Biotechnology and GM crop awareness” stall at Agrowon AgriExpo - 2014 were noted and satisfactory scientifically based answers were given. The finding of the study can help policymakers for designing the GM crop awareness system considering the farmers interest.
Title: Emerging Agribusiness Enterprises: the Need for Food Safety Policy in Nigeria
Abstract :
Quality standards are usually related to improving the safety of food products suitable for consumption in accordance to specifications by food regulatory bodies. This study noted that although steps have been taken in Nigeria to address an aspect of food security (increasing food production to prevent hunger) in the issue of food safety, another aspect of food security, received only little attention. Findings of this study revealed that Educational level and amount of assets owned by respondents have direct relationships with their awareness about the need for food safety regulations. The number of years spent in school also influenced the ease of adoption of technological innovations associated with food safety regulations. The negative signs of X1 and X4 (age and years of experience) means due to lack of education of most of the respondents, even as they continue growing older and stay longer in business they may not see the need to spend additional money on safety measures as it does not have much meaning to them 
Title: Eberhart – Russell’ and AMMI Approaches of Genotype by Environment Interaction (GEI) for Yield and Yield Component Traits in Vigna radiata L. Wilczek
Abstract :
Evaluation of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is very important for development of crop varieties with good potential. In this study, Eberhart - Russell’ and AMMI approaches were used to analyse the pattern of stability under targeted environment. The pattern of stability parameters of seed yield indicated that two genotype viz., G2 and G36 exhibited high mean seed yield with non-significant s2di, whereas G33 showed average seed yield (mean) and nonsignificant s2di. Environmental indices indicated that environment A and environment B were most favourable for most of
the yield component traits, whereas environment C was unfavourable for almost all the yield and yield component traits.
Based on AMMI 1; G1, G2, G18, G4, G3, G24, G22 and G25 were found stable for seed yield. For seed yield; genotypes and environments were grouped into nine sectors (AMMI 2). The first sector consist of with environment B with high IPCA score for some outlier genotypes i.e. G25, G14 and G22, indicated that the environment B was better than other environments and three genotypes were found stable for SYP. The selected genotypes may be utilized in Vigna radiata improvement programme at targeted location with true type of breeding lines.
Title: Moisture Dependent Engineering Properties of Wild Apricot ( prunus armeniaca L.) Pits
Abstract :
The physical and mechanical properties of apricot pit are the most important parameters for designing and development of handling, grading, sizing, processing, decorticating, oil expression and packaging equipments. Such as dimensions, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity, thousand pit volume, thousand pit weights, angle of repose, angle
of internal friction and cracking strength at two conditions of moisture content (wb) of wild apricot pits at 12 % and 16 %. The mean length, width and thickness at moisture content of 12 % (wb) and 16 % (wb) were found to be 22.60 mm, 17.71 mm, 10.55 mm and 22.61 mm, 17.73 mm, and 10.58 mm, respectively. Similarly, equivalent diameter 16.16 mm, 16.18 mm, spherisity 0.71 and 0.72, angle of repose 32.98º and 33.23º, angle of internal friction 30.25º and 30.35º, bulk density 0.5512g/mm3 and 0.5389 mm3, true density
1.0282 g/mm3 and 1.169 g/mm3, porosity 46.34 % and 48.23 %, thousand pit volume 2534 mm3 and 2957 mm3, thousand pit weight 1572.5 g and 1594 g, cracking strength 594.78 N and 568.96 N, respectively at 12 % (wb) M.C and 16 % (wb) M.C of pit. ANOVA indicated that length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, sphericity, angle of repose and angle of internal friction of wild apricot pit were not significantly dependent on moisture content. But true density, bulk density, thousand kernel weight, thousand kernel volume and cracking strength varied significantly with moisture content at 5% level of significance.
Title: Efficacy of edible coatings on the shelf life of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits at ambient condition
Abstract :
The present study explored the use of some post harvest treatments to extend the shelf life of ber. Matured ber fruits were treated with Chitosan (0.5%, 1%, 2%), Guar gum (1%, 1.5%, 2%), Gum tragacanth
(1%, 1.5%, 2%) for 16 days of storage. All treated fruits showed lower loss in fruit weight, less spoilage and long marketable life in comparison to untreated fruits. Guar gum (1.5%) proved very useful for
reducing loss in weight, shriveling even a er 12 days of storage. At the end of the storage maximum TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar were observed in Guar gum(1.5%) treated fruits followed by Gum tragacanth(2%).
Title: In Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Thermomyces sp Pigment in Albino Mice
Abstract :
In the present study, In vivo antioxidant activity of fungal pigment extract of Thermomyces sp was evaluated in animal model using albino mice. The pigment extract was orally administrated at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 days. The Enzymatic antioxidant such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) non enzymatic antioxidant Glutathione (GSH) was analyzed in kidney and liver tissues. The fungal pigment treated
groups recorded higher antioxidant activity compare to control animals.
Title: Influence of storage temperature on decay loss and microbial quality of stored guava (Psidium Guajava L.)
Abstract :
The present investigation was carried out with the objective to find out the effect of modified atmosphere and its duration on pathological parameters of two cvs (Hisar Safeda and Lucknow- 49) of guava (psidium guajava L.). Results showed that the duration of modified atmosphere had significant effect on pathological parameters. There was no decay loss in the fruits up to 4th day of storage and there a erfruit started decaying, which increased with increase in storage period. The minimum decay loss 6% and 7.50% was recorded on 8th day of storage in the fruits stored in modifi ed atmosphere. The decay loss 20.75% and 29.93% was recorded in control fruits in cvs. Hisar safeda and L-49, respectively on
5th day of storage and it reached to 100% on 8th day of storage in both the cvs. Diff erent types of fungi i.e Phoma spp., Penicilium spp., Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum spp. have been identifi ed throughout the storage period that caused decay loss in guava in both the cvs Hisar Safeda and L-49 (Sardar).
Title: Role of HD-Zip transcription factors in plant development and stress responses
Abstract :

The HD-Zip transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. These proteins exhibit both a homeodomain with an adjacent leucine zipper motif in a single combination which is unique in all eukaryotes. They can be divided into four subfamilies, depending on some characteristic features which include their respective DNA-binding specificities, gene structures, presence of additional common motifs and physiological functions. HD-Zip proteins exist in almost all tissues and organs of higher plants. They mainly participated in plants growth, development, morphological formation, regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses and modulate the action of hormones. Here, we make an effort to review recent experimental evidences explored for this family of transcription factors from a wide variety of plant species to unravel their pivotal function in various important aspects related to plant growth, development and adaptation to environment.

Title: Genetic Analysis and Character Association in Different Genotypes of Onion (Allium Cepa L.)
Abstract :
studied which was highest for total bulb yield among all traits under study. High PCV and GCV higher were observed for B grade bulbs, unmarketable bulb yield (q ha-1), marketable bulb yield (q ha-1), total bulb yield and bulb yield plant-1. High heritability supplemented with high genetic advance as a percentage of the mean was manifested by bulb yield plant-1 and total yield (q ha-1). The association study resulted that the advantages of upgrading onion genotypes through simultaneous selection for equatorial diameter, followed by polar diameter, the number of leaves plant-1 at 90 DAT, neck thickness, plant height at 90 DAT and TSS. Path coefficient analysis revealed that polar diameter had highest positive direct effect followed by plant height at 60 DAT, TSS, plant height at 90 DAT, the number of leaves plant-1 at 90 DAT and polar:
equatorial diameter were the most important traits contributing towards bulb yield plant-1. Direct selection of equatorial diameter, neck thickness, days to maturity, the number of leaves plant-1 at 30 and 60 DAT and plant height at 30 DAT should be avoided instead of indirect selection. The highest production observed in genotype OSR-1344 and Agrifound Light Red. Low incidence percentage of
stemphyliumblight was found in genotype ON14-06 incidence percentage of thrips was found in genotype ON14-15. Considerable variability was observed among the genotypes for foliage character, bulb shape, bulb colour and bolting tendency. Foliage color in green onion and shape and colour of onion bulb are most important characteristics to help customers in choosing cultivars in the market.
Title: Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies of Yield and Yield Component in Maize Hybrids (Zea mays L.) Under Kymore Plateau and Satpura Hill Region of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

The study to estimate genetic parameters and to identify agronomic traits correlated with the grain yield of maize hybrids using an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm, JNKVV Jabalpur (MP) during the year 2012-13 consisting of seven newly developed maize hybrids and one composite variety. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed high significant difference for all the twelve characters studied. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotype coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the characters indicating the little influence of environment on the characters. All the qualitative characters illustrated high estimates of heritability, which indicates preponderance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these characters. High to moderate degree of genetic advance was observed for grain yield and stover yield, which was followed by cob weight and grains /cob. The genotypic correlations were higher in magnitude than phenotypic correlation and in the same direction. Grain yield had a significant positive correlation at both genotypic and phenotypic level with stover yield, grains/ cob, grains/ row, shelling percentage, grain rows /cob, cob /plant, harvest index, cob weight, cob girth and seed index. Thus, these characters may serve as effective selection parameters during the breeding programme for crop improvement.

Title: Impact of Plant Growth Regulators and Nutrient Consortium on Growth, Superoxide Dismutase, Na+/K+ ratio and Yield of Blackgram under Salinity Stress
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant growth regulators like jasmonic acid (50 μM), brassinolide (0.5 ppm), salicylic acid (100 ppm), ascorbic acid (100 ppm), gibberellic acid (10 ppm), benzyl amino purine (5 ppm) and nutrient consortium (K2SO4 - 0.5% + FeSO4 - 0.5%) + Borax - 0.3%) and 1% TNAU pulse wonder on blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety TNAU Blackgram CO 6 under salinity condition. The salinity was imposed by 125 mM NaCl concentration in pot culture. Plant growth regulators and nutrient consortium were used as foliar spray at 20 and 40 days after sowing except jasmonic acid, which used as seed soaking. Under salinity stress, root volume, leaf area, specific leaf weight, net assimilation rate and yield were significantly reduced compared to normal condition. Among the treatments, brassinolide showed its supremacy on higher leaf area (149.13 cm2 plant-1), specific leaf weight (0.41 mg cm-2) and super oxide dismutase activity (325 Units mg-1 protein) followed by salicylic acid and TNAU pulse wonder. However highest root volume of 3.5 cc was recorded by TNAU pulse wonder. Salicylic acid registered highest net assimilation rate of 0.398 mg cm-2 d-1 followed by brassinolide (0.396 mg cm-2 d-1). The minimum Na+/K+ ratio (0.325) was observed in brassinolide followed by salicylic acid (0.355) which is on par with nutrient mixture (0.357) and TNAU pulse wonder (0.362). Among the plant growth regulators and nutrients, brassinolide recorded the maximum grain yield of 8.85 g plant-1 followed the salicylic acid (8.72 g) which is on par with TNAU Pulse Wonder (8.60 g).

Title: Optimization of Operating Conditions for Sterilization of Aseptic Food Packaging Material
Abstract :

Sterilization of the packing material is essential in order to prevent spoilage caused by microorganisms found on the packing material. Hydrogen peroxide was used for sterilization of packaging material. Bacteriological effectiveness of sterilization of packaging material was tested with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as target organism as it is the most resistance to hydrogen peroxide. The initial count of spore taken for experimental purpose was 108 cfu/ml. In this study, the operating factors were hydrogen peroxide concentration (1.6-18.4 % v/v), temperature (26.4-93.6 °C) and treatment time (9.6-110.4 s) while the investigated response was log cycle reduction. The experimental data was fitted with second order regression equation. The operating conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum values of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and treatment time were found to be 8.05 % v/v, 77.20 oC and 80.54 s respectively at desirability value of 0.39. The log cycle reduction was found to be 6.10 under optimized condition. The optimized condition may be employed for sterilization of food packaging material in aseptic packaging.

Title: SDS-Page based seed protein profiling and diversity assessment of indigenous genotypes of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.)
Abstract :
Genetic diversity through SDS-PAGE was assessed among the 28 monoecious and 14 hermaphrodite lines of ridge gourd, collected from diff erent parts of the country. A total of 14 protein bands could
be resolved which distributed in 3 zones namely zone A (6 bands) with Rf value from 0.13 to 0.31, Zone B (5 bands) with Rf value from 0.54 to 0.78, and zone C (3 bands) with Rf value from 0.82 to 0.92.
Most of the protein bands were found in all the genotypes but a specifi c protein band C2 with 0.85 Rf value was absent in genotype PCPGR-7267 (monoecious) and another specifi c protein band B5 with 0.78 Rf value was absent in genotype PCPGR-7247 (hermaphrodite). Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis generated by SDS-PAGE based on genetic distance of genotypes displayed dendogram grouped the genotypes initially into one major cluster I and one independent
genotype PCPGR-7267 with 65% similarity and further major cluster divided into sub-cluster to super small sub-sub clusters. The genotypes are grouped irrespective of their morphological distinctiveness indicating similarity between monoecious and hermaphrodite lines of ridge gourd at genotypic level in contrary that one monoecious genotype namely PCPGR-7267 and one hermaphrodite genotype namely PCPGR-7247 grouped into diff erent cluster. Thus, genotypes which were found diverse may be
included in ridge gourd future breeding programme to develop high yielding cultivars.
Title: Gene Action for Yield and Yield Attributes by Generation Mean Analysis in Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.)
Abstract :

Genetic studies assist the breeder in understanding the inheritance mechanism and enhance the efficiency of a breeding programme. Knowledge of the way genes act and interact will determine the breeding system that optimizes gene action more efficiently and will elucidate the role of breeding systems in the evolution of crop plants. The generation mean analysis was employed in four crosses viz., CO 7 × GPBD 4, ICGV 03128 × GPBD 4, ICGV 03128 × COG 0437 and ICGV 03128 × VRI Gn 6 of groundnut to partition the genetic variance into additive, dominance and epistasis. Hence F1, F2 and F3 generations of each cross were evaluated along with their parents to assess the nature of gene action involved for various characters which in turn helps in formulating an effective and sound breeding programme in groundnut. In all the vegetative and reproductive characters, additivity, dominance and one or more of the epistatic effects determined the expression. Pedigree method of breeding followed by simple selection in later generation would be a meaningful breeding strategy to be followed in such crosses for the improvement of the characters under evaluation. Considering the kernel yield per plant, pod yield per plant and foliar disease incidence, the cross ICGV 03128 × GPBD 4 was adjudged as the best cross for further selection programme.

Title: Changes in total N in a waterlogged acid soil cropped with rice and subjected to different drying phases
Abstract :
An investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in total N in a waterlogged acid soil subjected to a drying phase at diff erent growth stages (pre-tillering and pre-fl owering) of the rice crop. Total N was estimated by the method of Bremner (1996). Results revealed that irrespective of cropping, drying at pre-blowering stage decreased the loss of total N in acid soil which is not treated with inorganic N. However, in presence of N-fertilizer, the decrease in the amount of total N increased in acid soil. The acid soils that are subjected to a drying phase at pre-fl owering stage of rice crop decreased the total N content in cropped over the uncropped acid soil.
Title: Influence of Soil and Foliar Applied Boron on Green Gram in Calcareous Soils
Abstract :
A greenhouse experiment with green gram grown on boron (B) deficient calcareous soils was conducted for two years in Northwest India to study the influence of soil and foliar applied boron on green gram. Three soils with calcium carbonate content 0.75 (Soil I), 2.1 (Soil II) and 4.56 (Soil III) percent were collected from different sites of Ludhiana and Bhatinda districts, Punjab, India. The treatments comprised of four levels of soil applied boron viz. 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 mg B kg-1 and two levels of foliar applied boron viz. 0.1 and 0.2 per cent borax solution with common control. Soil applied boron has more influence on mean dry matter yield while foliar applied boron has on mean grain yield. Among all soil applied boron 0.5 mg kg-1 is best treatment while 0.1% is best foliar treatment. Soil applied boron was at the par with foliar applied boron. Among all three calcareous soils, Soil I with lower calcium carbonate was best soil in respect of mean yield and yield components in comparison to Soil II and Soil III. Combined effect of boron level and soils had a significant effect on yield and yield attributing characters. Total seed weight and leaf boron content are highly correlated with one another.
Title: Effect of zinc and organic matter on nutritional composition of seeded rice
Abstract :
A fi eld experiment was conducted to assess the eff ect on nutritional composition of Rice crop and zinc content in plant and post harvest soils a er the application of zinc alone and zinc in combination with
organic ma ers i.e farm yard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and piggery manure (PiM). Zinc was applied at the rate of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 kg ha-1 with 10 t FYM, 5 t PM and 5 t PiM ha-1.
Title: Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on yield and economics of guava (Psidium Guajava L.) CV. L-49
Abstract :

A field study was carried out at the Fruit Research Station, Himayatbagh, Aurangabad, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani, during 2014-2015. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 12 treatments and three replications. Observations were recorded on growth, physical and quality characters of guava. The maximum number of fruits per plant and B : C ratio were recorded under treatment T10 (boric acid @ 0.3% + ferrous sulphate @ 0.4% + magnesium sulphate @ 0.7% + manganese sulphate @ 0.5% + zinc sulphate @ 0.5%) while highest yield/tree kg and yield /ha (Mt), highest GMR, NMR and EIOC (`./ha), were recorded under treatment T11 (boric acid @ 0.3% + ferrous sulphate @ 0.4% + magnesium sulphate @ 0.7% + manganese sulphate @ 0.5% + zinc sulphate @ 0.5% + copper sulphate @ 0.4%).

Title: Study of population dynamics and impact of abiotic factors on thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis of chilli, Capsicum annuum and comparative bio-efficacy of few novel pesticides against it
Abstract :

Field experiment to study the population dynamics and bio-efficacy of some newer pesticides at various test concentrations against chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, on chilli crop was tested in field conditions. The highest incidence of thrips was observed during first week of October. The population of thrips showed significant positive correlation with maximum temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall, relative humidity. The bio-efficacy results revealed that the mean per cent reduction in thrips population over the untreated-control in Pyridaben 20% WP 125g a.i/ha was significantly superior over other treatments; with highest per cent reduction of 74.47%; closely followed by Fenpyroximate 5% EC 20g a.i/ha (70.58%). Pyridaben 20% WP 100g a.i/ha and Propargite 57% EC both were less effective than previous two treatments and were at par with a reduction of 68.08% and 65.45% respectively. However, the lower doses of Pyridaben 20% WP 50g a.i/ha and 75g a.i/ha gave the lowest performance with a mean percent reduction of 56.66% and 59.85% respectively against control. Such studies are helpful in developing prediction models against thrips for its efficient management with combining both conventional and newer pesticides.

Title: Adoption of New Agricultural Technology: A Case Study of Buksa Tribal Farmers in Bijnor District, Western Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :
The tribal agriculture is mostly on primitive lines, as evidenced by shifting cultivation, use of indigenous technologies, small size of land holdings and lack of diversification of occupations. The adoption of new agricultural technology in the form of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, agro-chemicals, method of cultivation, etc. can improve the production and productivity of agricultural sector leading to improvement in economic condition of the tribal people. Ignorance of the tribal farmers, lack of irrigation facility, poor credit supports, etc. are some of the factors that restrict its spread. The
present study was taken up to delineate the existing problems among the tribal farmers which create hindrance in adoption of new agricultural technology in district Bijnor of Western Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose 72 tribal farmers were selected and interviewed with the help of a questionnaire for collection of data 
Title: Impact of elevated temperature on iron and zinc uptake in rice crop
Abstract :
Climate change associated with rise in temperature has adverse impact on global food production. Rice crop is also aff ected by this rise in atmospheric temperature. An experiment was conducted during the kharif season of year 2013 inside Temperature Gradient Tunnel (TGT) in IARI farm, to study impact of elevated temperature on uptake of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in rice crop. There were 5 diff erent temperature treatments inside the TGT. Two nitrogen (N) doses were applied in all 5 temperature treatments. Results
showed that high temperature stress signifi cantly reduced both grain and biomass yields of rice crop. Grain and biomass yield of rice reduced by 26.6% and 23.5% respectively in treatment with 100% recommended dose of nitrogen. Uptake of Fe and Zn decreased signifi cantly with rise in temperature. Uptake of Fe and Zn in rice grains reduced by 41.5% and 27.3% respectively with rise in temperature by 3.9°C. Reduced yield at higher temperature has resulted in lower micronutrient uptake of the crop. Application of N dose, reduced the harmful eff ect of temperature rise to certain extent.
Title: Impact of Fly Ash on Soil Properties and Productivity
Abstract :

Fly ash is considered as a good soil & source of secondary plant nutrients as well as micronutrients and can significantly improve the physio-chemical properties of the soil due to increase in porosity and water holding capacity. It can efficiently be used as a source of pesticide carrier, plant growth promoter etc. It has also been reported to be safe for agricultural application in context of toxicology & radioactivity. The poor infiltration and fine texture of clay soil causes water logging problem and reduces biological activities in soil. In contrast to this, loose particle and higher in filterability in sandy soil results in low water holding capacity and poor nutrient retention. Fly ash, a waste product of thermal power plants, causes environmental pollution and is hazardous to human health. Fly ash may be used as amendment to improve soil properties and plant growth in soils. The addition of 20% fly ash in decade soil and up to 30% in sandy soils improved the germination, plant height, biological and grain yield of wheat. The addition of fly-ash has also shown improvement in the soil properties viz. texture, structure and bulk density. Permeability of clay loam soil increased from 0.54cm/hr to 2.14cm/hr by the addition of 50% fly ash whereas it decreased from 23.80 cm/hr to 9.67 cm/hr in sandy soil by addition of 50% fly-ash. Water holding capacity of sandy soil also increased from 0.38 cm/cm to 0.53 cm/cm at 50% level. The agricultural productivity increased by addition up to 30% fly ash and 10% compost in different type of soil as experimented in the present study.

Title: Potential applications of nanotechnology in major agriculture divisions - A Review
Abstract :
Nanotechnology, a promising interdisciplinary science has already been adopted by various sectors like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and energy. But, recently, agriculture and food science door has been opened up for allowing nanoscience and technology to revolutionize them. Due to small size, large surface to volume ratio, chemical reactivity, enhanced solubility and unique magnetic and optical properties of nanoparticles, the long term positive eff ects on agriculture production including enhanced germination percentage, rapid and accurate gene delivery system, timely and controlled agrochemicals delivery system for be er plant growth and eff ective monitoring of pest and disease occurrence by using nanosensor can be achieved. Additionally, this nanotechnology also helps to increase the span of life, freshness and quality of food by resisting the gas penetration, increasing the tensile strength and enhancing micronutrient and antioxidant absorption through food packaging and preserving nanomaterials. In this paper, recent research, development and potential applications of nanotechnology in major agricultural divisions like crop improvement, crop management, crop protection and food science have been reviewed.
Title: Effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on phosphorus use efficiency, biological N-Fixation and yield of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during rainy seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at the Rajola Krishi Research Farm, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Chitrakoot – Satna, Madhya Pradesh, India to study the effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and biological N-fixation (BNF) yield of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) variety UPAS-120. The agronomical and physiological PUE and its recovery were found significantly higher (10.40, 44.83 and 13.09 respectively) under the lowest level of phosphorus (P30). The reserve was true in case of P90. Dual biofertilizers (Rhizobium + PSB) gave significantly higher physiological PUE over single biofertilizer; where as agronomical PUE and recovery were found identical. Application of phosphorus up to 90 kg P2O5/ha gave maximum grain yield (16.06 q/ha). The dual biofertilizers also gave maximum yield up to 15.56 q/ha. The BNF was highest in these treatments. Hence the N-balance in soil was maximum (230 kg/ha).

Title: Effect of Bulky Manures and Fermented Liquid Organics on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris  L) Under Rainfed Condition
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted to study the “Effect of bulky organic manures and fermented liquid organics on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) under rainfed condition” at Organic Farming Research Centre, Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station (ZAHRS), Navile, Shivamogga, during Kharif 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments comprising of different bulky organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) and fermented liquid organic manures (Beejamrutha, Jeevamruta, Panchagavya and Cow urine) were replicated thrice. Experimental results revealed that, significantly higher growth, yield attributes, economics and nutrient uptake with good shelf-life and protein content of the French bean were found in the treatment which received Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha  (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100% RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T6) and were on par with application of Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 50% RDN through FYM + 50% RDN through vermicompost + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T7) and Beejamrutha (seed treatment) + Jeevamrutha (soil application @ 500 L ha-1) + 100% RDN through FYM + Foliar spray of Panchagavya @ 3% (T5). Simillar trend of higher benefit cost ratio was also recorded in the same set of treatment combination. This study indicated that combined application of bulky and fermented liquid organic manures in seed treatments, soil application and foliar spray performed better in organic French bean production at best benefit ratio cost.

Title: Bioefficacy of geographical isolates of Beauveria bassiana for the management of Paracoccus marginatus infesting tapioca under field condition
Abstract :

To evaluate the bio-efficacy of various B.bassiana local isolates against P. marginatus in tapioca, two field trials were conducted during May - June, 2013 in tapioca crop (Var: Mulvadi) at farmer holding field, Onnipalayapudhur and Mathampalayam, near Coimbatore. The experiments were conducted in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of eight treatments including an untreated control which was replicated thrice with plot size of 5×4m2. The dose of B.bassiana tested was 1×108 spore/ ml concentration. The experimental results showed that at 10 days after first round of spraying, the highest mean per cent reduction in the mealybug population was 32.20% due to the application of UPI(Bb). After second round of spraying, the mean per cent reduction of population observed in UPI(Bb) was56.98per cent at Onnipalayapudhur. Whereas the mean per cent reduction of mealybug population after first round of spraying in Mathampalayam was 41.95% observed in UPI (Bb) treated plot. After second round of application, the mean per cent reduction of mealybug was recorded 72.76% in UPI(Bb).

Title: Molecular characterization of six pigeonpea varieties for drought tolerance by using RAPD markers
Abstract :

Genetic diversity among six pigeonpea genotypes with the four irrigation level in split plot design analysed by using 26 RAPD primer. The molecular characterization of six pigeonpea varieties showed genetically diverge condition forming four cluster groups i.e., A, B, C and D which showed that GNP-304 and Bharboot local formed the same cluster and they are susceptible varieties showing low seed yield. The varieties AGT-2 and C-11 formed the same cluster showing comparatively higher seed yield and they are drought tolerant variety. The variety GT-102 formed another cluster showing genetically divergence from other varieties. Similarly, the variety GT-1 formed another cluster showing genetically divergence from other varieties.

Title: Influence of Water Regimes and Weed Management Practices on Weed Densities and Weed growth under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) under Temperate Conditions
Abstract :

Field experiment was conducted at Mountain Research Centre for Field Crops, SKUAST-Kashmir, Khudwani during Kharif 2012 and 2013 on slity clay loam soils. The soil of the experimental field was neutral in reaction, testing medium in available P, K and organic carbon content and low in available N. The treatments comprising of three irrigation schedules: alternate wetting and drying (AWD), saturation conditions and continuous flooding and seven weed management practices including four herbicidal treatments (pyrazosulfuron ethyl @ 20 ga.i. / ha(3 DAT); cyhalofop butyl @ 80 ga.i., / ha(15 DAT); pyrazosulfuron ethyl 20 ga.i. fb cyhalofop butyl 80 g a.i., / ha(3 and 15 DAT); butachlor @ 1.5 kga.i. / ha(3 DAT); three Cono weedings (15, 25 and 35 DAT); along with control and weed free treatment replicated thrice were tested in split plot design to ascertain the most effective herbicide for the control of weeds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under SRI. The data revealed that significant increase in dry matter accumulation by the crop and grain yield was recorded due to the saturation water regime, which was superior to AWD and continuous flooding during both the years of experimentation. However, continuous flooding recorded lower weed densities, dry matter and weed control efficiency. Higher weed index was recorded with saturation water regime. The data on weed management practices revealed that among the herbicides tested,sequential application of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl @ 20 g a.i./ ha(3 DAT) fb cyhalofop-butyl @ 80 g a.i./ ha(15 DAT) produced significantly higher grain yield and dry matter accumulation by the crop comparable to other weed management measures and weedy check treatment. The same treatment also recorded lower weed densities, weed dry matter and weed index but recorded higher weed control efficiency over other weed management practices and control during both the years.

Title: Prevalence of Campylobacter species in raw meat samples sold in open markets of Kolkata city
Abstract :

Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, caused by the infection with Campylobacter. Raw meat contaminated by Campylobacter from faeces of animals during evisceration and by spillage of intestinal content. In recent times, Campylobacter has emerged as an important food borne pathogen of both human and animals, and regarded as one of the most important zoonotic pathogen worldwide. Chicken and mutton meat have repeatedly been implicated as a source of food borne infections for humans, as both these meat are amongst most consumed meat in India. In this study, four Campylobacter spp. viz C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus were isolated from raw meat samples. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from raw meat samples in Kolkata, India. A total of 200 raw meat samples, chicken (n = 100) & Mutton (n = 100) were collected randomly from open meat markets in Kolkata, India and were tested for the presence of Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 136 of 200 (68%) raw meat samples examined. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in Chicken meat (72%), followed by mutton meat (64%). The most prevalence Campylobacter species isolated from raw meat samples were Campylobacter jejuni (58.82%), followed by Campylobacter coli (26.47%), Campylobacter lari (8.82%) & Campylobacter fetus (5.89%). It was concluded that a high proportion of raw meat sold in open market in Kolkata, India, was contaminated by Campylobacter spp. and the consumption of undercooked meat possess a possible health risk for consumers.

Title: Zeolites are Emerging Soil Amendments for Improving Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Agriculture: A Review
Abstract :

Soil water and soil nutrient contents are the most important factors for crop productivity and agricultural sustainability. Water has become very scarce in rainfed agriculture and the cost of chemical fertilizers is increasing day by day. Nutrients availability and their translocation also reduce under limited water availability. Therefore, it is very important to manage both water and nutrient resources and to improve their use efficiency through environment friendly strategies. In the recent time, the use of zeolites has been emphasized in improving the physical and chemical properties of soils due to their high CEC, moisture holding capacity and etc. Zeolites are naturally occurring aluminosilicates with voids and channels in their inner structure, where water and nutrients are stored and exchanged. This characteristic of zeolites can be capitalized to enhance the use efficiency of fertilizers and water and to reduce the risk of environmental pollution occurring due to nitrate leaching and emissions of nitrous oxides and NH3. It is with this concern; the present review is focused on harnessing the potential of zeolites, for improving the water and nutrient use efficiency with reduced carbon foot prints.

Title: Cost of cultivation and price spread of chillies in guntur district of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

The per hectare cost of cultivation of chillies for the period from 2005 -06 to 2010-11 for Andhra Pradesh indicated that the operational costs ranged from ` 93, 332 in 2005-06 to ` 1, 84,391 in 2010-11. Similarly, the total costs varied from ` 1, 09,597 to ` 2, 21,656 for the corresponding periods. Among the operational costs the percentage of labour component in the total costs increased from 35.13 in 2005-06 to 40.00 in 2010-11. Analogously, among fixed costs, rental value of owned land as a percent of total cost rose from 12.77 in 2005-06 to 15.79 in 2010-11. During the corresponding period, net returns increased from ` 66, 403 to ` 1, 63,430 per hectare. The price spread analysis for the selected channel indicated that the producer received 64.45 per cent of consumer’s price. The share of the wholesaler and the retailer worked out to 9.85 and 8.21 per cent respectively.

Title: Cultivation and Marketing of Tuberose (Lily) Flowers by the Rural Poor: An Approach of Swot Analysis
Abstract :

In India, cultivation of flowers is practiced from many centuries. In concern of steady increase in demand for flowers, floriculture has become one of the important activities in horticulture. Tuberose occupies a very special position among the ornamental plants for its beauty, elegance and sweet fragrance. Agro-economic data with regard to tuberose cultivation is important for further expansion of cultivation. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to locate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) in the cultivation and marketing of tuberoses in Madanur village in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh. The result shows that cultivation and marketing of tuberoses generates employment and income for the rural poor.

Title: Effect of soil-test-based long-term fertilization on soil health and performance of rice crop in Vertisols of central Ind
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of soil-test-based long-term fertilization on soil health and performance of rice crop in Vertisols of Central India. The experiment was started in 2007-08 consisting six treatments viz. Control (No fertilizers), General Recommended Dose (GRD) (120-60-40), STCR based for 4 t ha-1 target, STCR based for 5.5 t ha-1 target, STCR based for 4 t ha-1 target + 5 t FYM ha-1 and STCR based for 5.5 t ha-1 target + 5t FYM ha-1 and with four replications. The crop cultivar of rice MR-219 was grown with different treatments and performance in terms of grain yield and straw yield were recorded at harvest of the crop. The soil chemical and biological properties were assessed by analyzing the soil samples after harvest of the crop collected from 0-15 cm depth. Experimental data was statistically  analyzed by the standard analysis of variance technique appropriate to randomized block design to test  the significance of treatment effects. The results of the study revealed that, balanced fertilization based on soil test recorded higher yield of rice over general recommended dose of fertilizers. Similarly, soil organic carbon, available NPK and microbial activity in terms of FDA, DHA and Phosphates enzyme were also significantly enhanced under the treatments receiving STCR based recommended dose of fertilizers along with FYM. Thus, the application of fertilizers based on soil test improved the performance of rice crop along with enhanced soil organic carbon, available macronutrients and soil microbial enzyme activities as compared to the application of general recommendation of fertilizers.

Title: Effect of Feeding Leucaena leucocephala Leaves and Pods on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight Change and Carcass Characteristic of Central-Highland Sheep Fed Basal Diet Wheat Bran and Natural Pasture Hay in Tigray, Ethiopia
Abstract :
Feed intake, digestibility, body weight change, carcass characteristics and profitability of supplementing 20 yearling central-highland sheep (17±1.5 kg) fed basal diet of natural pasture hay (NPH) and wheat bran with dried Leucana leucocephala leaves (LLL) and pods (LLP) and their mixture were evaluated after 84 d of feeding trial followed by 7 d of fecal collection and carcass analyses. Treatment diets(partial DM basis) were: T1 (control) = 90g wheat bran +3 g salt; T2=90g wheat bran +3 g salt +207 g LLL; T3= 90g
wheat bran +3 g salt +207 g LLP; T4= 90g wheat bran +3 g salt+103.5 g LLL +103.5 g LLP with NPH offered ad libitum for all treatments. Lambs were assigned to each treatment in RCBD. The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of LLL were 21.8, 20.2 and 9.9 %/ DM, respectively and that of LLP 18.9, 42.1 and 25.7 %/DM, respectively. The total DM intake was highest for T2, T3 and T4 as compared to the control group. However, the total CP and digestible CP intakes were highest (P<0.05) for T2 but lowest in T1, T3 and T4. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in total NDF and ADF intakes among the treatments. Coefficient of DM digestibility (P<0.05) of T2, T3 and T4 was higher than that of T1. Dressing percentage (DP) calculated onthe basis of slaughter body weight (SBW) was higher (P<0.05) for T2 and T4 than T1. Rib eye muscle area (REMA) and hot carcass weight were higher (P<0.05) for T2 followed by T4 and T3 but T1 was least. Thus, T2 (LLL supplementation) gave better nutrient digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics and is recommended. However, all leucaena meal supplemented animals performed better than the control, thus can be used
as supplements.
Title: Molecular characterization of mannose specific lectin gene, ASAL1 from Garlic leaf (Allium sativum L.)
Abstract :

Plant lectins, especially monocot mannose-binding lectins (MMBLs) play significant roles in plant defense against sap sucking insects. In the present study, lectin gene (ASAL1) from garlic leaves (Allium sativum L. leaf agglutinin) was isolated, sequenced and characterized using various bioinformatics tools. Full-length cDNA of naturally occurring MMBLs was synthesized from garlic leaf RNA (leaf agglutinin, ASAL1) using RT-PCR and was amplified with gene specific primers designed corresponding to the conserved regions of the nucleotide sequences of garlic lectin sequences already available at NCBI. The amplified cDNA was sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed 369bp ORF including C- terminal stop codon, encoding a putative polypeptide of 122 amino acids (13kD) in ASAL1. The candidate gene sequence (ASAL1) was 33 nucleotides more and showed eight nucleotide changes than the previously reported garlic leaf lectin gene sequence of 339bp with accession number EU252577. ASAL1 gene sequence showed maximum (98%) identity with Allium sativum lectin mRNA complete cds having accession number DQ525625.1. In ASAL1 nine amino acid residues were glycosylated (both N and O linked). A putative conserved domain (4-113) was detected in the deduced amino acid sequence. ASAL1 gene is bulb type mannose binding lectin (β- lectin). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ASAL1 falls in close relation with ACA.

Title: Identification of SSR markers for hybrid purity testing in newly released rice hybrid KRH-4
Abstract :

Microsatellite markers were used for fingerprinting of hybrid, assessing variation within parental lines and testing the hybrid purity of hybrid seed rice. In this study 25 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were employed for fingerprinting for newly release rice hybrid (KRH- 4) and their parental lines. Polymorphic primers viz., RM202, RM204, RM219, RM216, RM1385, RM21, RM336, RM209, RM7279 and RM206 could clearly distinguish KRH-4 from its parental lines. The polymorphic primer RM216 amplified an allele size of 160bp in CRMS32A (A) and 150bp in MSN36 (R). Similarly RM204 amplified an allele size of 110bp in CRMS-32A (A) and 120bp in MSN36 (R). RM7279 amplified an allele size of 190bp in CRMS32A (A) and 1800bp in MSN36 (R). Since the bands of RM204, RM216, and RM7279 of KRH-4 hybrid rice were complement type of their parents, clear and distinct that can be utilized for purity assessment of hybrid rice KRH-4.

Title: Socio-economic Characteristics of Homegardens in Bhimtal block of Nainital District, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract :

In the present investigation was carried out to access the socio-economic characteristics of homegardens in Bhimtal block of Nainital district of Uttarakhand during 2014-15. The result show that the maximum number of respondents 34 (51.51%) were middle aged followed by 20 (30.30%) of respondents were in young age category and 12 (18.18%) respondents were in old age. The data showed that maximum number of respondents, 25 (37.87%) had education up to 12th followed by illiterate 17 (25.75%) followed by higher education above 12th respondent 14 (21.21%), whereas 10 (15.15%) had education up to 8th level. It was observed that maximum number of household families 26 (39.39%) belonged to farming which was the primary source of income followed by 22 (33.33%) belonged to service class followed by 13 (19.69%) families that were dependent in the business for their livelihood, followed by wage labourers 5 (7.57%) families. It was found that maximum number of land households 32 (48.48%) were marginal land followed by small landholding households 20 (30.30%), followed by large land holding 14 (21.21%). Almost 50% of the rural households in the hills were headed by women as the men folk migrated to augment the farm income. Data regarding awareness of the forestry programmes among the farmers revealed that majority of the farmers 49 (74.24%) were not aware of the forestry programmes and small number of farmers 17 (25.75%) were aware. About 90% of the total cultivated area is rainfed and irrigated area is only 10 per cent.

Title: Training Needs of Dairy Farmers
Abstract :

The training can be more valuable and significant when analysis of training needs prior to beginning of training programmes and imparting knowledge according to the needs of the farmers. A list of seven major dairy practices/components was prepared to know training need index (TNI) of the dairy farmers of Jammu district. Under each major component, specific and relevant training need items were collected and systematically incorporated in to the interview schedule and administered. The results revealed that even in the most popular areas of training, there was an inadequacy. According to livestock owners perceived training needs, animal health (I), followed by marketing and financial management (II), breeding and general management (III), milking hygiene practices (IV), animal nutrition (V), animal welfare management (VI) and housing and environment management (VII) respectively. Therefore, the extension agencies and training imparting agencies in border belts of Jammu district has to give special emphasis on health care, feeding and breeding during dairy farmers training for increasing the livestock productivity and improving the living standards of the farmers. The various dairy extension agencies have to re-orient their training based on these findings to reduce the existing technological and adoption gap among the dairy farmers.

Title: Mental Health of Farmers – Need of the Hour
Abstract :

Farmers are presently facing tough times. Farming is hard physical labour from morning to evening. Managing a farm can lead to monetary stress, anxiety, depression, financial ruin, marital strife, and addiction. The mental health message should reach not only to the farmers but also to the bankers, extension workers, counsellors and veterinarians. Farmers face a number of challenges when it comes to their mental health. Farming can create stress that can seriously impact the farmer’s well being. Some of the behavioural signs due to stress in farming are loss of interest in social activities, poor concentration, confusion, forgetfulness, indecision, impatience in relationships, irritability, and withdrawal from society. Some of the physical symptoms are poor or disturbed sleep, weight loss or gain, changes in appetite, stomach upset, headache, and chest pain. In farms and rural areas issues of mental health are often ignored. The present is not an easy time to be in agriculture. Low commodity prices and mounting input costs are resulting in poor returns from farming. This has led to mental stress amongst farmers, which when unaddressed can lead to serious consequences in the farming community. Farmers and their families facing high levels of stress get into depression and even nourish suicidal thoughts. In rural areas, there is a paucity of mental health professionals who are culturally competent to serve farmers. In times of great stress, farmers need someone to talk to and get advice from. It can make all the difference in sorting out during troubled situations. Extension workers and advisors should understand the mental well being of farmers. Social activities must be encouraged and avenues for entertainment must be created in rural areas for farmers to get away from farm stress.

Title: Genetic Divergence of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) Genotypes in India
Abstract :

Genetic divergence of 12 Cape gooseberry Indian genotypes for morphological parameters was estimated using Mahanalobis D2-analysis. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters, the cluster-II was the largest with 5 genotypes followed by cluster I and cluster IV with 3 genotypes, and cluster III with 1 genotype. Clustering pattern indicated no association between geographical distribution of genotypes and genetic divergence. The inter-cluster distances were higher than the intra-cluster distance suggesting wider genetic diversity among the genotypes of different groups. The intra-cluster value was maximum in cluster I and II and minimum cluster III and IV. The inter-cluster D2-values indicated maximum distance between cluster I and IV followed by between I and III, and between I and II, showing wide diversity between the groups. Fruit diameters, duration of fruit set to maturity, number of flower per branch, fruit weight and inter-nodal length showed maximum contribution towards total divergence among the genotypes. Thus, the genetically diverged genotypes identified in this study, could be used as parents in hybridization programme for getting desirable segregants.

Title: In Vitro Regeneration Studies in Brassica Napus with Response to Callus Induction Frequency and Regeneration Frequency
Abstract :

The present study entitled “In vitro Regeneration Studies in Brassica napus, variety GSL- 1 and DGS-1 was carried out in the Biotechnology Laboratory, Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding SKUAST-J. Brassica napus, variety GSL 1 and DGS-1 were cultured on MS Media supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators. The sterilization treatment with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 3 minutes resulted in highest per cent of aseptic seeds and survival of seedlings. Highest callus induction was observed in GSL-1. MS medium augmented with 2,4-D at 2-2.5 mg/l. Different concentrations of growth regulators in media showed a significant difference in the callus induction frequency (CIF) and regeneration frequency (RF) for both the genotypes tested. MS medium supplemented with BAP (5.0 mg/l) and 2, 4-D (0.5 mg/l) showed highest shoot regeneration frequency in GSL-1.

Title: Post-transcriptional gene silencing and its implication to the asian soybean rust- a review article
Abstract :

Soybean is one of the most economically important crops in the world. Soybean yield is severely affected by biotic agents, especially by Asian Soybean Rust (ASR). The causal agent of ASR is Phakopsora pachyrhizi; a biotrophic fungus that belongs to Basidiomycota. Chemical control is the most effective control method for ASR, but it is costly. In the past, many soybean varieties resistant to ASR have been developed by introgression of resistance genes (R genes) to local varieties. Since P. pachyrhizi isolates are highly diverse, the resistant varieties are vulnerable to newly evolved pathogen isolates. Until now there is no variety that is resistant to all pathogen isolates. Therefore, there is a need to develop new strategies other than R genes. Identification of new candidate genes that are crucial for fungi in pathogenicity may lead to new options for P. pachyrhizi control. Many interesting genes have been identified but their study is impaired by the biotrophic nature of rust fungi. In this regard RNAi has emerged as a reverse genetic tool. The HIGS method (Host Induced Gene Silencing) is used to down regulate fungal candidate genes in planta. This is an indirect method where the silencing signal is formed in the plant but it mediates RNAi in the fungus.

Title: Nutrients Uptake and Available Nutrients Status in Soil as Influenced by Sowing Methods and Herbicides in Kharif Maize (Zea mays L.)
Abstract :
An investigation was carried out at Varanasi during kharif season of 2015 and 2016 to assess the influence of three sowing methods (ridge and furrow, conventional flat bed and raised bed planting) and seven weed-control methods (tembotrione 100 g ai. ha-1 (PoE), tembotrione 125 g ai g ai. ha-1 (PoE), atrazine 1 kg ai. ha-1 followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS, atrazine 1 kg ai. ha-1 (PE) followed by 2, 4-D at 30 DAS (0.5 kg ai. ha-1, PoE), pendimethalin 1 kg ai. ha-1 (PE) followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS, weedy check and weed free) on nutrient uptake and available nutrients in maize. Raised bed planting has sown results of the lowest weed dry matter accumulation, depletion of NPK by weeds and the highest grain and straw yield, NPK uptake by crop and the available NPKS and Zn in soil than conventional flat bed sowing and it was at par with ridge and furrow sowing. Among the herbicidal treatments, sequential application of atrazine followed by 2, 4-D at 30 was recorded with the lowest dry matter of weeds, NPK depletion by weeds and the highest yield and nutrients uptake and available nutrients in soil when compared to tembotrione 125 g ai g ai ha-1 (PoE), tembotrione 100 g ai. ha-1 (PoE) and weedy check, respectively and it were statistically at par with weed free, atrazine 1 kg ai. ha-1 followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS and pendimethalin 1 kg ai. ha-1 (PE) followed by one hand weeding at 30 DAS, respectively.
Title: Effect of plant growth regulators and chemicals on yield and quality of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) under foothill condition of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :

An experiment to study the effect of plant growth regulators and chemicals on acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was carried out in the year 2014 in the Experimental Farm, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments were T1 (control – water spray), T2 (GA 50 ppm), T3 (GA 100 ppm), T4 (Cycocel 1000 ppm), T5 (KNO3 one percent), T6 (GA3 50 ppm + Cycocel 1000ppm), T7 (GA3 100 ppm + Cycocel 1000 ppm), T8 (GA3 100 + Cycocel 1000ppm +KNO3 1 per cent. The experimental results indicate that the acid lime trees sprayed with GA3 100 ppm + Cycocel 1000ppm + KNO3 1 per cent showed better performance in delaying of flowering, increase the number of flower/shoot (6.62), number of fruits /tree (149) and average fruit yield (4.64 kg / tree) of the crop. Effect of growth regulators and chemicals on quality characters however was not found significant for most of the parameters except TSS, ascorbic acid and titrable acidity. The higher results were obtained in T8 i.e. GA3 100 ppm + Cycocel 1000ppm + KNO3 1 per cent (8.27%) for titrable acidity and ascorbic acid (41.21 mg). Control with water spray alone registered the lowest values for both quantitative and qualititative parameters.

Title: An economic analysis of mulberry cultivation and cocoon production in non-traditional area
Abstract :

Sericulture is a farm based, labor intensive and economic activity supporting farm families and cottage and small scale sector. Being one of the important sector in Indian economy it checks poverty and migration. Sericulture involves a series of activities like mulberry cultivation, cocoon production, silk reeling and the products in different forms. Sericulture is not only limited to the few areas where it is been intensively practiced called traditional areas but also for non-traditional areas. This study aims to know the profitability of mulberry cultivation and cocoon production by using primary data collected from 120 farmers of North Karnataka, India. The cost of mulberry cultivation per acre worked out to be ` 12699.82/- for rearing 300 Disease Free Laying (DFL’s) of which 77.95 per cent is composed of variable component mainly human labour and the rest is fixed component. The gross returns on selling of mulberry leaves and stalks amounts ` 9472.91/-. So it is not profitable to cultivate mulberry for selling leaves instead one could rear the silkworm by purchasing leaves, but availability of mulberry leaves during all times is not assured. The cost of rearing 100 DFL’s is worked out to be ` 33738.84/- and returns amounts ` 38604.96/- with a marginal net returns of ` 4866.12/-. The lower net returns attributed to lower prices due to poor established markets in non-traditional areas and low productivity (cocoon yield per 100 DFL’s) i.e. 59.02 kg compared to traditional areas i.e. 90.00 kg.

Title: Character Association and Path Analysis for Fruit Yield and it’s Contributing Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Abstract :

Experiment was conducted with thirty cucumber genotypes at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh during Kharif season of 2015 with an objective to find out the contribution of nineteen important traits on yield. Results revealed that yield plant-1 had positive significant association with average fruit weight, fruit length and diameter, marketable fruits plant-1, harvest duration, vine length, primary branches plant-1, seed length, hundred seed weight, germination percentage, seed vigour index I and II, whereas, yield plant-1 had negative significant correlation with node number bearing first female flower, days to first harvest, total soluble solids and severity of four foliar diseases. Path analysis provided a clear picture that, harvest duration had maximum positive direct effect, followed by marketable fruits plant-1 while, days to first harvest had maximum negative direct effect followed by severity of downy mildew on yield plant-1. Further, harvest duration exerted maximum positive indirect effect via marketable fruits plant-1 whereas; severity of powdery mildew showed maximum negative indirect effect via harvest duration on yield plant-1. Thus, while conducting selection for yield improvement in cucumber, a breeder will have to emphasize on the early genotypes having more average fruit weight, longer fruits, more fruit diameter, more number of marketable fruits and primary branches plant-1, longer vine as well as harvest duration, more seed length, seed germination percentage, vigour index I and II with minimum severity of economically important foliar diseases.

Title: Optimisation of nitrogen level and cutting interval for growth and yield of Ipomoea reptans
Abstract :

A field experiment was carried out during summer season of 2015 at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal to optimise different levels of nitrogen level and cutting intervals for growth and yield of Ipomoea reptans. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with four levels of nitrogen doses (i.e. 60, 80, 100, 120 kg/ha) with two cutting treatments at 20 days and 30 days intervals and four replications. Result revealed that growth and yield parameters increases with the increase dose of nitrogen and cutting frequencies. Maximum plant height of 47.87 cm obtained under 120 kg/ha nitrogen with 30 days of cutting condition. Highest weight of leaves and weight of stems per plant were recorded 116 g and 56.13g, respectively under 120 kg/ha nitrogen application with 30 days of cutting interval. The highest total green yield (52.46 ton/ha) was obtained at 120 kg/ha nitrogen application 20 days of cutting. It was found that 11.15% more yield has been obtained that the yield of 30 days of cutting. It has been noticed green yield per hectare has been increased from first cutting to second cutting whereas after second cutting the yield declined which concludes cutting management was beneficial for improving yield and yield attributing characters.

Title: Screening and characterization of newly isolated thermotolerant and ethanogenic strain of Pichia kudriavzevii
Abstract :

Screening and characterization of thermotolerant and ethanogenic yeast with improved economics for ethanol production was attempted in present study. Eight thermotolerant and ethanogenic isolates of yeast were isolated from the diverge ecosystem. All the isolates grew at 40°C but EM12 and ST1 showed better growth than other six. Evaluation of ethanol tolerance showed that five isolates tolerate up to 12% ethanol. Enzyme profiling of these isolates revealed that they were found to possess β-galactosidase. The EM12 isolate was found to produce maximum of 49.21 IU/ml β-galactosidase amongst all. Isolate EM12 was most potential ethanogenic amongst all, with yield of 44.4% and fermentation efficiency of 86.38%. This isolate found to produce 38 g/l of ethanol. This thermotolerant and ethanogenic strain EM12 showed better economic for ethanol fermentation at elevated temperature in laboratory experiment. Therefore, it was selected for further thorough characterization. Based on the morphological, cultural and biochemical characterization followed by molecular analysis of 18S rDNA, EM12 isolate was identified as the strain of Pichia kudriavzevii.

Title: Water quality index for the assessment of groundwater quality in the Sabour block of Bhagalpur district, Bihar
Abstract :

Groundwater samples were collected from the different locations of Sabour block of Bhagalpur district, Bihar to assess the groundwater quality using water quality index (WQI). Based on global positioning system (GPS) 59 groundwater samples were collected from the different sources at different depths. A single mathematical approach was identified using several parameters integrated to represent a single value for evaluating groundwater quality called as WQI. In this study twelve parameters, namely, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolve salt (TDS), Hardness, calcium ion (Ca+2), magnesium ion (Mg+2), sodium ion (Na+), potassium ion (K+), carbonate ion (CO3-2), bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), chloride ion (Cl-) and fluoride ion (F-) were used for calculating WQI. The computed WQI shows that 1.69% of water sample falls in excellent categories and 47.45% falls in the good water category, 27.11% of water samples were found poor as well as approximate 17 % found very poor and remaining 6.77% samples are found unsuitable for drinking purposes as far as drinking standards are concerned.

Title: Genetic Variability Studies in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for Yield and Quality Traits
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to investigate yield and quality traits in tomato, in order to generate information regarding the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic gain. The experiment was laid out during 2014-2015 in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) at an experimental farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan. Genetic variability was estimated among 56 genotypes of tomato which were replicated thrice. Analysis of coefficient of variation revealed that, the magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation was slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation for all the studied traits. Further, high estimates of heritability and genetic gain were recorded for number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, locular wall thickness and lycopene content. Thereby, suggesting that straight selection for these traits may bring worthwhile improvement in identifying superior genotypes in tomato.

Title: Development and performance evaluation of rotary drum grader for tomato
Abstract :

Grading is one of the most important unit operations in packing houses by which it enables to obtain a good and appealing packing system. To standardize the tomatoes for export or marketing in local markets the rotary drum grader was developed in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. It consists of a drum in which the holes are made based on the standard size of tomatoes. It is manually operated using a handle fitted to the shaft which is mounted on the main frame using a wooden block. The performance evaluation was done to optimizing the peripheral speed, inclination angle and feed rate. As the tomatoes are fed through the hopper into the rotating drum, it gets separated according to size. It is portable and can be used in the field. By conducting different study the efficiency of grader was found to be 80% at 16º inclination angle, 175 kg.h–1 feed rate and 15 rpm peripheral speed.

Title: Genetic study in URD bean (Vigna Mungo (L.) Hepper) for inheritance of mungbean yellow mosaic virus resistance
Abstract :

Goodness of fit test pertaining to MYMV resistance confirmed that all the F1cross combinations viz., MDU 1 x Mash-114, MDU 1 x VBN (Bg) 6, MDU x PU 31, MDU 1 x Uttara, LPG- 752 x Mash-114, LPG – 752 x VBN (Bg) 6 and CO 6 x VBN (Bg) 6 and BC2 were resistance to MYMV, showed that YMV resistance were controlled by dominant gene. Resistance nature of F1 of all the crosses indicated clearly the resistance was dominant over susceptibility. Goodness of fit test pertaining to test the deviation of observed ratio to Mendelian segregation ratio for MYMV (resistance: susceptible) in the segregating population shows that, except ‘MDU 1 x PU 31’, F2 of all crosses fitted well with 15: 1 (resistance: susceptible), exhibited the presence of duplicate dominant gene interaction. Whereas ‘MDU 1 x PU 31; was confined well with 9:7 (resistance: susceptible), showed that the presence of complementary or duplicate recessive type of epistatic gene interaction. The inheritance ratio of 3:1(resistance: susceptible) in BC1 and all resistance in BC2 showed that the male parents taken for crossing were resistance, while female parents susceptible. The putative gene symbol for MYMV resistance assigned for female parents are r1r1r2r2, whereas for male parents viz., Uttara, VBN (Bg) 6 Mash-114 and PU 31 the symbol is R1R1R2R2. Hence, presence of complex nature of inheritance, it may appropriate to suggest the recombination breeding accompanied with one or two cycles of recurrent selection should be effective to enhance the YMV resistance in blackgram.

Title: Effectiveness index of expert system applications in agriculture
Abstract :

This research paper focuses on the assessment of the effectiveness index of expert system applications in agriculture with special reference to ‘KAU-Fertulator’ and ‘e-Crop doctor’, developed by Kerala Agricultural University. A survey was conducted among three targeted segments of Kerala extension professionals with a total of 100 respondents who were actively involved in the field of agriculture. Based on the relevant review of literature and discussion with experts effectiveness index of agri-expert system was developed and standardized using the applications such as quick availability and opportunity of the expert system to programme itself, expert systems ability to exploit a considerable amount of knowledge, reliability, scalability, pedagogy, expert systems ability on preservation and improvement of knowledge and expert systems ability to address the new areas neglected by conventional computing. These applications were ranked based on their mean scores in decreasing order of importance and effectiveness index was calculated to distribute the respondents in different categories. Results showed that the effectiveness index of expert system application in agriculture was generally medium. In order to improve the effectiveness index of agri-expert system applications in agriculture, it is necessary to augment the attributes of expert systems such as accuracy, timeliness, format clarity and relevancy of the information from agri-expert systems.

Title: Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mediated changes in callus growth of clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) raised under saline conditions
Abstract :

Soil salinity is the major biotic stress, which restricts the distribution and productivity of the crops. Agricultural production in the future will increasingly rely on our ability to grow plants on salt affected and marginal lands using saline water. Ethyl methane sulphonate is the most commonly used chemical mutagen to increase genetic variability in crop plants and could be useful in increased plant tolerance to salinity. Clusterbean is one of the most important summer annual legume. In the present study, aseptically grown7-day old seedling explants of clusterbean viz. cotyledon, cotyledonary node, hypocotyl and the embryo axis (cut on radical side) were cultured on MS medium + B5 vitamins (MSB5 medium) supplemented with various growth regulators. Among various explant tried, cotyledonary node gave good response in terms of callus growth which was further selected for future experimentation. The best medium for callus growth was MSB5 with 2 mgl-1 2,4-D and 1 mgl-1 BAP. All the calli produced were compact and their color changed with increase of salt concentration from greenish to brownish green, dark brownish and finally blackish at 200 mM NaCl. Further, calli pieces dipped in sterile liquid MS medium adjuncted with aqueous filter sterilized solution of 0.5% EMS for a range of time duration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 h) were raised on MSB5 medium without NaCl. These calli were subcultured on the above medium with or without 200 mM NaCl. EMS treatment of 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5h duration improved callus growth on salt-amended medium; growth being maximum after 3.0h EMS treatment. It seems that exposing mutagen treated calli to salinity/ salt stress, forces these to face stress doubly-ionic toxicity and toxic effects of mutagen. The survival and regeneration of the putative variant calli is suppressed under such circumstances.

Title: Contents VOL. 12, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2019
Abstract :
Title: Weather based modeling for forecasting area and production of mango in Karnataka
Abstract :

A timely and reliable system of forecasting of mango area and production well in advance is of prime importance to farmers and other people who are dependent on horticultural sector. In this study the crop yield forecast models have been developed by considering time series dataon the area and production of mango crop in Karnataka. Daily data on weather variables and yearly data on other exogenous variables of Karnataka state are considered under this study. Weighted and unweighted indices are developed based on the considered weather variables and these indices are further used as independent variables in the regression model. In this study the stepwise regression analysis and ARIMA models were used to forecast the area and production of mango in Karnataka. The empirical study reveals that the weather based stepwise regression model performed better than the ARIMA model for forecasting area and production of mango in Karnataka.

Title: A Study on Content Analysis of ICT Enabled Web Portal (Krishinet)
Abstract :

This research evaluates a web-based ICT enabled portal (Krishinet) on the basis of practical application of farmers in the study area. In this study we use quantitative approach for analysis. It includes three major parts, first content inventory, in this the entire content of the portal was catalogued, second content audit, in this quantitative method was used and it was found that 37.14 percent respondents felt that the content of the Krishinet portal was good, followed by 32.50 percent respondents felt that the portal was of average quality and only 30.36 percent respondents felt that the portal was of poor quality and the third part was content mapping, in which linear type of content mapping was done in which head content of single segment was presented in coloured rectangular boxes and subhead segment were presented in different coloured boxes with links to each other.

Title: Management interventions to enhance water productivity in dry-seeded rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Abstract :

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is grown in alluvial irrigated tract of north-west India due to high productivity and profitability. Rice is the major source of calories for half the world’spopulation as well as in our country (Roy and Bisht, 2012).However, large amount of water input in rice culture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater as indicated by alarming fall in water table. Average fall in water table in Punjab and Haryana state has been more than 0.75 m year-1 in the last decade (Minhas et al. and Humphreys et al. 2010). Thus, there is a need to explore alternate techniques that can sustain rice production and are resource conservative. On the face of global water scarcity and escalating labour rates, when the future of rice production is under threat, direct seeded rice offers an attractive alternative. In this regard, dry-seeded rice (DSR) is one option that can help in saving water, energy, labor and time. Management interventions that reduce irrigation water and increase water productivity (WP) are required in dry-seeded rice. Irrigation scheduling, tillage and short duration cultivars are some of the interventions in this regard. Irrigation scheduling aimed at eliminating over or under irrigation and ensures optimum yields with high water productivity. Tillage affects crop growth by altering soil edaphic environment. Rice plants are unable to utilize soil water in the deeper layers because of shallow root system. Deep tillage has emerged as a better option to improve deep root growth (advantageous for water extraction during drought in upland rice) of rice cultivars. Based on the existing evidence, present paper reviews the management interventions to enhance water productivity in dry-seeded rice.

Title: Estimation of Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV), Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV), Heritability and Genetic Gain for Yield and its Components in Rice Landraces of Odisha
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out to study genetic variability in sixty-four low land rice genotypes (including fifty-five landraces of Odisha) for twelve traits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the studied characteristics. Flag leaf area, effective tillers per plant, filled grains per panicle, 100-grain weight and harvest index had moderate to high phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) estimates suggesting that these traits are under the influence of genetic control and less affected by the environment. In the present study, all the characters exhibited a high degree of heritability and among those flag leaf area, number of filled grains per panicle, 100-grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant had high genetic advance indicating the presence of additive gene effect and hence selection based on phenotypic performance for these traits would be effective. Filled grains per panicle and flag leaf area followed by 100-grain weight and harvest index are important characters having high heritability, genetic advance as well as high coefficient of variation which should be considered while selecting for high yield.

Title: Analysis of factors affecting the performance of exports in India
Abstract :

Exports is the engine of economic growth of the country that introduce new technologies, stimulate demand, encourage savings and accumulates capital. Further the performance of this sector it depends on factors both in domestic and international. Hence both domestic and international economic policies have a bearing on the overall export performance of India. In this regard, present study has carried out to determine the factors which influence the export performance of India. The outcomes of the study are the Inflation Rate, Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) were negative related with value of Export.

Title: Survey for purple blotch of onion (Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif.) in northern parts of Karnataka
Abstract :

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important bulb crop and most important commercial vegetable crops cultivated extensively in India and it accounts for 90 per cent of the exported vegetables from India in terms of value. The production ofbulbs and seeds is limited by certain diseases. The most serious one is the purple blotch caused by Alternariaporri (Ellis) Cif. The disease causes extensive damage to bulbs as well as seed crop and also a major limiting factor in cultivation of onion. In view of the destructive nature of purple blotch of onion the present investigation was conducted through survey to know the disease incidence or severity and collection of infected samples. A survey was conducted during kharif 2013-2014 in onion growing areas of Northern Karnataka viz., Bijapur, Bagalkot, Gadag and Dharwad districts. The highest per cent disease index was noticed in Ilkal village of Bagalkot district. While, the lowest per cent disease index was noticed in kerur village of Bagalkot district. Among the districts, severity of disease was more in Bijapur and less in Gadag.Isolation was made from onion leaves showing typical purple blotch symptoms. Pure culture of A. porri was obtained and its pathogenicity to onion plants was proved. On the basis of isolation and morphological studies, the pathogen was identified as Alternariaporri (Ellis) Cif.

Title: Performance of rice varieties grown under different spacings with planting depths in system of rice intensification
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted during the kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Krishi Nagar farm, Department of Agronomy, JNKVV, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh) to study to the production efficiency and monetary advantage in rice by adopting suitable planting geometry, varieties and depth of planting. The experiment comprises on 18 treatment combinations consisted of three planting geometry (20 cm × 20 cm, 25 cm × 25 cm and 30 cm × 30 cm) as main plot treatment and three varieties (MR-219, WGL-32100 and PS-3) as sub plot treatments and two depths of planting shallow (2.5cm) and normal (5.0 cm) as sub-sub plot treatments were tested in split-split plot design with three replications. Results showed that the 25 cm × 25 cm planting geometry had superiority in various yield attributing characters viz; weight of panicles, grains/panicle, test weight, healthy grains/panicle, less no. of chaffy grains/panicle, sterility percent, more, harvest index and yield in comparison to other planting geometries with MR-219 variety and shallow depth of planting.

Title: Molecular marker based genetic diversity analysis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using SSR markers
Abstract :

Assessment of genetic diversity is very important in rice breeding from the standpoint of selection, conservation and proper utilization. The role of a broad genetic base and systematically characterized germplasm in the crop improvement of cultivated plants has been well recognized. To meet the continuously expanding needs of varietal improvements, the evaluation and characterization of all existing germplasm are required. Genetic variability studies are important in selection of parents for hybridization as sound crop improvement depends upon the magnitude of variability in the base population. In the present investigation 36 rice genotypes were studied for diversity studies using polymorphic SSR markers. These rice genotypes were grouped into two main clusters that is cluster I and II with similarity coefficient (0.00). Cluster I can be sub divided into two minor sub-groups IA, IB, and with similarity coefficient (0.15). Cluster IA consisted of 12 genotypes, whereas cluster IB consisted of 13 genotypes. The second main cluster can be also sub divided into two minor sub-groups that is IIA and IIB (0.25). This indicated presence of considerable diversity in the genotypes studied. Through diversity analysis, highest similarity was observed between cultivar URG-5 and URG-8 followed by NDR-359 and Pusa-6-B. The most diverse cultivars were Akshaya dhan and URG-24.

Title: Stability Performance of Bread Wheat Genotype for Grain Yield, Zinc and Iron Concentrations
Abstract :

The primary aim of plant breeding is to improve stability in yield and to obtain varieties with good quality. For this reason, a study of wheat genotypes was conducted at three different locations: Bathinda, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana during 2015-16 in Punjab (India). Grain yield and its components with quality traits were assessed in 21 wheat genotypes with 3 checks using analysis of variance and regression analysis. The combined analysis of variance for environment (E), genotype (G) and (G×E) interaction was highly significant for all studied traits, suggesting differential responses of the genotypes and the need to stability analysis. Results revealed that high yielding genotypes can also be stable. The check HD 3086 and PBW 725 and genotypes BWL 6003, BWL 6065, BWL 6066, BWL 6068 and BWL 6069 for grain yield/plot had desired performance in term of high mean, unit regression coefficient (bi) and least deviation from regression (S2d), indicating the role of linear portion of GxE interaction and average stability in the performance of these genotype. The value of regression coefficient (bi) of genotypes BWL 6008, BWL 6011 and checks HD 3086, PBW 725 for grain Fe concentration; genotypes BWL 6006, BWL 6007, BWL 6013 and BWL 6062 for grain Zn concentration were have high mean, unit regression coefficient (bi) and least deviation from regression (S2d), indicating that these genotypes were considered specially adopted to unfavorable environments

Title: Contents
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Title: Effect of Nutrient Management on Soil Health and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Production in Degraded land of Chambal Ravine
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted on a degraded ravine land to evaluate the influence of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients practices on soil health and crop performance of wheat of (Triticum aestivum L.). The crop cultivar MP-1203 of wheat was grown with 120:60:60 kg ha-1 (NPK) recommended dose of fertilizers under nutrient management practices viz., seven treatments Farmer Practices (T1), 100% RDF (T2), 150% RDF (T3), STCR Based NPK Application (T4), 50% RDF + 5 tone FYM + PSB+ all deficient Micro Nutrient (T5), 75% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM/ha + PSB + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 (T6), Organics Practices FYM @10 tone ha-1 + PSB + Azotobactor (T7), in randomized block design, replicated three times. Soil reaction, organic carbon, electrical conductivity, BD, MWD, MC, straw and seed yield were analyzed during the study. It was observed that soil reaction pH -1:2.5 (8.48), electrical conductivity (0.37 dSm-1) and organic carbon (0.19%), Bulk density (1.52 Mg M-3), found significantly higher in the 150% RDF followed by 100% RDF and mean weight diameter (0.50 mm), moisture content (18.24 %), were found significantly higher in the 75% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM/ha + PSB + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) followed by 150% RDF and soil biological properties viz., Microbial Biomass Carbon (SMBC) (66.05 µgC g-1), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) (59.46 µg g-1 TPF g-1 h-1), and fluorescin diacitate (FDA) (11.24 µg g-1 h-1) were found significantly higher in the Organics Practices FYM @10tone ha-1+PSB+Azotobactor (T7) followed by 75% RDF +2 .5 ton FYM/ha + PSB + ZnSO4@ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) and 150% RDF (T3),. Very poor microbial activities were observed in farmer practices. The straw yield (4454.27 kg ha-1) and seed yield (3984.45 kg ha-1) of wheat was found highest in 75% RDF+2.5 ton FYM/ha+ PSB+ ZnSO4@ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) practices followed by 150% RDF and STCR Based NPK Application (T4), Thus, the study demonstrated that the 75% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM ha-1 + PSB+ ZnSO4@ 25 kg ha-1 (T6) practice improved soil health and performance of wheat crop.

Title: Evaluation of basic properties of soil and major nutrient in soils of jhabua district of madhya pradesh
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted during the kharif seasons of 2014-15 under All India Coordinated Research Project for Dry land Agriculture at College of Agriculture, Indore Madhya Pradesh to study the major nutrient and other chemical properties of sampled vertisols and associated soils of Ralyawan village of Jhabua district of western Madhya Pradesh. Results showed that the Soils of Ralyawan village in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh were low in available nitrogen, low to medium available phosphorous and medium to high level in available potassium. Available nitrogen content in soils of Ralyawan village ranged from 152 to 298 kg ha1 with an average of 236 kg ha Nutrient index values was in low fertility class in soil of village. Thus, the overall poor and or low status of available nitrogen was observed in this soil. The status of available phosphorous varied from 7.15 to 38.8 kg ha1 with a mean value of 16.4 kg ha1. The 22.47% village soil samples from the study area can be classified as low fertility class and 64.84 % in medium fertility class. The nutrient index value for P was in medium fertility class of village. The status of available potassium varied from 179 to 826 kg ha1 with a mean value of 418 kg ha1. The 0% village soil samples under the study were classified as low fertility class, 2.30% as medium and 97.69% as high fertility class. The pH of varied from 7 to 8 with the mean value of 7.5. The electrical conductivity of soil water suspension ranged from 0.17 to 0.86 dSm1 with a mean value of 0.37 dSm1. The variation in organic carbon content in this soil was from 0.23% to 0.80% with a mean value of 0.53%. In general, the organic carbon status of Ralyawan village soils of was low to medium.

Title: Survey on Flora and Fauna of Bishnupur Bill (Horse Shoe Lake) and It’s surrounded Area at Berhampore in Murshidabad District of West Bengal
Abstract :

In India, there are many number of Lakes, some are natural and some are man-made. These lakes are the source of Flora and Fauna. “Bishnupur Bill” a horse shoe lake is one of them. This natural lake is derived from our Holy River the Ganges. This paper provides a taxonomic inventory of plant species and animal species collected by the authors during the last two years from this ‘Bill’ and its surrounded area. This natural lake and its surrounded area have lots of Flora and Fauna from algae to mammalians. The inventory records a total of 168 species and 64 genera. The present study also investigates some exotic birds which come every year to this ‘Bill’. The present study revealed a handsome diversity of Flora and Fauna in this ecosystem. The inventory is expected to provide baseline scientific data for further studies on plant and animal diversity in this ‘Bill’, and can be used to facilitate the long-term conservation and sustainable use of plant and animal resources in this ecosystem.

Title: Genetic Variability Analysis in F3 Populations of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L
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Nine crosses involving foliar diseases viz., late leaf spot and rust susceptible (as female) and resistant (as male) parents in F3 generation were studied for mean performance and variability parameters. Susceptible female parents viz., CO 7, ICGV 00350, TMV 2, TMV Gn 13, VRI 2 and resistant male parents viz., COG 0437, GPBD 4, VRI Gn 6 were involved in these crosses. Among the crosses, the cross VRI 2 × GPBD 4 recorded higher mean performance for yield characters viz., pod yield per plant (g) and kernel yield per plant (g), and lower mean performance for disease score viz., late leaf spot and rust. It also recorded high PCV and GCV values coupled with high heritability and high genetic advance as per cent of the mean for all the traits studied. Hence based on low performance, variability, heritability and genetic advance (as a
per cent of mean) for pod yield, kernel yield and foliar disease resistance, the cross VRI 2 × GPBD 4 is adjudged as superior. Considering the progeny wise performance, the progeny #1 and #2 of the cross VRI 2 × GPBD 4 could be selected due to the superior mean performance for yield characters along with disease resistance. These progenies recorded high or moderate coefficient of variation for the entire characters understudy. Hence, these progenies need to be advanced further till the attainment of homogeneity to obtain high yield in conjugation with resistance to foliar diseases.
Title: Seed bio-priming with Trichoderma asperellum effectively modulate plant growth promotion in pea
Abstract :

Seed biopriming is an advance technique of seed treatment that involves application of beneficial microorganism on seed surface followed by seed hydration. Seed bioprimig is a ecological to control the many seed and soil-borne pathogens which provide an alternative to chemical treatment. Seed biopriming enhance the initial step of plant development by increased seed germination and provide protection before seedling emergence. Trichoderma spp. is widely used for biocontrol agent that enhance plant growth as well as inhibits phytopathogen. In the present study, effectiveness of biopriming with T. asperellum BHUT8 evaluated for plant growth promotion effect in pea. The results showed enhancement in plant growth in the treated plants as compared to control. There was increase in shoot length, root length, number of leaves, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight and root dry weight by 35.29, 96.49, 28.13, 36.10, 146.26, 30.17 and 77.20 %, respectively, as compared to the control.

Title: Recent advances in naga king chilli (capsicum chinense JACQ.) research
Abstract :

The Naga King Chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq) is one of the hottest chillies in the world. This chilli is native to the north eastern region of India and subsequently the geographical indication (GI) of goods tag for this chilli has been obtained by the Nagaland State Government. The chilli was recorded to be the hottest chilli in the world in 2006 with a Scoville heat unit (SHU) rating of 1,001,304. Currently it occupies the fifth position among the hottest chillies in the world. Due to its high potential commercial value, many studies has been carried out in this crop including scientific cultivation, in vitro regeneration, diversity and evolution studies and its diseases and their management etc. This review is an attempt to bring into account the various research work carried out so far in the crop including the traditional and ethno-medicinal uses.

Title: Selection of the parental combinations through multivariate analysis in dessert banana genotypes for hybridization programme
Abstract :

In the present investigation 22 dessert banana genotypes were evaluated under coastal plain zone of Odisha during the year 2013-14 and 2104-15 in a randomized block design with three replications. Observations were recorded on growth parameters and yield attributing traits. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the genotypes in respect of all the growth parameters and yield attributing traits. The PCV and GCV (phenotypic and genotypic coefficient variation) were higher for finger weight, bunch weight and number of fingers. Bunch girth and finger weight had very high broad sense heritability (h2). Finger weight recorded the highest genetic advance followed by bunch weight. All the genotypes, on the basis of total variability were grouped into twelve distinct clusters. Maximum number of cultivars was accommodated in Cluster 1 followed by Cluster 7. Inter cluster distance was the highest between cluster 12 and cluster 7. Bunch girth made the maximum contribution to divergence (45.02 %) followed by finger weight (39.83 %).

Title: Molecular characterization for salinity tolerance in rice using microsatellite markers
Abstract :

A set of six rice cultivars including salt tolerant Narendra Usar Dhan-3 and CSR-30, moderately salt tolerant BPT-5204 and MTU-7029 and salt sensitive Rajendra Bhagwati and Pusa Basmati-1 along with their controlled callus and salt-stressed callus were characterized using a panel of fourteen salt tolerance related microsatellite markers distributed amongst seven chromosomes of rice. The largest amplicon was produced by marker RM242 and the smallest by RM253. A total of 100 allelic products were generated at 22 microsatellite loci with an average of 4.54 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content values varied from 0.376 (RM4) to 0.827 (RM242) with an average 0.677. A similarity coefficient based dendrogram was constructed using un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) for entries classification. The first cluster accommodated salt tolerant cultivars CSR-30, Narendra Usar Dhan-3 and moderately tolerant cultivar MTU-7029, the second salt sensitive cultivar Rajendra Bhagwati, whereas the third moderately salt tolerant cultivar BPT-5204 and salt sensitive cultivar Pusa Basmati-1. Molecular marker based analysis confirmed the induction of salt tolerant calluses in three cultivars MTU-7029, Rajendra Bhagwati and BPT-5204. The work showed the utility of microsatellite markers in ascertaining the status of rice plants with respect to salinity stress tolerance.

Title: Optimization and Storage Study of Banana Choco
Abstract :

Optimization of the process was done by using response surface methodology (RSM) for the development of banana chocolate. Sensory evaluation was performed by a semi-trained panel of 9 members on the basis of product’s color, body and texture and flavor. Statistical analysis showed that all the responses were significantly affected by independent variables. The banana chocolate was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the quadratic model. The recommended optimum range for the development of banana chocolate is banana, cocoa powder and milk powder as 15-30g, 5-10g and 20-40g, respectively. Storage study of banana chocolate was performed at 2οC, 10οC and 25οC; storage at 2οC proved to be the best optimized storage condition.

Title: Physiological Responses of Drought stress in Tomato:A Review
Abstract :

Tomato has important role in food and commercial utilization in the whole world. It is an undetached part of food due to its taste and nutritional value. It is full of minerals, vitamin and antibiotic characteristics. Climate change produces so many natural hazards such as abiotic and biotic stress in the plant. Drought is an important natural phenomenon which affects morphological, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants leading to death. During water stress many physiological and molecular processes are disturbed such as root-shoot growth, water relation, mineral absorption, leaf expansion and orientation, stometal behavior, transpiration rate, photosynthesis and respiration rate, solute translocation, etc. Toxic elements such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during stress period create oxidative damage to the cellular organization. Plants have its antioxidant system to scavenge such harmful element and accumulate osmoprotectants such as proline, glycien betaine, etc to maintain osmotic adjustment. All these and many more aspects have been discussed in case of tomato plants in this review.

Title: Integration of Trichoderma, Pseudomonas and fungicides for the control of collar rot disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Abstract :

An experiment was conducted on integration of Trichoderma, Pseudomonas and fungicides for the control of Collar rot disease of Chickpea during 2013-14 and 2014-15. Results indicated that the most effective treatment was Trichoderma harzianum @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil) + Hexaconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 seed with minimum mortality (4.30 and 2.25%) which was at par with treatment Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil) + Hexaconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 seed (5.80 and 2.59%) and Trichoderma harzianum @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil)+Tubeconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 seed (6.15 and 4.09%) whereas maximum mortality 15.70 and 12.35%) was recorded in control plot. Maximum no. of pods per plant (41.30 and 49.75) was recorded in treatment T7 = Trichoderma harzianum @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil) + Hexaconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 seed which was at par with T8 = Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil) + Hexaconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 (38.7 and 45.95) and significantly superior over rest of the treatment. In case of grain yield highest grain yield was increased in treatment T7 = Trichoderma harzianum @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil) + Hexaconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 seed (44.85%) followed by T8 = Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil) + Hexaconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 (43.61%) and T10 = Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 8q/ha–1 (Soil) + Tubeconazole @ 3ml/kg–1 seed (29.63%).

Title: Transformation of Tomato with Cry2ax1 by Biolistic Gun Method for Fruit Borer Resistance
Abstract :
Tomato ( Solanum esculentumL.) is an important vegetable crop cultivated throughout India. The crop is extensively damaged by alepidopteran insect, Helicoverpa armigeraHubner (fruit borer). To mitigate this problem, an attempt was made to generate transgenic tomato plants resistant to fruit borer. The regeneration protocol being pre-requisite for any transformation studies, 1.0 mg L-1 BAP (Benzyl amino purine) in combination with 0.2 mg L-1 IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) was standardized as shoot regeneration media for tomato cv. Pusa Ruby using leaf explant. The highest callus initiation (100%) and an average number of shoots (3.9) were obtained in the above media. Rooting was observed at 2.0 mg L-1 of IBA(Indole-3-butyric acid) with a highest average number of roots (1.06). The transformation system has been established by Biolistic Gun method using plant binary vector pCAMBIA2300 mobilized into the Agrobacteriumstrain LBA4404 carrying cry2AX1under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. The callus of tomato was bombarded twice from three different distances between tissue and macro carrier assembly. The highest transformation efficiency (75%) was obtained at distance 9 cm and transformants were screened using 50 mg L-1 of kanamycin. Out of 72 explants bombarded, only six explants developed completely but only two putative transformed plants were successfully hardened in the greenhouse. The integration and expression of the cry2AX1 gene in transformed plants were confirmed by PCR and Quantitative ELISA. The cry2AX1 protein accumulated in leaf quantified by ELISA has recorded 38.9 and 79.9 ng ml-1 respectively compared to 129 ng ml-1 of protein sample in positive control. 
Title: Soil microbial biomass dynamics in grassland and agroecosystem receiving varying resource quality soil inputs in dry tropics
Abstract :

A two year field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of land use conversion and management strategies variation through addition of varying resource quality soil inputs on soil microbial biomass dynamics, under rice-wheat-summer fallow crop sequence in tropical dryland agroecosystem. The treatments involved addition of equivalent amount of N through chemical fertilizer (CF) and three organic inputs, viz. Sesbania shoot (high quality resource, HQR), wheat straw (low quality resource, LQR) and Sesbania+wheat straw (mixed quality, MQR) besides control (CO) and grassland (GF). On annual mean basis, cultivation of grassland decreased the MBC (-51%) and MBN (-52%) level in soil. Relative to control, application of WS+SS considerably increased the level of MBC (+77%) and MBN (+87%) in soil, instead of SS, WS and CF. In all cultivated plots, a distinct seasonal and temporal variation in microbial biomass C and N were found contrary to GF. Both soil MBC and MBN level increased from rice to wheat period and reached maximum during summer fallow; during rice, the pattern in decreasing order was HQR>MQR>LQR>CF>CO; wheat period, MQR>LQR>HQR>CF>CO; summer fallow, MQR>LQR>HQR>CF>CO. It is concluded that cultivation exerts negative effects on the concentration of soil microbial biomass. Application of varying resource quality exogenous soil inputs maintains the microbial biomass level in soil, differentially. Addition of MOR was most effective for sustained build-up of microbial biomass in soil throughout the cycle, rather than HQR, LQR or CF. The fertility of soil in term of soil microbial biomass can be maintained by regulating the resource quality of exogenous inputs, and these results will help in designing the management strategies for sustaining long-term soil fertility in these tropical dryland agroecosystem.

Title: Carbon footprinting: a tool for environmental management
Abstract :

The term ‘carbon footprint’ has become tremendously popular over the last few years and is now widely used in educational institutes, government, business and the media. Although the term has been extensively used in the public domain, there is an apparent lack of academic definitions of what exactly a ‘carbon footprint’ is meant to be. Considering the fact of climate change, the term carbon footprint is in strong demand. It is concerned with a less rigorous, consumer oriented, popularised concept of greenhouse gas reductions for the purpose of marketing the benefits of less emission intensive products and services to the public. Numerous approaches have been proposed to provide estimates, ranging from basic online calculators to sophisticated life-cycle analysis or input-output-based methods and tools. By the time elapse, there has been growing concern for issues related to climate change by describing interpretation of greenhouse gas measurement and reduction. The purpose of this paper is to define “carbon footprint” and to provide an insight into the terminologies and approaches included within this concept.

Title: Wilt Incidence and Cultural Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. udum Collected from different Districts of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) L. Millsp. is an important legume crop widely used as food grain as it is rich source of protein, carbohydrate, essential amino acids, minerals and fibres. India is reknowned as a major pigeonpea producer country all over the world. Pigeonpea is susceptible to a number of pathogens, among which Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. udum is considered as the most important fungal pathogen causing a considerable economic loss in India and all over the world. Among different states in India, Uttar Pradesh is the major pigeon pea growing state having most of the wilt susceptible pigeonpea growing areas causing considerable yield losses. In the present study, collection of diseased samples from wilt affected areas of different districts, isolation of test fungi, test of pathogenicity in pots under wirenet house condition was conducted. Further test of wilt incidence of the selected strains of Fusarum oxysporum f.sp. udum through root dip method and soil inoculation method was undertaken in earthen pots under wirenet house to make a precise comparison between the two methods. Cultural variabilities like radial growth, growth rate and mycelia dry weight among the selected isolates were studied under laboratory conditions.

Title: Development of soy protein isolate films reinforced with titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Abstract :

Soy protein isolate film was reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of homogenization time and speed on mechanical and water barrier properties were tested by measuring thickness, swelling percentage, opacity, tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (Eb), water vapour permeability (WVP) and oxygen transmission rate (OTR). The thickness, opacity, TS and Eb of the film increased from 0.202 mm to 0.219 mm; 58.40% to 374.31%; 1.60 MPa to 3.20 MPa and 0.60% to 3.20% respectively and swelling percent, WVP and OTR decreased from 684.39 % to 313.63%; 63.721 g/m2/day to 3.042 g/m2/day and 127.53cc/m2/day to 49.15 cc/m2/day respectively.

Title: High Frequency In Vitro Cloning of Banana (Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine
Abstract :
A study was carried out at the Biotechnology-cum-Tissue Culture Centre, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, India, to standardise a viable protocol for the “High frequency in vitro cloning of Banana ( Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine” during the year 2014. This has helped to determine the best media compositions for shoot multiplication and rooting of the variety Grande Naine, so as to get optimum results with a minimized cost of production. The result revealed that MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l IAA was found to be a most potent combination and produced a significantly higher number of shoots/explants (4.47) after 30 days of culturing. The same combination recorded significantly higher number of shoots/explants, i.e., 5.97 and 6.13 in 1st and 2nd sub-culturing respectively.MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l IBA was found to be ideal for the early shoot elongation attending height of 3.52 cm with more number of leaves/plants (4.2) and produced more number (5.4) of longer roots (4.47 cm) roots after 30 days of inoculation. Approximately 1308 number of Tissue culture plantlets/explant can be produced by following this protocol.
Title: Standardization of Glycerinisation for Leaves of Silver Oak (Grevillea robusta), Kanchan (Bauhinia purpurea) and Pipal (Ficus religiosa)
Abstract :

Studies were carried out to standardize the dehydration technology for leaves of kanchan, pipal and silver oak under laboratory conditions in the Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during 2012-13. The foliages were subjected to four treatments replicated four times containing five foliage per replication. An experiment was carried out by placing only the stems or dipping the foliages in the glycerine solution, which were harvested at matured stage. The parameters like change in fresh weight and change in leaf area. Other quality parameters like texture, shape, brittleness, colour retention and over all acceptance were also recorded. Findings of results revealed that best results were obtain terms of texture, shape, brittleness, over-all acceptability was maximum in glycerine (20%) by uptake method for silver oak with high flexibility and glossiness. However, in case of kanchan glycerine (20%) by uptake method gave best result with similar attributes followed by glycerine (40%). In Pipal leaves, glycerine (40%) by dip method showed best results with maximum retention of colour.

Title: Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Banana Shrikhand
Abstract :

Moisture desorption and adsorption phenomenon in banana Shirkhand were investigated at 100C, 250C and 400C. The isotherm plots obtained exhibited sigmoid shape at all the three temperatures and are classified as type-II. The equilibrium moisture content rose gradually at the lower water activities followed by a steep rise at the higher water activities. The effect of temperature was more pronounced on the desorption isotherm than an adsorption isotherm. Between the three models (GAB, BET and Caurie) tested for predicting the sorption data, GAB gave the best fit at all the three temperatures as indicated by % RMS and R2 values. Properties of sorbed water viz; number of adsorbed monolayers, density of sorbed water, bound or non-freezable water and surface area of sorption were calculated for adsorption and desorption process from Caurie equation. The isosteric heat of sorption was calculated using the Clausius-Clapyron equation. Sorption isosters for each moisture contents are also been reported.

Title: Effect of packaging on quality of enriched fruit bars from aonla (Emblicaofficinalis G.) during storage
Abstract :

The main objective of the study was to evaluate the packaging materials to maintain quality of enriched fruit bars during storage. The experiment was laid out in CRD with 10 treatments. Blending of aonla pulp with pulp of provitaminA rich fruits viz. mango, papaya and jackfruit in different ratios was carried out and its effect on the quality of resultant fruit bars in different packaging materials was evaluated during storage for a period of 6 months. A declining trend in moisture, acidity, non-reducing sugars and ascorbic acid and total carotenoids was observed whereas Total Soluble Solids, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-enzymatic browning showed an upward trend. Enrichment of aonla pulp with fruit pulp of provitaminA rich fruits like mango, papaya and jackfruit showed a rise in total carotenoids and reduced astringency and acidity, thereby resulting in fruit bars with altered palatability and enhanced nutrition. Packaging materials did not reveal any significant variation in sugar retention of fruit bars during storage. High Impact Polystyrene boxes were found to be more effective in reduction of non-enzymatic browning as compared to LDPE and areca plate overwrapped with cling film. Enriched fruit bars contained three vital antioxidants viz. Vitamin C, carotenoids and polyphenols.

Title: Neolamarkia cadamba – A Potential Tree Species for Domestication through Agroforestry System
Abstract :

Agroforestry is the management and integration of trees, crops and/or livestock on the same plot of land and can be an integral component of productive agriculture for higher economic returns. With the ever increasing population during past decades, the land resources for cultivation are shrinking. This situation calls for the adoption of ‘Agroforestry systems’ which is not only an efficient land management but also has promising role in maintaining environmental balance. In India, farmers’ are lacking in information on choosing the combination or compatibility of agricultural crops and tree species for different agroforestry systems under various agro-ecological zones. The benefits of successful agroforestry systems have an economic, environmental and social dimension. It is important to bring out a technology package on successful and viable agroforestry systems suitable for different agro-ecological zones for socioeconomic upliftment of rural farming community. The fast growing, multipurpose and indigenous trees, which could combine very well with annual crops and provide maximum economic returns in the short period of time is preferred under agroforestry systems. Neolamarkia cadamba is one such tree having fast growth in nature and highly suitable for agroforestry systems for higher economic returns. N. cadamba is a species having various end uses for pulp, ply and most preferred for pencil making. Though many phyto-chemicals and pharmacological compounds have been identified from this tree species, the species has not been domesticated so far under agroforestry systems. A detailed review on the status of this species including nursery techniques, agroforestry system establishment, etc. is presented in this paper.

Title: Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus reveals emergence of new genotype
Abstract :

In India the most common vaccine strain against infectious  bronchitis  (IB)   virus  (IBV) is Mass strain (M41). Most of the organized and unorganized poultry farms use Mass strain for vaccination of parent stock. But even after taking all precautions the incidences of IB outbreak are common in poultry population. IBV, a major pathogen of poultry flocks, circulates in the form of several genotypes and serotypes. Only a few amino acid changes in the S1 subunit of wild type proteins may results in mutants unaffected by current vaccine. In the year 2008 one strains of  IBV was isolated from vaccinated chicken flocks. The results from sequencing of S1 gene showed that this strain was distinct from classic IBV strains of H120, M41 etc. Compared to H120 and M41 vaccine strain, point mutation occurred at many positions in the  S1  protein of this field strain. The homology of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the  S1  gene  of this isolate  was 79.0%-99.6% and 74.5%-98.8%, respectively with relation to major vaccine strains used worldwide. The results from this study indicate that different IBV strains cocirculate in the chicken population in India.

Title: Genetic analysis over environments in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) under temperate agroecology
Abstract :

Rice is one of the crucial staple food crops and holds two third of world population. In order improve its production and productivity a diallel study was carried out over two diverse environments in 2012 by generating 36 F1hybrids using 9 parents. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes together with significant G x E interaction for most of the characters studied. Estimates of 2ˆg and 2ˆs revealed that, the latter component of variance wasgreater in maginitude for most of the traits for pooled data obver environments. The maginitude of 2ˆD was higher than corresponding, 2ˆA indicating non- additive gene action was of greater importance. Significant and positive estimates of GCA over pooled data for grain yield/plant identified the parents, SKAU-389, Jhelum, SKAU-382, and SR-1as promising. Likewise 15 potential hybrid combinations for grain yield/plant were observed on the basis of high and significant SCA effects. The hybrids, Jhelum x K-08-60, SKAU-389 x K-08-60, SR-1 x K-08-60, K-08-59 x PS-5 and China-988 x SR-1 were prospective combinations for grain yield/plant and other desirable characters. Results would indicate that the parental lines are genetically diverse and could contribute to the improvement of hybrid rice productivity.

Title: Genetic Variability Study for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :

Sixty five rice germplasms were evaluated for variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient and path correlation in different yield and yield contributing traits. The data was recorded on five randomly selected plants for eleven quantitative characters. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences for the characters under study, indicating the presence of high genetic variability among the genotypes. The estimates of GCV were lower than the respective PCV, indicating the influence of environmental factors on the expression of the traits studied. Characters like days to maturity, days to 50% flowering and panicle weight showed high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of mean, suggesting that selection for the improvement of these characters may be rewarding. Grain yield had high positive and significant association with panicle weight, filled grains per panicle, total grains per panicle and panicle length. Path coefficient analysis showed maximum direct contribution towards grain yield per plant with panicle weight followed by numbers of effective tillers per plant.

Title: Evaluation of Genetic Variation, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Various Traits in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] under north Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

An experiment was undertaken on twenty genotypes and fifteen characters of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] to evaluate variability, genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV), heritability and genetic advance in all genotypes. The wide range of variability was observedamong fifteen characters of all genotypes. The (PCV) were generally higher than their respective genotypic coefficient of variance, thus revealing the role of environmental factors. High PCV was exhibited by plant height (14.92 %), first branching node (37.38 %), number of branches per plant (36.06 %), number of seeds per fruit (22.43 %), first fruiting node (19.07 %), first flowering node (18.03 %) and yield (16.65 %) per hectare. High GCV were observed for number of branches per plant (29.80 %), first branching node(29.75 %), number of seeds per fruit(17.30 %), first fruiting node (15.27 %) and plant height (14.51 %). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for plant height (94.0 and 29.05 %), stem diameter (94.0 and 27.81 %), fruit weight (94.0 and 21.64 %), number of branches per plant (68.0 and 50.74) and first branching node (63.0 and 48.76 %).

Title: Elemental analysis of chelant induced phytoextraction by pteris vittata using WD-XRF spectrometry
Abstract :

Soil pollution due to heavy metals derived from anthropogenic activities is one of the major global issues of our times. Detrimental effects of the heavy metals to the environment and human health are well understood now. Direct and multi-elemental quantitative analysis of soil and plant samples in chelant induced phytoaccumulation in Pteris vittata with the application of XRF spectrometry is the main aim of the present study. The chelant treatment of EDTA was effective for enhancing the arsenic (As) absorption in the pot experiments. Bioaccumulation factor for primary macronutrients P and K slightly decreased in roots but it increased considerably in fronds after the treatment. High increase in the bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor was recorded for As. At the end of this work, it can be clearly concluded that Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometry can be successfully used in phytoremediation studies for getting good results in less time.

Title: Estimating the efficiency of different explants for direct in Vitro multiple shoots development in chrysanthemum
Abstract :

Different explants of local chrysanthemum cultivars available in West Bengal including leaf, shoot tip and ray floret were employed to compare their efficiency for direct in vitro regeneration system. The explants were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with varied combinations of indole acetic acid (IAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP). The auxins indole -3-butyric acid (IBA) was used to induce rooting. Maximum multiple shoots production occurred at 1.0 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA for leaf explants, 2.0 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA combination for shoot tip explants and BAP (4.0 mg/L) + NAA (0.1 mg/l) for ray floret explants. Among the treatments, IBA 1.0 mg /L for both leaf and shoot tip regenerated plants and 0.5 mg /L for ray floret regenerates proved to be the best for promoting root regeneration as compared to the other treatments tried. Among the various carrier substrates tested for acclimatization, soil + sand + FYM (1:2:1) fortified with ½ strength MS plant salt mixture proved to be ideal substrate as maximum plant survived and a maximum of 82.3 % survivability was obtained from shoot tip derived plantlets. Therefore, shoot tip explants are the most suitable type of explants for plant regeneration of chrysanthemum through direct somatic embryogenesis. However, direct plant regeneration through ray floret explants will also be useful to recover the flower colour mutants.

Title: Influence of combined use of organic, inorganic and biological sources of nutrients on fruit quality in lemon
Abstract :

The use of high analysis chemical fertilizers results in the deficiency of nutrients other than the applied. Chemical fertilizers besides being costly are also injurious to plants, ground water and environment. However, in recent years organic sources have emerged as promising components of nutrient supply system. These organic sources when used along with inorganic sources under the concept of integrated nutrient management are known to improve nutrient status of plants either by way of fixation or by making fixed nutrients available to plants. To obtain superior quality of fruit, thus it is a pre-requisite to study the integrated nutrient management in lemon. An experiment was conducted at “Punjab Government Progeny Orchard & Nursery, Attari, Amritsar” during the fruiting years 2005 and 2006 with a view to harvest good quality lemon fruit. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with five treatments replicated four times. Different treatments involved application of FYM, inorganic fertilizer and biofertilizer (Azotobacter) in various combinations. The present experiment shows that the substantial improvement in fruit quality could be achieved with the combined application of these three classes of nutrient sources.

Title: Impact of Tillage and Herbicides on the Dynamics of Broad Leaf Weeds in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Abstract :

The investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of tillage and herbicides on broad leaf weeds (BLW) at Varanasi. The treatments consisting of four tillage practices viz. conventional tillage no-residue, conventional tillage with residue, zero tillage no residue, zero tillage with residue in main plot and six herbicidal treatments viz. weedy check, weed free, mesosulfuron (12 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAS, metsulfuron (4 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAS, clodinafop + metsulfuron (60+4 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) and mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron (12+2.4 g ai ha-1 at 30 DAS) were allocated to sub plots with three replications. In the present study, zero tillage with residue recorded the lowest density of BLW viz. Rumex dentatus, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis, Melilotus indica and Vicia sativa, total weed density; and the highest WCE as compared to the conventional tillage no-residue, zero tillage no residue and conventional tillage with residue, respectively. However, conventional tillage with residue recorded significantly the highest grain yield of wheat. Among herbicidal treatments, mix application of mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron recorded significantly the lowest density of all the BLW and total weed density, highest WCE and grain yield over mesosulfuron followed byone hand weeding at 45 DAS and metsulfuron followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAS and it was statistically at par with clodinafop + metsulfuron.

Title: Molecular characterisation in tomato (solanum lycopersicum L.) - A review
Abstract :

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is most important fruit vegetable grown worldwide for its high nutritive value. Traditional genetic markers and breeding methods have several defects that reduce the ability to estimate genetic diversity in plants as it highly dependent on the environment for expression. Among the available genetic rnarkers viz., morphological, cytological, biochemical and molecular (DNA), Molecular markers are an effective tool for efficient selection of desired agronomic traits because they are based on the plant genotypes and also are independent of environmental variations. Researchers have been calculated genetic variation in tomato landrace and cultivar collections using several molecular techniques including AFLP, RAPD, ISSR, SSR and SNP. An overview is conducted considering some useful above mentioned molecular markers to initiate systematic breeding programme on tomato improvement.

Title: Isolation, Screening, Identification, and Optimization of Xylanase Producing Bacteria from Forests of Western Ghats, India
Abstract :

Xylanase was used in paper industries as an alternate for toxic chemicals in bleaching and pulping processes. This potential has markedly increased the need for research on xylanase production. Hence this study was aimed at isolation of xylanase producing bacteria. The soil samples were collected from different regions in the reserve forests of Western Ghats of Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 154 bacterial strains were isolated from the soil samples. All the strains were screened for xylanolytic activity by xylan agar plate assay method. Based on the size of formation of the clear zone, six potential bacterial strains were selected for the further studies and identified by 16S rRNA sequence. Solid state fermentation (SsF) and submerged fermentation(s SmF) were done to identify strains that could produce maximum xylanase. Bacillus was found to be the dominating xylanase producer among the isolated strains. Bacillus subtilis showed maximum xylanase production of 15.55 IU/ml and 2.62 IU/ml in solid state and submerged fermentations, respectively.

Title: Molecular diversity study on dessert banana genotypes (Musa spp.) from Odisha using ISSR markers
Abstract :

Banana is an important fruit of India and in Odisha it is also a highly demanded fruit. Banana improvement programme mainly depends on genetic variability present in the population. The present investigation was done to assess the molecular diversity present amongst the local dessert banana genotypes of Odisha along with some national released cultivars based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers. For the present study ten ISSR primers were used to differentiate 22 banana genotypes. Total seventy six scorable fragments were obtained, out of which 36 (47.4%) were polymorphic and 39 (51.3%) were monomorphic. Similarity index were estimated using the Dice coefficient of similarity (Nei and Li 1979). The genetic similarity values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. At 90 % phenon level 22 genotypes were distributed in fourteen clusters. The results revealed twenty five percent variability at genetic level based on ten ISSR markers which could be utilised for further banana improvement programme.

Title: Present status of production and marketing of papaya for unripe consumption in Northeastern Thailand
Abstract :

A questionnaire-based survey was made of 800 papaya growers in 8 provinces in northeastern Thailand in January to December 2014. The results showed that most of the growers were female, aged over 30, and educated to primary school level. They had an average of 11-15 years experience growing papaya. Most (72%) grew papaya on mixed plantations. Larger monocrop plantations were found mainly in Kalasin and Mukdahan Provinces. Both household and hired labor was used. The most popular cultivars were ‘Khaeg Nuan’ and ‘Yellow Krang.’ Most farmers saved their own seed and propagated papaya by seed, starting in plastic bag containers. A planting space of 1.7 x 1.7 m was commonly used on large plantations while on some of the mixed farms a wider planting space of 2 x 2 to 3 x 3 m was used. Most farmers used both chemical and organic fertilizer and over 75% relied on rain water for irrigation. They used both mechanical and chemical methods for weed control and pest control. The pest problems reported were red spider mites, aphids, mealy bugs, coccids, worms and snails. The most serious disease problem was Papaya Ring Spot Virus. As for production costs, in the pre-harvest period land rental accounted for the greatest proportion of costs for small-scale farmers and labor accounted for the least proportion of costs. During the harvest period, the highest costs for small-scale farmers were for the irrigation system, and the lowest were for chemical fertilizer. The large-scale farmers had the highest overall costs for chemical fertilizer. In all 8 provinces surveyed, the majority of growers (88%) sold their papaya in unripe form and none of them sold papaya to factories for processing. The prices paid to farmers for papaya were the highest in January, April and November and the lowest in July, February and August. Farm gate prices were higher in Kalasin and Nakhon Ratchasima than in the other provinces.

Title: Stability Analysis of High Yielding Varieties of Black Gram (Vigna Mungo L. Hepper)
Abstract :

Most of the varieties show great degree of genotype x environment interactions for highlydesirable characters. Field experiment was conducted using fourteen genotypes of black gram during kharif season, 2009 and 2010. The data were analyzed according to the stability model as suggested by Eberhart and Russell (1966). The pooled analysis of variance due to genotypes was found highly significant for all the characters indicating genetic variability among the genotypes. Highly significant pooled deviation for all the characters except 100 seed weight was observed in all the genotypes that fluctuated significantly from their respective linear path of response to environments.From the estimated parameters of stability in the present study, genotypes RBU1012 and Pant U-19 were considered to be the most stable genotypes. Environments 6 was the best for yield and its components while environment 1 was the lowest for yield and its components.

Title: Comparative Study on Cost of Cultivation and Economic Returns from Major Crops in Eastern Region of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
An investigation was done to work out the cost of production, cost of cultivation, returns and profitability from Sugarcane, Wheat and Paddy crops in order to identify which crop is more profitable and economic for the farmers of Uttar Pradesh. On an average, the cost of production was ` 78.29 per quintal and the net return per hectare after subtracting the total cost (Cost C3) from the gross return was ` 54956.01 per hectare. Whereas, production and returns from wheat and paddy crop were ` 714.13 per quintal, ` 8614.32 per hectare and ` 614.93 per quintal, ` 10870.71 per hectare respectively. The observations indicated that per quintal cost of production for sugarcane crop was less than wheat and paddy crop, on the other hand
per hectare net return was the highest for sugarcane when compared to wheat and paddy crop. All the major crops viz., paddy, wheat and sugarcane were profitable for the farmers, but sugarcane was the most profitable crop when compared to the rest, because the per quintal cost of production as well as the per hectare return were more economic than wheat and paddy crops.
Title: Study on quality of white bread enriched with finger millet flour
Abstract :

White bread prepared from white flour is a rich source of carbohydrate, protein and energy. But it has poor nutritional qualities in terms of quality protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber as germ and bran are removed while preparing white flour. Finger Millet is a rich source of calcium, fiber, minerals and good quality protein. White bread was fortified with Finger Millet Flour (FMF) by blending in the proportion of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% with the white flour. The enriched bread was evaluated for its physical, nutritional and rheological properties viz. loaf weight, loaf volume, specific loaf volume, carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, calcium, physiological energy and crumb hardness and were found to be 431 to 470 g, 1166.37 to 1166.37 cc, 2.02 to 2.71 cc/g, 59.92 to 60.08 %, 5.10 to 6.22 %, 4.42 to 4.64%, 0.52 to 1.57 %, 0.70 to 1.50 %, 32.52 to 110.6 %mg, 299.80 to 306.90 kcal/g and 124.5 to 150g. Sensory score based on appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, taste, texture and overall acceptability was highest in the white bread fortified with 20 % FMF. Based on the physical acceptance, superior nutritional quality with the acceptable physical properties and rheological property, significant fortification was found by incorporating the FMF up to 20% to the white flour.

Title: Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines Primed with Salicylic Acid under Low Temperature Stress
Abstract :
An experiment was conducted in controlled lab condition with 20 maize ( Zea maysL.) inbred lines to find out tolerant and sensitive genotypes under low temperature stress (10oC). Seeds were primed with salicylic acid (SA) @ 20ppm, 40ppm and 50ppm along with hydro (water) priming for overnight and sown in plastic trays (size 18×12 cm) filled with well mixed fertilized soil. Dry seeds were considered as control. Low temperature exposure was given in Plant Growth Chamber upto10 days. Morphophysiological observations were taken and found that hydro primed and salicylic acid treatments (20ppm, 40ppm and 50ppm) reduced time taken to 50% emergence (in days), mean emergence time (in days) and emergence index (%) and increased shoot length(cm), root length(cm) and relative water content (%) in all maize genotypes as compared to dry treatment (non-primed seeds). However, salicylic acid @ 20ppm, 40ppm and 50ppm treatments significantly increased the response of above parameters in genotypes HUZM-185 at parHKI-164-4 (1-3)2 as compared to dry and hydro primed treatments, while these values were found minimum in genotypes HUZM-80-1at par HUZM-36. Interestingly, among all SA treatments
20ppm performed best on aforesaid parameters in genotypes HUZM-185 and HKI-164-4 (1-3)2 while least in genotypes HUZM-80-1 and HUZM-36 as compared to dry, hydro, 40ppm and 50ppm of SA treatments.
Title: Regeneration of plantlets from in vitro Root and Leaf culture of Vandaceous orchid, Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schl
Abstract :

The paper describes in vitro culture protocol of commercially important Vandaceous orchid from North East India, Ascocentrum ampullaceum using leaves and roots as explants. Leaves and roots of in vitro raised 5-6 months old Ascocentrum ampullaceum were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with additive growth hormone (15%) Coconut milk and growth regulators such as NAA, IAA, BAP and Kn (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5 mgl-1), both singly and in combination. Leaf culture produced highest protocorm like bodies (Plbs) (40%) in the medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 BAP, followed by 30% Plbs supplemented with 15% CM and BAP 2.0 mgl-1, whereas the highest (60%) multiple shoot bud formation was noticed in MS medium supplemented with 15% CM and 0.5 mgl-1 BAP, followed by 30% in ½MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 Kn; Callus formation (30%) was observed in ½MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgl-1 NAA. Roots when cultured in ½ MS, only elongation was observed, but in full strength MS medium, it produced both Plbs and shoot buds. The highest Plbs and shoot buds (40%) was observed in the media supplemented in combination of CM (15%) + BAP (0.5 mgl-1) followed by 25% in CM (15%) + BAP (1.0 mgl-1).

Title: Fate of 15N labeled nitrogen in maize grown with nutriseed pack using tracer technique
Abstract :

Deep placement of fertilizers will reduce the nutrient losses to the environment and increases the nutrient use efficiency. Nutriseed pack is a small tubular assembly consisting seed with bio-inoculants on top, manure pellet in middle and fertilizer pellet at bottom. A field study has been taken to determine nitrogen recovery and to evaluate the compatibility of phosphorus fertilizer sources with nitrogen sources which suited for Nutriseed pack by estimating the recovery of applied fertilizer N added as 15N labeled urea with Nutriseed pack in maize and retention in soil using 15N tracer technique in eastern block of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. This study has revealed that the actual nitrogen recovery from fertilizer and fertilizer nitrogen retention in the soil. The highest fertilizer nitrogen recovery (15N) in leaves, stem and grain (47.95 %) was found with NP(DAP)K Nutriseed pack with phosphorus as Di ammonium phosphate placement recording the highest nitrogen use efficiency of 64.91%. Relatively low recovery of nitrogen (45.25%) was observed with NP(SSP)K Nutriseed pack with phosphorus as Single super phosphate placement recording 58.67% of nitrogen use efficiency. The labeled nitrogen retention in soil is recorded low in NP(DAP)K Nutriseed pack placement and comparatively high in NP(SSP)K Nutriseed pack placement.

Title: Growth, Export Performance and Competitiveness of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice of India-an Markov Chain Approach
Abstract :

Rice is one of the most important staple food crops of more than 60 per cent of the world population with a significant contribution to Agriculture. India is the one of the largest producer of rice and emerged as major player in the worlds rice exports. Factors like introduction of high yielding and quality varieties along with suitable rice production technologies during the Green Revolution period has enhanced the Indian rice production and also trade liberalization is positively influenced the Indian rice export. The value of exports of basmati rice has increased from ` 3.30 Crores to ` 51.29 Crores between 2003-04 to 2013-14, meanwhile the value of exports of non basmati rice has increased from ` 3.28 Crores ` 25.19 Crores. In this paper, the trend and stability of rice production, dynamics of changes in terms of value of exports of basmati and non basmati rice from India to different export markets have been measured by employing the Markov-Chain model. The results revealed that the rice area, production and productivity have seen a significant improvement during study period (1955-2014). Iran and Saudi Arab are found to be stable destinations for Indian basmati rice exports from Markov-Chain results. Whereas, Benin, Bangladesh and Senegal are found to be major destinations for non basmati rice exports. The most unstable markets among the non basmati rice importing countries were South Africa and Liberia with the zero per cent retention. So the policies should aim at developing good trade relations with the stable destinations to benefit from it.

Title: Effect of Calcium and Shrink Film on Post-Harvest Behavior of Cold Stored Plum Fruits
Abstract :
Effect of post-harvest treatments of calcium and shrink film packaging on plum cv. Satluj Purple was studied. Uniform and healthy fruits were selected and treated with aqueous solutions of calcium chloride (1%, 2% and 3%) and calcium nitrate (2%) for 5 minutes. After drying, treated fruits from treatment no. T4, T5, T6, T8 and T9were packed in trays with shrink film and fruits from treatment no. T1, T2, T3, T7 and T10 were kept unpacked in corrugated fiber board (CFB) boxes (5% perforation) and stored at low temperature (0-1oC with 90-95% RH) for 40 days. Observations on palatability rating, spoilage, TSS: acid, reducing sugars and non- reducing were recorded after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of storage. Results revealed that fruits treated with CaCl2 @ 2% + shrink film tray packaging exhibited best fruit quality by maintaining palatability rating, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars and lowering spoilage and TSS: acid during 40 days of storage
Title: Impact of integrated farming system in ramanagara district: An analysis
Abstract :

An attempt was made to assess the impact of technological interventions initiated by KVK, Ramanagara under Integrated Farming System (IFS) among farmers. A great majority of the stakeholders lacked knowledge about improved varieties of ragi, redgram, horse gram, cowpea & foxtail millet. In order to increase the yield and productivity of these crops, improved varieties were inducted to farmers. Farmers were stimulated to go for cultivation of different vegetables in their backyards primarily for house consumption through introduction of nutrition kit developed by Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bangalore. Farmers expressed that this intervention reduced the drudgery of going out and buying the vegetables to the extent of 20 % and on an average each family produced about 80 kg of vegetables generating average revenue of ` 1026 per season. Improved giriraja chicks were introduced to farmers wherein there was 67 % increase in the number of birds after three years while each family could earn on an average of ` 6200/- from chicken. Considering egg production, each family could earn average net income of ` 6800/- at the end of three years. Out of one sheep inducted, it is worthy to note that each family could maintain an average of 5 sheep’s per family after three years. At this rate it could be articulated that ` 13,750/- was the average net income gained by each family from the sheep meat. The wilt incidence in redgram could be controlled to the extent of 75 % through introduction of trichoderma subsequent to which there was additional increase in income of ` 4300/- per ha. Promotion of improved fodder crops namely CO-3 & CO-4 resulted in 6.6 % increase in milk yield.

Title: Heterosis studies for yield & yield traits in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) under rainfed condition
Abstract :

Recognising the potential of hybrid rice to increase the productivity, the present investigation was conducted using three WA CMS lines (Pusa 6A, IR79156A and IR 68897A) and 31 male genotypes. The results manifested that the magnitude of heterosis for grain yield over better parent was significantly superior in eight hybrids with highest value of 60.83% in Pusa 6A x HUR-105. Sixteen hybrids showed significant positive heterosis over standard variety (NDR-97) with highest value of 116.48% in Pusa 6A x HUR-105. Twelve hybrids showed significant positive heterosis over standard hybrid (Arize-6444) with highest value of 85.69% in Pusa 6A x HUR-105. The top two high yielding heterotic crosses over the standard variety (NDR-97) were Pusa-6A x HUR-105 (116.48%) and Pusa-6A x Pantdhan-12 (114.74%). These two hybrids also exhibited significant positive heterosis for yield over standard hybrid (Arize 6444 Gold) i.e. 85.69% and 84.19% respectively. Hybrids Pusa-6A x HUR-105 and Pusa-6A x Pantdhan-12 showed significant positive standard heterosis for almost all the desirable yield attributing traits, apart from this Pusa-6A x Pantdhan-12 also showed significant negative standard heterosis over SH (Arize-6444) for days to 1st flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The top heterotic crosses viz., Pusa-6A x HUR-105, Pusa-6A x Pantdhan-12, Pusa-6A x URG-30, IR-79156A x Akshaydhan and Pusa-6A x NDR-359 and others which expressed higher standard heterosis for grain yield along with other desirable yield components should be tested in large scale under rainfed condition.

Title: Quality Attributes of North-East Himalayan Soil for Cultivation of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.
Abstract :
Ramie ( Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.) is one of the most valuable and oldest fibre crop grown in the world. China is the chief producer of ramie in the international market. Being a perennial crop, ramie
cultivation helps in soil conservation and due to its unique properties its demand is always higher than production. In this scenario, ramie cultivation in India is utmost important to the farmers. This plant has a wide adaptation power and can survive at any place. But for commercial production of cultivated varities of ramie, some specific soil and climatic factors are required. The North Eastern parts of India, especially, Assam is noted for ramie cultivation in wide scale. The soil from Ramie Research Station (RRS), Sorbhog, Assam was considered as standard soil for ramie cultivation. The chemical and physical properties of this soil was studied carefully and the fibre samples from plants grown in this soil was analyzed. It was found that the quality of fibre depends on available nutrient status of soil. The best quality of fibre was available when the quantity of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the pre-existing plots were 460.60 – 474.05 kg/ha, 140.36 – 143.88 kg/ha and 49.72 – 63.16 kg/ha respectively.
Title: Gibberellins production by fluorescent Pseudomonas isolated from Rhizospheric soil of Malus and Pyrus
Abstract :

Little is known about the gibberellins producing fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) diversity associated with rhizosphere of Malus (apple) and Pyrus (pear). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate gibberellins production by Pseudomonas sp., a major component of rhizobacteria with multiform and diverse activities, which alter the structure or life processes of plants to improve quality, increase yields and facilitate harvesting. In the present investigations, thirty Pseudomonas isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere of Pyrus and Malus and were screened for gibberellins production (25-60 µg/ml). Four strains viz PN-4-SAN, PN-10-SAN, AN-2-NAG and AN-4-NAG were selected on the basis of their higher gibberellins production. The maximum production of gibberellins was observed at 72 h incubation period in nutrient broth at pH 7.0 under shaken condition at 28oC. Gibberellins were extracted, purified and evaluated by thin layer chromatography and specific bioassay method.

Title: Probability analysis of rainfall and crop water requirement using CROPWAT model for crop planning in a canal command of upper Bhima Basin of Maharashtra
Abstract :

Rainfall is the most important climatic parameters influencing agriculture in Pune district of Maharashtra. Rainfall of this region is highly variable with respect to space and time and about 80-90% of precipitation falls in monsoon period from June to October resulting in drought and flood situation in the upper Bhima basin of Maharashtra. Therefore, for efficient water resources management, optimal crop planning and also for better understanding of rainfall behavior (i.e., distribution and minimum expected amount during crop growing period) probability analysis of rainfall was conducted. Probability analysis (at 50% and 80%) of monthly rainfall data of 13 raingauge stations of the left bank canal of upper Bhima basin viz., Urali, Loni Karbol, Kasurdi, Tajuproject, Yewat, Dahitane, Bhigwan, Madanwadi, Pondewadi, Kedgaon, Patas, Pimplegaon and Daund for the period from 1975 to 2002 was conducted. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) has been calculated using climatic parameters like sun shine hour, wind speed, maximum & minimum temperature and rainfall humidity for the period from years 1993-2005 by CROPWAT model. It was found that ETo is maximum (7.72 mm/day) during April and low in December (3.10 mm/day). Effective rainfall of existing rain gauge stations falling in different sub-basins, BM48, BM49, BM50, BM51 and BM68 have been estimated using the CROPWAT model. Finally net irrigation requirement of crops Kharif Cotton, Summer Cotton, Sugarcane and Rabi Sorghum have been find out for all the sub-basin. From this study it has been concluded that, the crop planning in the area, represented by Pimplegoan and Urali stations should be done keeping in mind maximum deficit of 187 mm and 113 mm of water respectively during July. Similarly in other stations maximum deficit of water was observed during September which indicate that while selection of crops for the areas represented by these stations the crops requiring less water during September should be selected.

Title: Mitigation of the influence of PEG-6000 imposed water stress on germination of halo primed rice seeds
Abstract :

In the present investigation studies were made to see the effect of water stress, induced with the help of different concentrations (150 to 225 g/kg PEG-6000 equivalent to osmotic potential of -0.30 to -0.60MPa) of PEG-6000 in germinating rice varieties viz., HUR-3022 and Sahabhagi dhan. The results showed that osmotic potential from -0.30 to -0.49MPa, the inhibition in germination percentage was started as compared to control set but at -0.60MPa osmotic potential no germination was observed. When the Mg(NO3)2 and K2SO4 primed seeds were used with the osmotic potential of -0.30 to -0.49MPa the inhibitory effect of stress was found to overcome by the germinating seeds of rice. In the primed seeds the percentage of germination, vigor index, germination index and absolute water content (%) were increased in presence of imposed stress in respect to non-primed seeds germinating under the same situation except mean time germination.

Title: Insect Molecular Markers and its Utility- A Review
Abstract :

Insects represent a major life form on earth. Nearly one million insect species have been discovered which comprises 75% of all the recorded animal species. This biological success is accredited to the enormous diversity of their size and body structure, mating strategies, and the incredible feeding and adaptation behaviour. Significant progress has been made in understanding insect diversity and ecology by using classical genetic principles. Over the last past 15 years, DNA markers have made a significant contribution in molecular studies on genetic relatedness, phylogeny, population dynamics and genome mapping in insects. A brief account of DNA based marker systems, their utility in entomological research, with examples wherever available is presented to prompt further reading and applications. The techniques described include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), microsatellites/simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and expressed sequence tag (EST) based marker system, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other derived marker systems along with their genetic nature and relative comparison. Although a large number of samples can be analyzed quickly, a number of other factors such as cost, speed and requirement of technical skills are the major concern. In this review, we hope to inform the general reader about the importance and scope of the main molecular markers commonly in use, along with brief details of some other techniques which show great promise for entomological studies. Thereafter, we discuss their applications including suitability for particular studies, the reliability of particular techniques, the issues of safety involved, cost effectiveness and the statistical analyses utilized.

Title: Response of Segregating and Non Segregating Generations of Four Tomato Crosses to Environmental Variations for Physiological Attributes Related to Heat Tolerance
Abstract :

Six generations obtained from each of the four tomato crosses viz. Cross-I (H7997 x CLN 1621 E), Cross- II (H7997 x BL 337), Cross - III (H7997 x Nagcarlan) and Cross- IV (H7997 x CLN 2366A) were evaluated over four environments. The analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters except for saturation deficit. The G x E interaction (linear) component was significant for all the characters except for relative stress injury. Pooled deviation was found to be significant for senescence index, membrane stability percentage, relative water content and saturation deficit. From stability analysis it was seen that hybrids H7997 x CLN 1621E, H7997 x Nagcarlan and H7997 x CLN2366A , F2 of cross H7997 x CLN 2366A together with B2 generation of cross H7997 x BL337 exhibited average stability for fruit yield per plant.

Title: Distribution of different forms of potassium under temperature conditions of Kashmir
Abstract :

A study was conducted in temperate conditions of Kashmir valley to study the distribution of different form of potassium. Surface soil samples were collected from two different agro-climatic zones of district Anantnag i.e. High altitude zone (1965-1850 msl) and low altitude zone ( 1540-1695 msl). Surface soils were fine textured ranging from clay loam to silty clay loam with organic carbon content varying from 0.61-1.73%. Water soluble K ranged from 0.010-0.038 [cmol(p+)kg-1], available K ranged from 0.134-0.313 [cmol(p+)kg-1], Exchangeable K ranged from 0.124-0.275 [cmol(p+)kg-1], Boiling HNO3 K ranged from 1.568-2.938 [cmol(p+)kg-1], Non exchangeable K ranged from 1.434-2.625 [cmol(p+)kg-1] and Lattice K ranged from 29.730-51.859 [cmol(p+)kg-1]. The total potassium content in these soils varied from 31.60-54.50 [cmol(p+)kg-1]. Available potassium was positively and significantly correlated with organic carbon (r=0.960)*, cation exchangeable capacity (r=0.874)* and clay (r=0.642**) and was negatively correlated with CaCo3 (r=0.740*), sand (r=-0.365*) and silt (r=-0.734*).

Title: Comparative analysis of various organic amendments on tree growth and nut yield of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)
Abstract :

An experimentwas carried out on “Comparative analysis of various organic amendments on tree growth and nut yield of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)” var. BPP8 (H 2/16) at Cashew Research Station under AICRP on Cashew,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during 2013-14 and 2014-15 adapting randomized block design (RBD) having eight treatments replicated thrice. The treatments wereT1-100 per cent N as FYM, T2 -100 per cent N as FYM + Biofertilizers (Azotobacter + Azospirillum + PSB) 200 g, T3-50 per cent N as FYM + Biofertilizers (200g), T4-100 per cent N as Vermicompost + Biofertilizers (200g), T5- Recycling of organic residue with the addition of 20 per cent cow dung slurry, T6- In situ green manuring to meet 100 per cent N, T7 - 25 per cent N as FYM + recycling of organic residue + in situ green manuring/green leaf manuring + Biofertilizers (200g) and T8- RDF + 10 kg FYM (Control).Biometrical observations on vegetative characters, were recorded during 2013-14 and 2014-15. Application of RDF along with 10 kg FYM recorded maximum value in plant height (5.05 m), canopy spread (7.88 m), production of laterals (26.91) and flowering laterals (22.48) and nut yield (14.06 q/ha). The recommended dose of fertilizer and an addition of 10 kg FYM is most beneficial and economical, but 25 per cent N as FYM, recycling of organic residue, in situ green manuring/green leaf manuring  and biofertilizers must be recommended from the view point of environmental sustainability and equity.

Title: Influence of Plant Population and NPSB Blended Fertilizer Rates on Yield Parameters and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Bako, Ethiopia
Abstract :

Maize (Zea mays L.) is ranked number one in total production among food grains and is inevitable in achieving food security in Ethiopia. In spite of good agro-climatic conditions and soils, maize productivity is constrained by a number of problems; optimum plant population and nutrient management are the most critical among many others. Hence, this field experiment was carried out in split plot design distributing three levels of plant population 53,333 plants/ha, 66,666 plants/ha, and 76923 plants/ha in the main plots and five levels of NPSB fertilizer rates 0,100,150,200 and 250 kg/ha in sub-plots comparing with NP recommended rates in the research area. The two main effects, the plant population and NPSB rate did not change cob length, number of row cob-1 and harvest index. The analysis of variance showed the interaction of plant population and NPSB rates influenced number of kernels cob-1, thousand kernel weight, number of cobs per plot and above ground biomass. Highest number of cob plot-1 was recorded from the plot with 66,666 plants ha-1 and highest biological yield 28299 kg/ha was harvested from the plot with standard check. The highest grain yield was obtained from 150 kg/ha with the plant population of 66666 plants/ha (60 cm × 25 cm). From the research it was concluded that the yield of maize was significantly affected by fertilizer rates and plant population, the combination of 66,666 plant/ha and 150 kg/ha of NPSB fertilizer rate was found to be superior and economically viable for maze production in the study area and similar agro ecologies.

Title: Optimization of Level of Ingredients for Production of Banana-Papaya Mixed Fruit Bar Using Response Surface Methodology
Abstract :
Fruit bar is the product prepared by blending pulp from sound ripe fruit, nutritive sweeteners and other ingredients appropriate to the product and dehydrated to form sheet which can be cut to desired shape and size. The research was carried out to optimize levels of different ingredients for production of banana-papaya mixed fruit bar and its quality evaluation. Central composite design (CCD) was used to conduct experiments and optimization was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of banana-papaya pulp ratio (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0), citric acid (0.3-1.0%), corn starch (1.0-5.0%) and pectin (0.2-0.6%) was evaluated with respect to overall acceptability scores, hardness, stickiness and ascorbic acid in dried mixed fruit bar. The best recipe was 25:75 of banana- papaya pulp ratio, 0.48% citric acid, 4% corn starch and 0.5% pectin. This resulted in acceptable product with overall acceptability score 7.31, hardness 304.06 N, stickiness 1.57382 and ascorbic acid 34.10 mg/100g.
Title: A Review on Comparison of Seismic Behavior of RC Structures Using Various Codes
Abstract :

The seismic design of building is made to withstand the earthquake effect without the loss of life and property. The design of structures according to provision of seismic code provides adequate safety against the seismic forces due to earthquake. Seismic codes are unique to particular region. The comparisons of the static and dynamic analysis on various types of structures using various codes are performed. It figures out the variations that occurs in parameters such as displacement, base shear, storey drift, axial and shear force, bending moments while using different codes. This paper presents a review on seismic behavior of various structures using various codal provisions as given in Indian Code, American code, European code, New Zealand code for earthquake analysis.

Title: PCR amplification and bioinformatics assessment of promoters of PBF-DOF (DNA binding with one finger) genes of finger millet
Abstract :

The Dof (DNA binding with one finger) family is a plant specific transcription factor known to be involved with regulating diverse functions in plants and have been extensively studied in many crops. The Dof transcription factor regulating gene expression by interacting with Cis-regulatory elements namely prolamin box (P box), GCN4, AACA and ACGT motifs present in the promoters of seed storage protein genes is known as PBF (Prolamin-box Binding Factor) Dof transcription factor. A set of 15 primers were designed by considering approximately 1.5 kb upstream and 500bp downstream sequences of full length Dof genes from TSS of cereals like rice, wheat and sorghum available in databases. These primers were used for PCR amplification of putative promoters of Dof genes of finger millet along with few cereals and millets. Furthermore, based on the presence of expected size amplicon with different sets of primers tested, a total of 6 bands of expected size representing putative promoters of PBF-Dof genes of rice, sorghum, barnyard, finger millets (PRM-1 PRM-801, PRM-701) were eluted, sequenced and subjected to in silico investigation. The bioinformatics based characterization revealed uniform presence TSS and numerous seed storage protein specific motifs like DPBF motif, RY element, SKN1 motif, GCN4 motif, E-Box confirming the promoters of respective PBF-Dof genes of cereals and millets. Further, validation by cloning in promoter probe vector is required for confirmation of temporal and spatial expression associated with seed storage protein genes.

Title: Enhanced antioxidant system reprogrammes oxidative stress through hypersensitive response in leaves of rice plant challenged with Aspergillus species
Abstract :

Nitric Oxide (NO) is involved in diverse physiological processes in plants. As a developmental regulator, it promotes germination, leaf extension and root growth, and also delays leaf senescence and fruit maturation. As modulator of disease resistance, it triggers hypersensitive cell death or Hypersensitivity Response (HR) and activates the expression of several defense genes. This wide variety of effects reflects the basic signaling mechanisms that are utilized by virtually all living organisms. The ubiquity of NO reactions as well as the finding that the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying many physiological processes are well conserved between diverse species has opened the exploration of NO chemistry in different organisms. Experiments were conducted in Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University to study the NO mediated HR during interaction of Aspergillus sp. with rice plants. The pathogen (Aspergillus sp) was infiltrated in leaves of rice plants (Oryza sativa), and the responses were observed after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of infection. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Complete Randomized Design which consisted of 8 treatments, 3 replications. Different biochemical parameters like Nitrite content, Proline, H2O2, SOD, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX), Total Phenol Content (TPC), Phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) were measured. PAL and TPC measures the quantity of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) developed in plants against pathogen attack. Among the above mentioned parameters except nitrite, proline and H2O2, all other parameters showed maximum activity at 48 h treatment. The results indicate that HR was developed during rice-Aspergillus interaction through enhanced anti-oxidant system, possibly mediated through NO, thereby restricting pathogen’s spread after 12 to 48 h of infection of rice leaves with Aspergillus sp.

Title: Effect of Sulphur and different Irrigation Regimes on PAR Distribution, Canopy Temperature, Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of irrigation and sulphur on leaf area index, on distribution pattern of photosynthetically active radiation, consumptive use, water use efficiency, Canopy-Air Temperature Difference as well as yield attributes and yield of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) during two consecutive years (2009 and 2010) at the ‘C’ block farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal during pre-kharif season in a sandy loam soil with 24 treatment combinations (eight irrigation level in main plot and three level of sulphur in sub-plot) in a split plot design replicated thrice. The study revealed that both the levels of irrigation and sulphur significantly influenced all the yield attributing characters and the kernel yield. The highest values of yield attributing characters and kernel yield were recorded when sulphur applied @ 15 kg ha-1. The highest consumptive use, and water use efficiency were recorded under three irrigations applied at flowering, pegging and pod filling stage followed by two irrigations at pegging and pod filling stage. No irrigation treatment recorded lower photosynthetically active radiation absorption percentage value but higher photosynthetically active radiation extinction coefficient and Canopy-Air Temperature Difference value as compare to irrigation treatments, respectively.

Title: Effect of Silver Nitrate on Leaf Abscission in Culture during Establishment of Explants of Custard Apple (Annona squamosa l.) cv. Balanagar
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out on “Micropropagation in custard apple (Annona squamosa L.)” with objective to develop commercially feasible and economically viable protocol for micropropagation technique of custard apple. While standardization of micropropagation in custard apple, Effect of silver nitrate on leaf abscission in culture during establishment of explants of custard apple cv. Balanagar were examined. In order to control leaf abscission silver nitrate at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/l was tested to medium MS + 0.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l KIN + 100mg/l CH. The results revealed that Silver nitrate significantly reduced leaf abscission in both shoot tip and axillary bud explants. The least leaf abscission was reported in treatment N3 (5 mg/l) followed by treatment N4 (10 mg/l) and N1 (2.5mg/l) in both shoot tip and axillary bud explants. Whereas, in treatment N1 (without silver nitrate) more than 80% leaf abscission was observed. The number of leaves produced by the explants was maximum in treatment N3 (5 mg/l) in both shoot tip (7.5) and axillary bud (8.5) explants. Whereas, when silver nitrate was applied at 10 mg/l (Treatment N4) this was phytotoxic and inhibited leaf production.

Title: A Review on Prospects of Pre-harvest Application of Bioagents in Managing Post-Harvest Diseases of Horticultural Crops
Abstract :
The reduction of post-harvest food losses is a critical component of ensuring future global food security. For controlling post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables biocontrol measures play an important role in ensuring an effective and safe alternatives to synthetic chemicals. Biological control of pre- and postharvest diseases has been one of the most extensively studied alternatives and appears to be a viable technology. Post-harvest application of biocontrol agents has been reported since very early to control
post-harvest diseases, but it has one major limitation that it cannot control the latent infection that starts from the field itself during the flowering stage, fruit maturity stage, wounds develop at harvesting and transporting the produce. For these pre-harvest applications of biocontrol agents can be an appropriate strategy for fruits and vegetables that subject to several ways of damage in post-harvest handling till storage.
Title: A Simple and efficient protocol for isolation of RNA from different tissues of chickpea and pea
Abstract :

A simple and efficient protocol is developed for isolation of high quality RNA from roots and leaves of chickpea and pea. The procedure is based on use of SDS, sodium acetate and EDTA in an extraction buffer in order to eliminate polysaccharides and prevent oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current method is modification of a method described for RNA isolation from pea leaves only, and yields excess amount of high-quality RNA suitable for cDNA based gene expression analysis. The protocol requires only three disposable micro centrifuge tubes during extraction, single phenol extraction step and a single precipitation step to yield high-quality RNA. RNA extracted with this method was free from protein and phenolic contaminants as evident from gel electrophoresis analysis. This method is applicable not only for leaves but also for roots and shoots and equally applicable to both chickpea and pea. cDNA is prepared and PCR amplification have been done with universal ubiqutin primer to check the integrity of RNA and absence of inhibitory compounds in RNA samples, which proves the suitability of samples towards qRTPCR.

Title: Productivity, agronomic efficiency and quality of bread wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] cultivars in relation to nitrogen
Abstract :

Nitrogen (N) occupies a conspicuous place in plant metabolism because adequate supply of this nutrient associated with high photosynthetic activity, vigorous vegetative growth and a dark green color among cereal crops. In view of this, the field experiments were conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen with different wheat cultivars on growth and productivity. The soil was low in organic carbon and available nitrogen. The leaf area index and photo synthetically active radiation interception was higher in variety PBW 621. The 1000-grain weight and grains per ear were significantly higher in variety PBW 550 than other varieties. The variety DBW 17 had significantly higher tiller density. The variety PBW 550 gave significantly higher grain yield but statistically on par with variety PBW 621. The yield attributes, grain yield and quality parameters were highest under 150 kg N/ha. With increase in nitrogen level upto 120 kg N/ha, there was significantly increase in grain yield which was statistically on par with 150 kg N/ha. Agronomic use efficiency was significantly similar at 120 and 150 kg N/ha than other nitrogen levels. Therefore, there is need to save nitrogen fertilizers on soils low in nitrogen availability for wheat cultivars.

Title: Marginal and small farmers’ climate change perception and adaptation
Abstract :

Climate change refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or/and as a result of human activity and adaptation to climate change requires that farmers first notice that the climate has changed, and then identify useful adaptations and implement them. The marginal and small farmers were highly vulnerable to climate change. The likely consequences of climate change on the water front in Tripura are decrease in total annual rainfall, change in rainfall pattern resulted in crop failure. The present research was conducted in West Tripura district of Tripura state and sample size was 150. Results suggested that perception of farmers on current climate condition ranged from bad to very bad and there were increase of crop, animal and human diseases; and also number of hot days and sun’s heat had increased too, whereas rainfall days and annual rainfall had decreased. Major identified adjustment factors by farmers were decreased use of irrigation water, change in planting date, find off-farm job and alternative livestock feed supplements. However, farmers’ perceived barriers to climate change adjustment were lack of weather information, problem with getting inputs, lack of knowledge about adaptations and lack of information about climate change.

Title: Livelihood security of farm households under different farming systems in Kolar district of Karnataka – An economic analysis
Abstract :

The study was undertaken in Kolar district of Karnataka state to assess the outcomes of livelihood security like Economic security, Food security, Educational security, Health security, Habitat security and Social network security. Four farming systems viz. Crop+Dairy, Crop+Sericulture, Crop+Dairy+Sericulture and Crop+Sheep were identified as major farming systems based on preliminary survey and previous studies in the area. The study based on the primary data from 120 farmers covering equal samples under major farming systems was elicited through survey method for the period 2010-11. The data was analyzed using Garrett ranking technique, Gini co-efficient and Conventional economic and simple statistical tools like ratios, percentage and indices etc. The result revealed that net annual income realized by a household was highest in C+D+S (` 3,58,880/-) farming system of which 43.78 per cent was from sericulture enterprise alone and least in C+Sh (` 46,281/-) farming system of which 59.95 per cent was from non-farm activities. When compared to Farm households of rainfed based farming systems (Crop+Sheep) irrigation based farming system (Crop+Dairy, Crop+Sericulture, Crop+Dairy+Sericulture) households are on par with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) norms in cereal consumption. Public Distribution System (PDS) playing an important role in food security of farm households of rainfed farming systems through supplying food grains at cheaper prices. The overall livelihood security is high in case of C+D+S farm households.

Title: Effect of soil compaction and fertilizer placement depth on growth, yield, nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) and soil properties in tarai soils of Uttarakhand
Abstract :

Soil compaction and placing of fertilizer in undesirable depth in soil are the most serious threat under intensive cultivation system in poorly drained heavy textured soil. In view of this, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2014-15 to understand the effect of soil compaction and fertilizer placement depth on performance of maize crop, nutrient uptake and soil properties. The soil was heavy textured i.e. silty clay loam with poor drainage and receiving about >1400 mm rainfall annually. Root length and root length density of plants in compacted plots (1.54 and 1.63 Mg/m3) decreased remarkably from 1.50-4.60 cm and 0.06-0.11 cm/cm3, respectively, compared with non-compacted soil (1.34 Mg/m3) however root dry weight did not exhibit response against soil compaction. Maximum grain yield of 5613.4 and 5593.0 kg/ha was recorded with non-compacted soil (1.34 Mg/m3) and 0-10 cm fertilizer placement depth, respectively, however at par yields were obtained between 1.54 and 1.63 Mg/m3 compaction levels. Compaction and fertilizer placement depth showed highest adverse effect on Zn uptake (14.70-20.42%) whereas least on P uptake (6.23-11.0%). Non compacted soil (1.34 Mg/m3) and placing fertilizer at 0-10 cm depth maintained favourable oxidizable organic carbon and hydraulic conductivity but reduced with increase in compaction and placement depth. In general, strong negative and non-significant relationships of the compaction and fertilizer placement depth with growth and yield parameters, yields, nutrient uptake and soil properties were estimated.

Title: Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Four Brassica Species using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers
Abstract :
This investigation was aimed to explore the genetic diversity and relationship among the 30 Brassica varieties of four different species such as Brassica juncea, Brassica rapa, Brassica napusand Brassica carinatausing RAPD markers. Forty primers were tested in this study, out of which 33 revealed clear and repeatable RAPD polymorphisms. They produced 530 total loci and the total bands were 6041. Out of the 530 loci produced, 511 were polymorphic and hence the total polymorphism percentage was found to be 95.96 %. Nineteen primers out of 33 analyzed successfully produced 100% polymorphism. The average PIC value for RAPD was 0.92. The highest PIC value obtained was 0.94 for S-70 marker and lowest PIC value was 0.77 for S-40. The number of amplicons produced per primer varied from 9 to 26 with a mean of 16.56 bands per primer. The molecular size of the amplified PCR products ranged from 130 to 3100 bp. On the basis of dendrogram, thirty accessions were categorized mostly according to their species. Cultivar specific RAPD markers for fifteen accessions were also detected. The study revealed that the diversity exhibited by genotypes belonging to various Brassicaspecies can be further utilized for crop improvement programme.
Title: Response of Various Yield of Sweet Sorghum Crop (Sorghum bicolour L. Moench) to Different Levels of Fertilizer in Lateritic Soil of Birbhum, West Bengal
Abstract :

Strategic management and efficient application of inputs are the primary demands for sustainable, healthy and promising bio energy cropping system. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is identified as an industrial crop by virtue of accumulation of fermentable sugars in stem and the stalk syrup is an enriched source of bio ethanol. To make an increasing profit from cultivation of sweet sorghum in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, several agronomic practices have been proposed both in general parameters and nutrient management. This plot experiment was conducted in open pollinated field condition to evaluate the response of different N, K and P doses on growth and sugar yield of sweet sorghum in this agro climatic zone. The experiment was conducted at Visva Bharati Agriculture Farm, Birbhum during 2017 in a randomized block design (RBD) having three replications. The total number of treatment combinations were 18 (3N×2P×3K) with a total of 54 plots. Data were collected on every 30 days interval starting from 40 Days after Sowing (DAS) to 130 DAS. The results revealed that maximum plant height of 192.19 cm was observed in N3P2K2 treatment at 130 DAS. The maximum Green Biomass of 26.47 t/ha was observed with N3P1K3 treatment at 100 DAS. The maximum sugar concentration of 9.34% was observed with N3P2K3 treatment at 100 DAS and the highest sugar yield of 1717.62 kg/ha with the same ratio of fertilizer treatment. All the values of parameters statistically evaluated to identify the cost-effective status as well as the significance of the study.

Title: Manipulation of source sink relationship for management of fruit drop in kinnow mandarin
Abstract :

A field experiment to study the effect of plant growth regulators and mineral nutrients as foliar application on source-sink relationship during fruit drop was carried out in Kinnow mandarin during 2013-2014. The plant growth regulators viz., 2,4 - D and gibberellic acid (@ 20µg/ml each) and mineral nutrients viz., FeSO4, MnSO4, ZnSO4 (@ 3.0 % each), CaSO4, MgSO4 (@ 0.6 % each), combination of FeSO4 +MnSO4 + ZnSO4 (@ 0.3 % each), MnSO4 + ZnSO4( @ 0.1 % each), KNO3 +2,4-D ( @ 2.5 % + 20µg/ml), KNO3 + 2,4- D (@ 5 % + 20µg/ml ) were tested as foliar application on eight year old Kinnow fruit plants at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The results revealed that there was a significant reduction in fruit drop and increase in fruit yield with the tested plant growth regulators and mineral nutrients by strengthening the sink capacity. The metabolites viz. total soluble proteins, free amino acids, total soluble sugars and starch were more in the leaves as compared to fruits at both the stages of fruit drop, ie., May and August. KNO3 +2,4D ( @ 2.5 % + 20µg/ml) application resulted in maximum metabolic content in the fruits at the two diagnostic stages.

Title: Binding Affinity Analysis of Cinnamanilide and α-Aminophosphonic Acid Derivatives for Acetohydroxyacid Synthase through Molecular Docking
Abstract :
In the present study, the synthesized derivatives of cinnamanilide and α-aminophosphonic acid were used to analyze their binding affinity with acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) (PDB ID: 1YHY) a molecular target for development of herbicide through molecular docking. The result of present studies showed that cinnamanilide derivative 2-nitro cinnamanilide has greatest affinity toward AHAS as compared to other derivatives, which bind at amino acids residue Ile396, Arg246, Ser186 with three hydrogen bonds and -8.5 kcal/mol binding energy. α-Aminophosphonic acid 1-(2,5 dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(phenylamino) methylphosphonic acid exhibited the maximum affinity toward AHAS with four double bonds binding at amino acids Trp267, Arg109 and -5.6 kcal/mol binding energy as compared to other derivatives. This may lead to inhibition of AHAS protein. Further field trial is required to validate its efficacy and potency as herbicide for the protection of crop plants.
Title: Combining ability and heterosis in maize (Zea mays L.) for grain yield and yield components
Abstract :

An investigation was carried out to assess the combibing ability and heterosis for nine characters viz., days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, days to maturity, plant height, cob length, kernel rows per cob, 100-seed weight, protein content and grain yield per plant in 29 genotypes (twenty one hybrids, their seven parents along with a check). Combining ability studies revealed that, the line DHK-12-2091 found to be good combiner for the traits, grain yield per plant, kernel rows per cob, 100-seed weight and protein content while another line DHK-12-2003 also found to be good combiner for 100-seed weight, protein content, days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking. Therefore these lines can be utilized in improvement of the respective traits in any breeding programme where hybridization is involved. Among all the crosses, based on average heterosis, heterobeltiosis, standard heterosis, sca effects and per se performance, the cross DHK-12-2141 × DHK-12-2047 was identified as a promising hybrid for majority of characters studied. However it has not recorded significant standard heterosis for grain yield per plant.

Title: Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Economics in Summer Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata)
Abstract :

The field experiment was carreied out at Research Farm, Bagusala, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management during summer, 2018. The soil was sandy loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction ( pH 6.8 ) and low in available N (158.83 kg /ha) and P2O5 (10.82 kg /ha) and medium in available K2O (147.67 kg/ha). The randomized complete block design was adopted with three replications for testing 8 treatments. They were consisted of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer ( DF) @ 120-60-60 kg of N-P2O5-K2O /ha), 100% RDF + bio fertilizer consortia (Azotobactor + Azosporillum + phosphobacter) @15 kg/ha, 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through farm yard manure (FYM) + 50 % RDF + bio fertilizer consortia (BFC) @15 kg/ha, 50 % RDN through vermi compost (VC) + 50% RDF + BFC @15 kg/ha, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through FYM, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through VC, 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through FYM + BFC @15 kg/ha and 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN through VC + BFC @15 kg/ha. The yield attributes such as number of cobs/plant, cob length, cob girth and cob weight along with green cob and forage yield were remarkably influenced by integrated nutrient management treatments. Application of 75 % RDF + 25 % RDN (VC) + BFC @15 kg/ha recorded the highest yield attributes and green cob (12.01 t/ha) and fodder (` 16.52 t/ha) yield. It was followed by 100 % RDF + BFC @15 kg/ha producing the green cob and forage yield of 11.67 and 16.17 t/ha, respectively. The maximum net return (Rs. 164206/ ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.92) was obtained with integration of 100 % RFD (120-60-60 kg of N, P2O5 and K2O /ha) and BFC (Azotobactobacter + Azosporillum + posphobacter) @15 kg/ha.

Title: Effect of essential oils on mortality, hatching and multiplication of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and its Impact on plant growth parameters
Abstract :

Essential oil from aromatic plants showed strong nematicidal activity in vitro experiments. Among six tested essential oils, percent juvenile mortality was observed in lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 89, 51 as well as in palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), 80 and 44 at the doses of 500 and 250 ppm respectively at 12 hour of exposure time. However, maximum mortality percentage was observed in C. citratus oil and it registered cent percent mortality at 500 ppm at 24 hours of exposure time. The hatching in both treatments started by 8th day and steeply increased in 10th day. Essential oils at 5 concentrations drastically reduced the total number of J2, as both essential oils showed more than 50 % reduction in hatching over control. The minimum cumulative hatching was observed in 1000 ppm in C. citrates oil. The effect of root-dip treatments of tomato seedlings with C. citratus and C. martini significantly reduced total number of root knot galls/per plant, per cent galled area and soil population as compared to control. The minimum number of M. incognita galls was found in C. citratus at 500 ppm it was significantly different from carbosulfan as well as C. martini treatments. The maximum shoot length was found in C. martini followed by C. citratus and carbosulfan at 500 ppm. All the treatments significantly improved the root length than the inoculated plants but they were not significantly different among themselves.

Title: A Rapid Micro-method for the Isolation of Total DNA from Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Tissues
Abstract :
The high yielding and reproducible micro-method of barley total DNA isolation was developed. A strong buffer was used for the maximum yield of DNA. RNA was removed by treating DNA with DNase-free pancreatic RNase A and polysaccharide contamination was removed by ethanol precipitation. DNA isolated from callus or leaf tissue was proved enough for restriction enzyme digestion and Southern
Title: Comparative efficacy of eighteen essential Oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
Abstract :

Plants are known to be a potential source of chemicals affecting feeding, breeding and survival of insects. Present study was conducted to study the fumigant toxicity of essential oils against major insect pest of stored grain Rhizopertha dominica. The bio-efficacy of essential oils extracted from eighteen plants, namely, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum camphora, Citrus sp., Eucalyptus globules, Psidium guajava, Thuja orientalis, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Saraca asoca, Cannabis sativa, Murraya koenigii, Tagetes erecta, Citrus limetta, Artemisia annua, Callistemon citrinus, Ocimum gratissimum and Citrus limon was studied against R. domanica at 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.012 % concentration (v/w).The study revealed that most of the essential oils inhibited the development of the test insect. However, the level of inhibition was highly correlated with the dose at which oils were used for treatment. Among eighteen essential oils, A. marmelos, C. camphora E. globulus and T. orientalis were most effective against R. dominica because no insect developed from the grain treated with it even at lower concentration of 0.05 %. All the essential oils were found highly effective at 0.2 and 0.1 % concentration except A. conyzoides, S. asoca, C. sativa, O. gratissimum and Citrus sp, which permitted adult emergence during test. None of the oil was found highly effective against R. domanica at 0.025 and 0.012 % concentration. The essential oil of E. globulus and T. orientalis were found moderately effective at 0.025% concentrations at which they caused 83.92 and 87.17 % inhibition, respectively. Rests of the treatments were found less effective against R. dominica due to less than 70 % inhibition of progeny production

Title: Phenotyping for Grain Mineral Contents (Iron and Zinc) in PAU201 × Palman 579 F5 and BC1F4 Populations in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) occupies an enviable prime place among the food crops cultivated around the world. Biofortification refers to the development of micronutrient-dense staple crops using the best traditional breeding practices and modern biotechnology. F5 (278) and BC1F4 (212) plants derived from the cross between PAU201 (high yielding) and Palman 579 (Iron rich) were phenotype during 2013-14 crop season. The results showed 17.14% plants in F5 and 5.60 % plants in BC1F4 populations perform higher than Palman 579 for zinc content. Likewise, 1.07% F5 and 31.30% BC1F4 populations performed higher than PAU201 for grain yield/plant and 17.14% F5 population and 61.21% BC1F4 population performed higher than PAU201 for 1000-grain weight. Plants showed large variation for various grain yield related traits for iron and zinc contents. Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed Iron, zinc content and grain yield/plant were positively correlated to all the studied traits in both the populations except plant height in BC1F4 population. 1000-grain weight showed significant positive correlation in both the population with panicle length, grain yield/plant, iron content and zinc content. Notably, one F5 plant (plant number 48-14-3-2) had exceptionally high iron content (296.5 μg/g). The distribution curves showed normal parabolic distribution for effective number of tillers/plant and zinc content. Frequency distribution curves for iron content were skewed towards Palman 579 in F5 and BC1F4 populations. This indicated that available populations is feasible to plan a breeding program to develop high-yielding, mineral rich rice genotypes and to identify genomic location for micronutrients content.

Title: Transformation of Tomato with Cry2ax1 by Biolistic Gun Method for Fruit Borer Resistance
Abstract :
Tomato ( Solanum esculentumL.) is an important vegetable crop cultivated throughout India. The crop is extensively damaged by alepidopteran insect, Helicoverpa armigeraHubner (fruit borer). To mitigate this problem, an attempt was made to generate transgenic tomato plants resistant to fruit borer. The regeneration protocol being pre-requisite for any transformation studies, 1.0 mg L-1 BAP (Benzyl amino purine) in combination with 0.2 mg L-1 IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) was standardized as shoot regeneration media for tomato cv. Pusa Ruby using leaf explant. The highest callus initiation (100%) and an average number of shoots (3.9) were obtained in the above media. Rooting was observed at 2.0 mg L-1 of IBA(Indole-3-butyric acid) with a highest average number of roots (1.06). The transformation system has been established by Biolistic Gun method using plant binary vector pCAMBIA2300 mobilized into the Agrobacteriumstrain LBA4404 carrying cry2AX1under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. The callus of tomato was bombarded twice from three different distances between tissue and macro carrier assembly. The highest transformation efficiency (75%) was obtained at distance 9 cm and transformants were screened using 50 mg L-1 of kanamycin. Out of 72 explants bombarded, only six explants developed completely but only two putative transformed plants were successfully hardened in the greenhouse. The integration and expression of the cry2AX1 gene in transformed plants were confirmed by PCR and Quantitative ELISA. The cry2AX1 protein accumulated in leaf quantified by ELISA has recorded 38.9 and 79.9 ng ml-1 respectively compared to 129 ng ml-1 of protein sample in positive control.
Title: Inheritance of sheath blight disease resistance in submergence rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is one of the important diseases of rice, resulting in heavy yield loss in rice every year. Genetic nature of sheath blight has been found to be complex and controversial issue in the earlier studies. There were some reports about the major gene conferring resistance to sheath blight. Non allelic dominant major resistance gene was also reported in resistant cultivars. A total of 50 QTL associated with sheath blight resistance located on all 12 rice chromosomes have been reported, with 10 of these co-localizing with QTL for morphological attributes, especially plant height, or for heading date. The objective of this paper was to see inheritance pattern of sheaath blight. All the plant in the F1 shown resistant reaction with 22.25% disease severity, and in F2 population the resistant or moderately resistant, and susceptible in the ratio of 3R / MR: 1S which is mainly due to presence of dominant effects of resistant QTL/genes qSBR11-1. The F3 populations were classified into resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible in the ratio of 3:2:3. Further, the F3 populations were classified in only two groups as resistant and susceptible then their ratio was 5Resistance/Moderatily Resistance: 3Susceptible.

Title: Khasi mandarin: its importance, problems and prospects of cultivation in North-eastern Himalayan region
Abstract :

Northeast India is recognized as an important part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. It is one of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots accepted at present. This is also considered as the richest and one of the most endangered places for plant survival in the world. This area is known as one of the centers of origin of various Citrus species. Among the Citrus crops available in northeastern region, Khasi mandarin is the most economically important one and plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of the people in this region. Khasi mandarin is well known for its quality, fruit colour, unique sugar-acid blend and shelf life which make it the most popular citrus cultivar in northeastern region of the country. It covers the largest area in the region due to its commercial value. Assam and Meghalaya have the maximum area and production of Khasi mandarin. The health benefits of oranges have been well known for centuries, but it has therapeutic values that have long been utilized in conventional herbal medicine. Experimental studies shows that its bioactive compounds have tremendous pharmaceutical activity like, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, cancer preventing etc. which clearly indicate the potential of the crop for the pharmaceutical industry. Although India is fourth largest producer of orange in the world but due to the problem of citrus decline the average yield of orange in India is alarmingly low as compared to other countries. This review thereby summarizes the medicinal and nutritional value of mandarin, their economic importance, problems and prospects of cultivation in northeastern region.

Title: Comparative study on ecofriendly management of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood in mungbean by using different bio- and chemicals pesticides
Abstract :

Effect of certain ecofriendly insecticides against thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) was studied at Varansi, Uttar Pradesh on mungbean. Ten different treatments (including control) of microbial and chemical insecticides were taken in different combinations and used at different crop stages. Among various insecticidal treatments, the combination of seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens and spraying of Beuvaria bassiana gave better responses and was found most effective against thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) followed by seed treatment of P. florescens was found effective to minimise the infestation of thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood).

Title: Growth and instability in area, production and productivity of different crops in Bengaluru division
Abstract :
Karnataka State has a typical composition having a large share of its area under highly diversified agricultural crops, higher growth in agriculture assumes great importance and is a matter of concern for policy planners and research scholars in recent times. In view of this the present study was aimed to analyse the growth and instability in area, production and productivity of different crops in Bengaluru Division. The results revealed that Bengaluru urban had the highest CAGR which was 24.26% in productivity in avare was significant at 5% level. In Bengaluru Rural the highest CAGR was 22.26% in productivity of avare (significant at 1%). Production of chrysanthemum had growth of 22.36% was the highest annual growth and 4% (area of tamarind) was found to be lowest instability for selected crops in Chitradurga, In Davanagere the highest CAGR was observed in productivity of tomato (9.12%). In Kolar district, 19.65% instability observed in production of avare & was significant at one %. In Shivamogga district highest CAGR observed in production of sunflower to an extent 29.57%. In Tumkuru area under green chillies was growing at rate of 34.46% per annum.
Title: Diagnosis of Brucellosis using Molecular Techniques from Various Clinical Samples
Abstract :

Brucellosis is an important zoonosis and a significant cause of reproductive losses in animals Abortion .In presence study 115 clinical samples were collected from cattle and buffalo, it all sample were analyzed with genus specific PCR bcsp31gene, those samples give positive result in genus PCR analyzed with species specific IS711gene PCR, 11 samples give positive result out of 115 samples in genus and species specific PCR. Highest percentage of positive result showed in Cotyledon (40%), Placenta (25%) and Vaginal discharge (20%) when the blood and Vaginal swab showed only 6% and 5.12% positive result in genus and species specific PCR, those all infected cattle and buffalo detected Brucella abortus positive. it means the cotyledon of aborted animal was more reliable clinical sample for molecular diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and buffalo.

Title: Effect of Crop Geometry and Age of Seedlings on Productivity and Nutrient Uptake of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn)
Abstract :

Crop geometry is an important factor to achieve higher production by better utilization of resources and in turn higher production of photosynthates. The ideal crop geometry can assure healthy and uniform stand in the main field and ensure higher productivity. Proper age of seedlings has a tremendous influence on the tiller production, grain formation and other yield contributing characteristics. In view of the above, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season (June to October) of 2018 at Bagusala Farm (23o39’ N latitude, 87o42’ E longitude) of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to find out the effect of crop geometry and age of seedlings on yield attributing characters, yield and nutrient uptake of finger millet (cv. Vakula) in sandy loam soil. The experiment revealed that transplanting of 20 days old seedlings at 25 cm x 25 cm spacing registered superior performance in expression of yield attributes like effective tillers m-2, number of grain ear head-1, number of fingers ear head-1, test weight and length of the fingers; grain and straw yield and nutrient uptake. It may be concluded that to obtain higher productivity of finger millet during kharif season in sandy loam soils of south Odisha, 20 days old seedlings may be transplanted with a spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm.

Title: Effect of Inherent Soil Nutrients on Yield and Quality of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) Fibre
Abstract :

Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is one of the most valuable sources of natural fibre known to human civilization from ancient times. The yield and fiber quality of ramie are affected by soil nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Variation in organic carbon content of soil influences the fibre quality as it acts as a natural buffer. In the present study, we aimed to correlate the influence of inherent soil nutrients on yield and fiber quality of ramie fibre. Six ramie lines (R-1424, R-1415, R-67-34, R-1411, R-1418, R-1427) were grown in North Eastern hilly regions of India, under normal fertilizer dose was studied to evaluate for differences in plant height, stem diameter, filament length, yield and fiber quality of ramie. It was found that available nitrogen and potassium had significant effect on plant growth, yield, and fiber quality, whereas available phosphorous had strong positive correlation with fineness, strength and length of fibre.

Title: Antivirulence activity of essential oils against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causing bacterial blight of Oryza sativa
Abstract :

The majority of bacterial diseases currently being treated use the traditional antibiotic therapy which gives way to the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The seriousness further increases in the microbes which form resilient biofilms. Therefore, researchers around the globe are working towards the development of new bactericides which do not impose the above conditions. The present investigation was thus carried out with the aim to screen natural essential oils from different plant parts against Xanthomonas oryzae, causal organism of leaf blight disease in rice. The results revealed decrement in biofilm formation at 1000 ppm in 9 oils out of 15 without considerable decrease in total colony forming units. However, the motility traits viz. swimming was maximally reduced in case of calamous and cajeput oil while swarming was decreased significantly in jatamansi and costus root oil. The other virulence traits like protease and exopolysaccharide responsible for the pathogenecity of the bacterium was maximally reduced in calamous and jatamansi oils. However, maximum decrease in lipase was observed in case of costus root oil. Overall, the results highlight potential anti virulence property of calamous, costus and jatamansi oil which can be in future used for the development of potential bactericide against X. oryzae.

Title: Stability analysis in bush type Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) under temperate Kashmir conditions
Abstract :

Present investigation was undertaken during 2012-2014 to generate information through evaluation of a set of material at the farmers’ field along with the farmers’ variety as a check through stability using Eberhart and Russel model. The yield and yield attributing traits of all genotypes was recorded on ten competitive plants of both grandmother and mother trial. The genotypes were evaluated for stability analysis and revealed divergence across locations. The mean squares of all the traits were significant reflecting that the material was genetically divergent. The pooled deviation was significant and the variance due to variety × environment was significant for various traits indicating that the variation in the performance of the genotypes is both unpredictable and predictable. Most of the genotypes were having higher mean than the average, bi less than unity indicating that the varieties were more specifically adapted to the unfavorable environments than favourable ones. Some of the genotypes having higher mean yield, bi > 1 and Sdi2 tending to zero were specifically adapted to favourable environments. On the basis of stability parameters genotypes WB-185, WB-195, WB-966 and Shalimar Rajmash-1 were identified as the most stable genotypes for seed yield per plot across all locations on the basis of high mean performance and non-significant estimates of bi and Sdi2 from unit and zero respectively, however latter genotype showed sensitivity to better environments for biological yield on the basis of significant bi estimates. Similarly these genotypes were identified as consistent for early flowering for all the locations

Title: Exploration of Profitability in The Cultivation of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.) Fibre for Sustaining Rural Livelihood
Abstract :
Ramie or (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.) is one of the most valuable bast fibre yielding crops of the world. Ramie fibre is much more superior than the other commonly used plant fibres like jute, cotton, flax, etc. in terms of bundle tenacity, wet strength, fineness, ultimate fibre length and the length to breadth ratio. It is one of the strongest but stiffest bast fibre due to its high cellulose to hemicellulose ratio which favours a high degree of cellulose crystallinity. Besides having the unique physical properties, its silklike
appearance and anti-microbial property of the fibres as well as the edicinal value and antioxidant property of the ramie leaves make the plant utmost valuable in the International market. China is the chief ramie producer followed by Brazil and Philippines. In India there is a huge scope to exploit this fibre economically to get maximum benefit. The sandy loam soil with slopping land and hot-humid weather conditions that are required for ramie cultivation is available in the North Eastern parts of India. The foothills of Himalaya and the Brahmaputra valley of Assam, along with Western Ghats and Arunachal Pradesh have great natural resource to promote ramie cultivation. There is a great demand of ramie fibre in the market but the production is not enough to meet the need. This is an opportunity for the Indian farmers to start ramie cultivation in a wide range besides the regular cultivation of jute, cotton, mesta, flax, sisal, etc. As ramie has an inherent property to tolerate a wide range of temperature, soil and climatic factors, it isn’t difficult to cultivate ramie in a large scale. Moreover, ramie being a perennial crop helps in soil conservation and can also be intercropped with other plants to get the economical benefit of both the crops. Scientific cultivation of ramie, therefore, can pave a new path for sustaining rural livelihood.
Title: Modulating Effect of Salicylic Acid in Tomato Plants in Response to Waterlogging Stress
Abstract :

The present investigation to investigate ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA) on waterlogged situation was carried out as pot culture experiment in tomato variety H-86 (Kashi Vishesh) in poly house with nine treatments including control in three replications under short term stress. The response of various morphological and biochemical attributes progressively reduced with the increased duration of waterlogged condition. Seeds treated with SA (50 and 100 ppm) or without SA, and foliar application of SA were given alone or in combination. Treated seeds significantly promoted seedling growth and ameliorated waterlogged stress induced responses as confirmed by the changes in growth pattern and several morphological and biochemical attributes. Among treatments, SA (50 ppm seed treatment combined with100 ppm foliar spray) produced better results in terms of shoot length, leaf number, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, sugar and protein content, number of flower, number of fruits and fruit weight per plant as compared to waterlogging control plant.

Title: Profile distribution of micronutrient cations in citrus orchard of Ukhrul district, Manipur (India)
Abstract :

Profile distribution of DTPA-extractable micronutrient cations (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and their relationship with various soil properties were studied in eighteen profiles of citrus orchard of Ukhrul district of Manipur. The content of DTPA-extractable Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were higher in surface horizons and decreased with depth in most of the profiles and ranged from 0.08 to 0.76, 0.01 to 0.34, 8.0 to 54.0 and 1.6 to 20.4 mg Kg-1, respectively. Surface horizons contain sufficient amount of DTPA-extractable micronutrient cations except Zn. Distribution of Mn was influenced positively with EC in the first (0-20 cm) and second layer (20-40 cm), Cu was influenced inversely by organic carbon and positively by EC, Zn was influenced positively with CEC and Fe was influenced by clay content of the soils. Multiple regression analysis indicated that DTPA-extractable Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were influenced by CEC, EC, clay and EC to the level of 0.25, 0.63, 0.25 and 0.41, respectively. However, only clay and EC contributed significantly towards these nutrient cations.

Title: Studies on removal of heavy metals by cymbopogon flexuosus
Abstract :

Heavy metals are causing serious health hazard due to its toxicity and persistence in soil and aqueous medium too. Heavy metals contamination in drinking water has become a major cause of concern for the environmentalists. Arsenic(III) and Chromium(VI) is widely distributed in aqueous medium in the Gangetic plain causing skin pigmentation and liver disorders. Fluoride is also a major pollutant of drinking water in southern part of the Ganges. Several methods of removal of heavy metals from aqueous medium e.g. precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange are in practice. But the naturally grown aquatic weeds, biomass and medicinal plants can be utilized for the removal of arsenic and chromium(VI) from aqueous medium. Medicinal plants e.g. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Lemon grass) is grown by farmers in this area due to its aroma. In the present study, medicinal plants have been put to study by taking different masses up to fixed interval of time in the synthetic solutions of As(III) and Cr(VI) . The kinetic study of adsorption of As(III) and Cr(VI) by Lemon grass has been done with a view to know the order and characteristics of the reaction.

Title: Cost-effective and eco-friendly management of Oligonychus coffeae, Calacarus carinatus and Acaphylla theae on tea with a pyridazinone molecule fenpyroximate 5% EC
Abstract :

The hazardous environmental effect, non-selectivity with non-target toxicity and longer residual persistence of conventional synthetic pesticides leads to resistance development and secondary pest outbreak opened the new modern era of bio-rational eco-friendly chemicals having novel mode of action with higher bio-efficacy on insects and mites control as an approach of integrated pest management. Field bio-effectiveness of a METI acaricide fenpyroximate 5% EC along with traditional acaricides as foliar spray against tea red spider mite, purple mite and pink mite was undertaken at Sukna Tea Estate and Kamalpur Tea Estate, West Bengal respectively with a 20+ years old plantation (TV-29) during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. The treatments at higher dosages (30 and 60 g a.i. ha-1) were superior over standard checks propargite 57% EC and fenazaquin 10% EC. Mean percent reduction of red spider mite, purple mite and pink mite was minimum in treatments with higher dosages with mean value ranging from 73.83%-81.17%, 83.87%-91.66% and 83.90%-90.15% respectively. The test chemistry was relatively safe to important predatory fauna like Cheilomenes sexmaculata and Amblyseius ovalis. Highest yield was obtained in case of higher dosages (637.9 and 648.3 kg made tea ha-1), but fenpyroximate 5% EC at 30 g a.i. ha-1 (600 ml ha-1) proved most economic with the cost: benefit ratio of 1: 18.22, in the management of different mite pests infesting tea.

Title: Nilambur- Genotypically A Unique Teak Population in Ind
Abstract :
Gene diversity and population structure were analyzed in 14 natural teak ( Tectona grandisL.f.) populations in India belonging to Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Orissa using microsatellite markers. The data collected through microsatellite marker studies from 550 trees of the natural teak populations in different geographic areas indicate that it has different genetic structure forming separate genetic clusters. Populations from Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat form the first cluster while Orissa is in the second cluster and Kerala populations except Nilambur fall in the third cluster. Phenotypically Nilambur teak stands are quite distinct among Kerala populations were reported earlier but this is the first report proving the uniqueness of Nilambur teak through DNA analysis. The results of this study using molecular markers also support and confirm that gene diversity within teak populations of teak are in higher percentage than the gene diversity among populations. 
Title: Evaluation of Fatty Acid Profile and Biodiesel Characterization Obtained from Novel Algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus X56104
Abstract :

Microalgae are the rapidly growing photosynthetic microorganisms and can be used as a source of renewable biofuels. The present investigation focuses on the perspectives regarding the use of newly isolated microalgae as a better biomass and lipids producer. The algal strain was isolated from local Godavari River and identified as Scenedesmus vacuolatus X56104 on the basis of 18s rRNA sequence. Microalgae were cultivated under controlled environment in the laboratory. Early stationary grown microalgae revealed 2.3 mg/ml biomass. Algae oil was extracted using soxhlet apparatus and found to be 26.7% of total biomass. Physiochemical properties of oil were recorded as density (0.85gm/cc), viscosity (4.2 mm2), moisture (1.8%), acid value%(0.5 mg of KOH/gm), flash point (130°C), calorific value (9110Kcal/Kg) and Cetane number (54). The fatty acid profile was evaluated by GCMS and showed Palmitic acid (5.81%), stearic acid (1.86%), Oleic acid (65.83%), Linoleic acid (20.10%), Linolenic acid (4.66%), Arachidic acid (0.52%) and Eicosenoic acid (1.22%). The total fatty acids were subjected to lipase based trans esterification so as to obtained FAME and finally the biodiesel. The biodiesel was characterized using FTIR and Mass spectroscopy. Spectroscopic data were compared with spectra of standard diesel which revealed 98% similarity. The values of physicochemical properties of biodiesel were compared with the standard diesel showing 80-90% similarities. The resulting experimental data proved that the microalgae Scenedesmus vacuolatus X56104 oil could be a potential source of biodiesel and therefore this alga can be used as a source of renewable biofuels.

Title: Assessment of irrigation water quality collected from different sources and effect of seasonal variation in canning block, 24 south parganas, West Bengal
Abstract :

The present work aimed to classify the irrigation water quality of surface water (Pond) and groundwater (shallow), Collected from different sources and different seasons in Canning Block, 24 South Parganas, West Bengal. Thirty water samples were collected in Pre-monsoon and post- monsoon for analysis of physico - chemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chloride (Cl-), Carbonate (CO3--). Bicarbonate (HCO3--), Sulphate (SO4-), Calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), Sodium (Na++), Potassium (K+), Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Residual sodium carbonate ( RSC) . Analysed water samples of shallow tube well were found in pre- monsoon rated as 73.33 % (C3-S1) under high salinity and 23.66% (C4-S1) under very high salinity water, but after post- monsoon were found of shallow tube well were 46.66% (C2-S1) water samples converted in under medium range and 53.33% (C3-S1) water under high range found. In respect of Pond water samples were found in pre monsoon 93.33% (C3-S1) samples under high salinity water and 6.66 % (C2-S1) under medium range. After post monsoon of pond samples found 73.33 % (C2-S1) in medium range and 26.66 % (C3-S1) in high range.

Title: Cotton Productivity, Profitability and Changes in Soil Properties under Different Nutrient Management Practices
Abstract :
Cotton is an important fibre crop of global significance, which is, cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions of more than seventy countries the world over. A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2013 to evaluate the nutrient requirement of Bt cotton vis-a-vis fertilizer practices in vogue. At different growth stages, except control, all other treatments recorded higher number of monopodial and sympodial branches than 100% RDF. Incremental doses of fertilizers increased number of bolls plant-1 but very high doses practiced by farmers did not help in increasing boll number. Kapas yield increased with increasing fertilizer dose from 100 to 150% but was on par with the yield realized in 100% NPK and soil test based
fertilizer application. Quality parameters like seed index, lint index and ginning out turn were not influenced by the fertilizer treatments. Availability nitrogen was lowest in control and highest in farmers’
practice. Availability phosphorus and potassium was lowest in control and highest in soil test based fertilizer application. Available sulphur content in soil was lowest in control and highest in 150% RDF + S @ 30 kg ha-1. Micronutrient status in soil at flowering and harvest stages was not significantly influenced by the fertilizer treatments. Economic analysis also indicated that application of very high doses of fertilizers did not help in getting higher net returns or higher benefit cost ratio. It is logical to resortof soil test based fertilizer application or to adopt the present recommendation of 150:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 for profitable cultivation of Bt cotton in Warangal district of Telangana state. 
Title: Molecular characterization of Aspergillus niger isolates inciting black mould rot of onion through RAPD
Abstract :

Genetic diversity in black mould rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) was analyzed using ten isolates collected from different regions of India. The genomic DNA extracted from each isolates of Aspergillus niger was subjected to polymerase chain reaction using 40 random decamer primers from OPA and OPC series. Only six primers showed amplifications and selected for the analysis. Out of these, all six primers showed 100 per cent polymorphism. The total number of amplified fragments was 159, with a range of 10 to 38 fragments per primer. Dendrogram generated by pooled molecular data of six RAPD primers formed two clusters namely ‘A’ and ‘B’. The cluster ‘A’ was divided into AN-1 and AN-4 isolates, Cluster B was divided into two sub-clusters B1 and B2. Sub-cluster B1 included B11 and B12 cluster. Cluster B11 included isolates viz., AN-02, AN-03, AN-05 and AN-06. Cluster B12 included isolate AN-09. Sub-cluster B2 included B21 and B22 cluster. B21 cluster included isolate AN-07 and B22 cluster included isolates AN-08 and AN-10. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.037 to 0.56 with all the six primers. Highest similarity (0.56) was observed between AN-5 and AN-6 isolates, while lowest similarity (0.037) was observed between AN-1 and AN-2 isolates. Thus, the molecular characterization of ten isolates of A. niger by RAPD revealed existence of variations.

Title: Effects of vermicompost and boron on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Pusa ruby) flowering, fruit ripening, yield and soil fertility in acid soils
Abstract :

It was evident from a two year experiment that among the combination between vermicompost and boron, the application of minimum dose of boron (B1=10Kg/ha) with maximum dose of vermicompost (V3=20q/ha) i.e. B1V3 application reduced the number of days taken to flowering, 50% of flowering, ripening, 50% of ripening as compared to the other treatments and found superior in increasing the available N, P2O5, K2O, and Organic carbon in soil. The highest fruit yield was recorded with the combined application of 10 kg borax and 20 q vermicompost (1% N) / ha. The same treatment i.e. B1V3, was also found to be superior in increasing the better results regarding most of the parameters. Moreover the application B1V3 increased availability of N,P,K and Organic Carbon, which exerts positive effect on growth, development and yield of tomato.

Title: Nutritional Evaluation of Squash (Sechium Edule) Germplasms Collected from Garo Hills of Meghalaya – North East India
Abstract :
The present investigation analysed the fruits of 10 accessions of Sechiumedule(Squash) for different physico-chemical parameters. The parameters analysed included physical characteristics such as fruit color, fruit size, pulp ratio and nutritional parameters such as total sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, protein content, ascorbic acid content and crude fibre. Results indicated that the germplasm collected are rich in important nutritional parameters. The fruits analysed have very high moisture content ranging from 89.3-94.2% but are not a good source of protein which ranged from 0.77-1.05% in the fruits. The juice extracted from the fruits was rich in Vitamin C content and the Germplasm GH10 had the highest Vitamin C content (22.3%). Fruits of Sechiumedule also have significant amount of carbohydrate (4.12-4.98%), crude fibre (4.88-5.89 %) and Mineral Ash (0.245-0.321%).
Title: Impact of nitrate salt hardened seeds and sowing dates on seedling stand, growth, yield attributes, nitrogen and stress metabolism of rice
Abstract :

Impact of seed hardening (hydration followed by dehydration-a kind of seed priming) with water and nitrate salts were evaluated in the present piece of work in timely and late sown rice variety HUBR 2-1. Crops raised from distilled water(hydro)/Mg(NO3)2 and KNO3(osmo)hardened seeds showed an increment in fresh and dry weights, RWC(%),plant height, no of leaves ,LA,LAI,CGR,RGR,NAR, effective tillers, nitrogen, proline and chlorophyll contents, nitrate reductase and super oxide dismutase activities in leaves over control set(representing non-hardened seeds). The hardening treatments resulted a reduction in membrane leakage, shortened the days from sowing to 50% flowering , increased days to plant maturity after sowing and flowering and improved the yield attributes. Best performance was resulted from Mg (NO3)2 hardened set and that was followed by KNO3 and distilled water hardened sets but control was always found inferior in timely and late sown crops.a

Title: Weather based Statistical Modelling for Forecasting of Yearly Spot Blotch Severity in different Growth Stages of Wheat
Abstract :

The Objective of the present study was to develop regression models for forecasting spot blotch severity in susceptible and resistant genotypes of wheat crop under Irrigated timely sown condition (ITS), Irrigated late sown condition (ILS) and Rainfed timely sown condition (RFTS). CRI, tillering, jointing, flowering, milking and dough stages of wheat were considered for studying the effect of weather parameters on yearly spot blotch severity. Yearly disease severity data and weekly weather data during the period 1975 to 2012 of North eastern plains zones of India were used for this purpose. On the basis of 37 years data, the correlation coefficients between the yearly spot blotch severity and weekly weather parameters (Maximum temperature, maximum relative humidity and their joint effects) were calculated for measuring the quantitative relationship between these variables. These values of correlation coefficients were used for developing weighted weather indices of weather parameters. Values of rTw and rTRHw were found higher and positive in between jointing stage and flowering stage in both the genotypes. The lower RMSE value of MLR models at jointing stage suggested that forecasted value at jointing stage is more precise than other stages.

Title: Studies on effect of various levels of ethephon on ripening of sapodilla fruits (Manilkara achras (Mill) Fosberg
Abstract :

Studies on the effect of various levels of ethephon on ripening of sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Mill) Fosberg) fruits under north Indian conditions was carried out on cultivars Kalipatti and Cricket Ball. The fruits were dipped in solution of ethephon @500ppm, 750ppm and 1000ppm for two minutes to induce ripening of fruits followed by drying and packing of fruits in corrugated fiber board boxes at ambient temperature. It was observed that fruits dipped in ethephon 1000ppm resulted in better ripening of fruits after three days with pleasant flavor, high TSS, lower acidity and acceptable sensory quality as compared to other treatments. The control fruits showed uneven ripening and were hard in texture with poor quality attributes

Title: Variation in total polyamine content in some native rice cultivars of North Kerala, India in response to salinity stress
Abstract :

Phytohormone like low molecular weightaliphatic polycationic compounds known as polyamines have an essential role inplant growth and development and they respond to various environmental stress factors. Maintaining crop yields under adverse environmental stresses is a major challenge facing modern agriculture where polyamines play an important role. The total polyamine content in some native rice cultivars of North Kerala under salinity stress has been analysed presently and the results show that the total polyamine content in all the cultivars got increased in relation to the increase in the salt concentration applied. The highest total polyamine content was noted in the cultivar Orkazhama followed by Kuttusan and Kuthiru which were collected from a traditional saline rice tract of North Kerala. The highest percentage of increase in total polyamines was noted in the cultivar Kunhutty followed by Kuttusan and Veliyan. Kunhutty and Veliyan are cultivars collected from a non saline rice tract. In all the cultivars the total polyamine content got increased starting from the 10mM NaCl treatment itself. Among the cultivars studied, Orthadian showed the lowest amount of total polyamine content and Kuthiru showed the lowest percentage of increase in relation to increase in salinity. This result shows that salinity induces the accumulation of polyamines in rice plants and this may be a mechanism to contribute tolerance and resistance to salt stress. The rate of variation is cultivar specific. Identification of suitable genotypes and their improvement can be used as a potential method to evolve salinity resistant rice genotypesfor different geographical zones.

Title: Effect of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth and Development of Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)
Abstract :

The present investigation was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the potential of different medicinal plants to explore their effect on growth and development of S. litura. Five medicinal plants species viz., Tulsi, O. sanctum; Tejpatra, C. tamala; Dalchini, C. zeylanicum; Eucalyptus, E. citriodora; Karanj, P. pinnata were tested at the conc. of 15 mg of acetone powder/ml of water. Preference index calculations at 15 mg/ml indicated that, C. tamala, C. zeylanicum and P. pinnata extracts exhibited ‘extreme antifeedant’ reaction while O. sanctum and E. citrodora extracts exhibited ‘strong antifeedant’ reaction. The acetone powder of O. sanctum at this concentration had no significant impact on the larval weight however C. tamala, C. zeylanicum, E. citrodora and P. pinnata could significantly reduce the weight gain in the larvae of S.litura. All the plant extracts caused a significant reduction in pupal weight over control. O.sanctum (15 mg/ml) could favour growth and development parameters of S.litura non significantly over control whereas other plant extracts C. tamala, C. zeylanicum, E. citriodora and P. pinnata proved detrimental to the larvae showing lethal effects at later developmental stages. Maximum larval mortality, lowest pupation and lowest adult emergence were observed in P. Pinnata

Title: Genetics of marker assisted backcross progenies of the cross HUR-105 X Swarna-SUB1
Abstract :

The Marker Assisted backcross progenies of the cross HUR-105 x Swarna-Sub1 along with their parental lines were evaluated under submergence condition for 14 days at 35 days after sowing. Total 53 BC2F1 progenies were subjected to complete submergence out of which twenty lines recovered after desubmergence. The survival percentages of BC2F1 plants was observed to be 47.62 per cent. Mean performance for BC2F1 generation in submerged condition was found lower for most of the yield traits viz., productive tiller per plants, length of panicle, weight of panicle, spikelet per panicle, test weight, yield per plant, in comparison to all six generations in normal irrigated condition. Amylose content and gel consistency was found comparable to normal irrigated condition for segregating generations. Under submerged condition BC2F1 generation showed reduced height and medium to late maturity. The yield of the BC2F1 plants under submergence varied from 4.64 g to 14.32 g per plant. On the basis of field test under submergence condition the four lines namely HUR-105-Sub1-6, HUR-105-Sub1-23, HUR-105-Sub1-25 and HUR-105-Sub1-28 were found better in respect to grain yield and other related traits. The level of submergence tolerance in backcross progenies were similar as tolerant parent Swarna Sub-1, revealed that submergence tolerance in HUR 105-Sub-1 is governed by single dominant gene.

Title: Biochemical mechanisms of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum
Abstract :

Data of the experiments revealed the status of winter wheat genotypes with respect to resistance against stripe rust at adult stage. Among the twenty five genotypes evaluated, China 84-40022, Drina, Drina NS 720, Joss Cambier, Mega, Saptadhara and WW-27 were resistant; Bolal, Centruck, Golden valley, WW-23, WW-24 and WW-25 were moderately resistant and PBW-343 and Agra local were highly susceptible to stripe rust under field conditions. The proline content and total phenols maintained a highly significant negative correlation with final rust severity (FRS) in field across the wheat genotypes. Proline content and total phenols were found maximum in Mega followed by Bolal whereas minimum values for these traits were found in PBW-343 followed by Agra local.

Title: Yield Attributes, Yield, Competitive Ability and Economics of Summer Maize-Legume Intercropping System
Abstract :

Maize (Zea mays L.), the queen of cereals, is planted with wide spacing and so it offers the scope of intercropping. Considering the benefits of cereal-legume association, an experiment on maize-legume intercropping system was conducted during summer season of 2018 at Bagusala Farm of M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Gajapati district, Odisha. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and the treatments were comprised of ten cropping systems, namely, T1: sole maize, T2: sole green gram (Vigna radiata L.), T3: sole groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), T4: sole black gram (Vigna mungo L.), T5: maize + greengram (2:1), T6: maize + groundnut (2:1), T7: maize + blackgram (2:1), T8: maize + greengram (2:2), T9: maize + groundnut (2:2) and T10 maize +black gram (2:2). Paired row sowing of hybrid maize was done with a spacing of 80 cm/30 cm × 25 cm in sole maize. Pure stand of legumes i.e. green gram, groundnut and black gram were sown with 30 cm × 10 cm spacing. As per the treatments, single and double row of intercrops were taken in between two pairs of maize. The result indicated that intercropped legumes improved the yield components of maize and offered some bonus yield. The maximum maize grain yield (5669 kgha-1) was noted with sole maize, however, maize equivalent yield of 7609kg ha-1 was recorded with maize + groundnut (2:2) and it was followed by maize + black gram with 2:2 ratio (6902 kg ha-1). In expression of the competition functions, maize + groundnut (2:2) recorded the highest values of area time equivalent ratio (1.70), relative yield total (1.47) and monetary advantage (` 42002 kg ha-1). The intercropping combination of maize + groundnut (2:2) recorded the highest net return (` 47954 ha-1), with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.00, but by the treatment maize + black gram with 2:2 ratio registered greater B:C ratio (1.11) with net return of ` 45499 ha-1.

Title: Transcriptome Mining for EST-InDels and Development of EST-SSR Markers in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)
Abstract :

Curcuma longa L. commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and many Asian countries. Turmeric has anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-malarial and anti-cancer properties to mention a few. We have analyzed the transcriptome of C. longa retrieved from NCBI SRA database (SRR495223) for the development and validation of EST-SSR markers and identification of EST-InDels to be used for C. longa and related genera. A total of 337 primers were developed and 20 primers having the rating of 100% with the help of NetPrimer were selected and used for PCR validation in C. longa, Amomum subulatum Roxb. (large cardamom) and Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (small cardamom). It was found that around 50% primers generated PCR products in both types of cardamom and 85% in C. longa. The developed primers worked with curcuma, large cardamom and small cardamom plants at varying levels. Besides, the transcriptome analysis detected high amount of deletion and 18 addition of bases which could be screened through the development of CAPS markers using the tool SNP2CAPS and it was found that 93 restriction enzyme can be used for screening these InDels.

Title: Genetic Divergence Analysis in Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Genotypes using Molecular Markers
Abstract :

The present investigation consisting of genetic divergence of papaya genotypes was conducted during the year 2014-15 and 2015-16 at Horticultural Research farm of B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand. Molecular characterization of twelve papaya genotypes was carried out by 20 RAPD primers. The highest PIC value (0.97) was obtained with primer OPE-7, while the lowest (0.28) with primer OPA-18. Highest genetic similarity (0.714) was found between Pusa Dwarf and Madhu Bindu whereas the lowest (0.113) between CO 8 and Pune Selection 3. Dendogram analysis revealed that Pune selection 3 was genetically diverse from other papaya genotypes. Over all (63.40%) polymorphism was observed among all the 12 papaya genotypes.

Title: Standardization of dehydration techniques of some ornamental foliages
Abstract :

The eco-friendly dehydrated foliages and plant parts secured much popularity among users and becoming key components in floriculture industry. Foliages with highly variable keeping quality are used as filler element in flower-vase. Dehydration of foliages has not been studied at large. This investigation was carried out with ornamental foliage’s of three species viz. Araucaria cunninghamii, Thuja orientalis and Juniperus chinensis. White sand, silica gel and boric acid were used as embedding materials and two drying conditions of microwave oven and room drying were adopted for three durational treatments of viz. 10, 20 and 30 seconds and 4, 8 and 16 days respectively. In both Araucaria and Thuja orientalis, silica gel + microwave oven combination for 30 and 20 seconds respectively exhibited best results in respect of moisture loss (49.23 and 58.33 per cent) and quality concern. White sand + room condition also caused 61.41per cent moisture loss in Thuja orientalis while treated for 16 days. In Juniperus chinensis, white sand + microwave oven and silica gel + room condition for 20 seconds and 16 days respectively showed moisture loss of 44.26 and 50.16 per cent respectively. Boric acid as embedding materials also found effective in dehydration of these species. All the three species were treated with glycerin : water solution of 1:1 and 1:3 (vol/vol) for 24, 48 and 96 hours followed by drying with aid of hot air oven at 70-80o C for 5 hours and open air of room condition for 24 hours. Significant moisture loss of 60.56 to 62.56 per cent was recorded in Thuja orientalis while dehydrated in hot-air-oven for 96 hours.

Title: Biodegradation of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid by Delftia Acidovorans and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Marine Environment
Abstract :
Cashew Nut Shell Liquid or CNSL is a versatile byproduct of the Cashew Industry. CNSL is widely used in paints, varnishes, enamels, laminating resins, rubber compounding resins, cashew cement, polyurethane based polymers and epoxy resins. Biodegradation of paints is a threat to the marine paint industry. CNSL is an eco-friendly antifouling agent widely used in marine paints that prevents fouling of microorganisms to the hull of the ships and boats. Our aim was to isolate, identify and optimize the
effectiveorganism that degrade CNSL and phenol, which would be helpful in developing new paint products that resists these organisms. By enrichment culture technique, a mixed population of
microorganisms was obtained. By screening all the plants, it was found that Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas aeruginosaplay a significant role in the degradation of CNSL. Degradation of CNSL was estimated spectrophotometrically by Folins-Ciocalteau method at 650 nm. These strains can also be used for bioremediation purposes in CNSL contaminated soils in cashew industries.
Title: Growth, Yield and Economics of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) as Influenced by Organic and Inorganic Nutrients
Abstract :
An experiment entitled “Growth, yield and economics of broccoli( Brassica oleracea) as influenced by organic and inorganic nutrients” was carried out at the site for “Network project on Bio fertilizer” in the campus of College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during Rabi 2008-09 and 2009-10. Results revealed that out of ten treatments tried, the T10 i.e. 75% NP+ 100% K+
bio inoculants+ VC (5t/ha) proved to be the best on account of growth factor such as plant height, leaf area and curd diameter. The plant height, leaf area and curd diameter in T10 was 41.58 cm, 363.32 cm2 and 46.91 cm respectively. The yield was also highest in T10 i.e. 149.43 q/ha. Similarly, the highest net return was also obtained from T10 i.e. ` 95,455 with benefit cost ratio of 3.45.
Title: Molecular Diagnosis and Characterization of a Geminivirus Causing Leaf Curl Disease of Tomato in Mid Hills of Northern India
Abstract :

Geminiviruses are small isometric particles which contain either one or two circular single stranded DNAs. The family Geminiviridae comprises of four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus and Begomovirus. Among begomoviruses, one of the most important virus is TYLCV which infects an economically important food crop i.e. tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum), all over the world. TYLCV is also prevalent in different regions of India. Five samples from different tomato growing areas of Himachal Pradesh were collected for serological detection of TYLCV using DAS-ELISA. All samples reacted positively with the antisera. In further confirmation studies, CP (coat protein) gene based specific primer pairs for TYLCV were designed and tested. CP gene was amplified from two isolates and a 771 bp long CP sequence was amplified, sequenced and submitted to NCBI database (Acc no-KC253231). TYLCV, the test virus was confirmed to be a begomovirus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis while comparing it with other geminiviruses. On comparison with other Indian tomato leaf curl viral isolates, it was found to be closely related to Dharwad isolate (GI 1160428) and not to native isolate (GI 1244840), which indicates it’s origin in other than North Indian region and evolution of a new viral strain.

Title: Assessment of genetic diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) for yield and yellow vein mosaic virus incidence
Abstract :

Thirteen diverse genotypes were evaluated to assess the genetic diversity in a randomized block design during 2013-14 for yield and yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) incidence in Okra. On the basis of D2 values, the 30 genotypes were clustered into six groups. Cluster II constituted the largest group (11 genotypes) followed by cluster III and cluster VI (5 genotypes each). The cluster IV and V contain 4 genotypes each, whereas only 1 genotypes present in cluster I. The character coefficient of infection alone contributes highest percentage (51%) toward divergence, followed by number of branches per plant (24%), percentage disease incidence (12%). The first six principal components have accounted 84.00% of total variation and percent variation expected were 24.00% (PC1), 19.50% (PC2), 14.30% (PC3), 11.48% (PC4), 7.97% (PC5) and 6.80% (PC6), respectively. The PC1 has positive association with days to first picking, followed by days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering. However, PC1 has negative association for fruits per plant and fruit weight. Therefore, the traits viz., days to first picking, first flowering node and days to first flowering should be given top priority in diverse parent selection for attempting high yielding along with YVMV tolerant hybrids in okra.

Title: G X E Interaction and stability analysis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Abstract :

G X E interaction and stability analysis were carried out in four environments comprised of two different dates of sowing with two different locations for 10 diverse genotypes. Analysis of variance for genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis suggested that the variance for G x E interaction was significant for number of pods per plant, seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight, harvest index and protein content. The genotypes IC-269273, IC-269295 and three cultivars i.e., GG-1, GJG-3 and Dahod Yellow were stable across environments. Out of these five genotypes, Dahod Yellow having the highest average seed yield per plant was found most stable over environments. Thus, any of the germplasm entry under study was not found superior with respect to seed yield per plant against the three cultivated varieties.

Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation of Root Methanol Extract of Naregamia Alata W&A
Abstract :
The present research work was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential and phytochemical analysis of methanol root extract of Naregamia alata. Standard methods were adopted to screen antioxidant and phytochemical nature of the plant. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were determined by using different in vitro assays including DPPH (2, 2 –diphenyl -1-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide scavenging assay, reducing
power and superoxide free radical scavenging assay. Ascorbic acid was used as standard. The methanol root extract of the plant at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL were studied. The root extract of Naregamia alata showed significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner in all these assays. In Vitroantioxidant activity of the methanolic root extract showed good antioxidant power in DPPH assay (91.39%), Hydroxyl radical (76.90%) and Superoxide free radical scavenging assay (80.00%)
with IC50 values 7.5µg/ml, 45µg/ml, and 20µg/ml respectively which is almost comparable to standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. The other two assays such as Nitric oxide scavenging (55.44%) with IC50 82.5 µg/ml and Ferric reducing power (0.618) showed moderate scavenging activity. Results of phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, phenols, tannin, flavanoids and coumarin.
Title: Effects of diseases on milk production and body weight of cattle in Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

To analyze the effects of various diseases on productive traits of cattle a study has been undertaken by using data collected from 504 livestock owners in Agra division of Uttar Pradesh, India. The analysis of the data (ANOVA) on milk reduction revealed the significant difference (p<0.01) in milk reduction due to various diseases. Over all milk reduction due to different diseases was 46.56%. Among all the diseases, FMD caused significantly higher milk reduction (63.40 %) followed by Milk fever (52.65%) and H.S. (52.22%). But the effect of blot/tympani was lowest (23.61%) as compared to other diseases. The analysis of the data (ANOVA) on weight reduction also revealed the significant difference (p<0.05) in weight reduction due to diseases. Over all weight reduction (%) in cattle due to both diseases diarrhea and pneumonia was (8.70%). Diarrhea had higher effect on weight reduction ((11.78%) as compared to weight reduction due to pneumonia (5.12%).

Title: Studies on the effect of foliar application of calcium on post-harvest, corm and cormel production in gladiolus CV. summer sunshine
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted during the year 2011-2013 in Mondouri Horticultural research farm, BCKVV, Mohanpur, West Bengal to study the role of calcium and to identify its effective source and application time on the post-harvest, corm and cormel parameters of gladiolus with foliar application of calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate at different days (3-4, 6 leaf and spike emergence) after plantingand was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replications.Analysis of variance study indicated that most of the treatments differed significantly among themselves except for days taken for basal floret open, no of corms per plot, corm weight and no of cormels per corm in both the years. The results obtained revealed that foliar spray of calcium favored most of the post-harvest, corm and cormel characters. Calcium nitrate was found superior to calcium carbonate in promoting various post-harvest, corm and cormelcharacters under study. Spraying of calcium nitrate at 6 leaves stage and spike emergence stage to gladiolus plant was most effective to influence the post-harvest, corm and cormelparameters and was found on par with calcium nitrate 300 ppm at 6 leaves stage for maximum characters like vase life, cumulative water uptake, days to incipient senescence, fresh weight of spike, days to senescence, corm diameter, corm thickness and cormel weight per plot.

Title: An overview of bacterial blight disease: A serious threat to pomegranate production
Abstract :

Bacterial blight of pomegranate is among the most devastating natural calamity that inflicted huge losses to pomegranate crop productivity especially in India during the last 24 years. The dilemma of bacterial blight is still under discussion among the researchers since its appearance in 1952. Symptoms of the disease manifested as numerous, small, segregated, depressed, discoloured and typically water-soaked spots. The epidemiology of the disease remains prevalent in mild to moderate form throughout the year at higher temperature ranged between 20.0-43.0o C during April-July and become severe under highly humid conditions (>80 %) and moderate temperature (25-35o C) during rainy season. None of the genotypes exhibited resistant against bacterial blight. Some genotypes found moderately susceptible against bacterial blight of pomegranate. Management of the disease is only by various chemicals.

Title: Evaluation of Heliconia Species Based on Agro-Morphological Traits
Abstract :
Wide variation was observed among the ten genotypes of Heliconiafor vegetative and floral characteristics. An investigation on ‘Floral biology’ was carried with the objective of studying the floral biology of these ten Heliconia species and varieties for thirteen floral characters. The study revealed that under hot and humid situation prevailing over West-Bengal there was no uniformity in flowering behaviour of different
species and varieties. Heliconia rostrata, Heliconia stricta, Heliconia wagneriana, Heliconia humilis, Heliconia psittacorumvar. ‘Lady di’, Heliconia psittacorumvar. ‘Choconiana’ observed to be ideal as cut
flowers. Cultivar Heliconia psittacorum var. ‘Golden Torch’ was observed to flower profusely and exhibited perpetual blooming and hence ideal for the landscaping
Title: Dynamics of Organic Carbon and Nutrients after Organic Waste Addition in an Acid Soil
Abstract :

Organic waste from agricultural industries such as effluent from palm oil mills contains high organic material and can be used as a source of organic material to improve soil quality. The incubation experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic waste from a mixture of palm oil mill effluent with zeolite and chicken manure on pH, total organic C, labile organic C, humic acid C and nutrient in an acid soil. The treatment consisted of a control and the addition of organic waste at 5, 10, 15 and 20 t/ha arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The incubation experiment was performed for 10 weeks. The addition of organic wastes significantly increased the soil pH, total organic C, labile organic C, humic acid C and nutrients (N, P, and K) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The addition of organic waste also showed a significant decrease in the exchangeable Al, which is a toxic element found in acid soils. Changes in soil organic C, nutrients and other soil chemical properties showed different trends during incubation. Increased incubation time led to the decreasing trend in pH, total organic C, labile organic C and available P. In contrast, total N, humic acid C, exchangeable K, Al and cation exchange capacity tended to increase with increasing incubation time. The results of this study indicated that organic C, nutrients and other acid soil chemical properties could be improved by the addition of organic waste.

Title: Predatory potential of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Peterson) against Planococcus citri Risso and Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink Infesting Cocoa, Theobroma Cacao Linnaeus
Abstract :

Laboratory experiment was conducted to record predatory potential of different larval stages of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi against first, second, third instar nymphs of Planococcus citri and ovisacs, second instar nymphs and adults of Paracoccus marginatus. The larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi fed 709.80±84.56, 220.40±40.76 and 162±38.57 first, second and third instar nymphs of P. citri to complete their life stages, respectively. The first instar larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi fed 158.00±5.24, 35.00±2.73 and 23.60±2.87 first, second and third instar nymphs of P. citri, respectively. Among various instars of the predator, second and third instars were voracious feeder than other stages. Larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi fed 7.20±1.11, 410±73.14 and 58.60±7.80 ovisacs, nymphs and adults of P. marginatus to complete their life stages. Consumption by the first instar larvae of C. zastrowi sillemi was 1.40±0.55, 68.20±3.11 and 11.80±1.79 ovisacs, nymphs and adults, respectively. Among various instars of C. z. sillemi, second and third instars were voracious feeders. There is a greater scope for utilization of this macro entomophage in the development of integrated pest management module against sucking pests of cocoa.

Title: Population dynamics of major insect pest of blackgram [Vigna Mungo (L.) Hepper] in relation to weather parameters
Abstract :

The experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2014. Population dynamics of major insect pests of blackgram highly affected by weather parameters like; temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity (maximum and minimum), rainfall, and sunshine hours. The result revealed that the highest population of whiteflies 8.07 adult/cage/plant and jassids 1.43 nymph and adult/ cage/ plant was recorded during 37th standard week. The population of whitefly and jassid showed non significant negatively correlation with maximum and minimum temperature and sunshine hours while significant positively correlation with maximum humidity whereas non significant positively correlation showed with total rainfall and minimum humidity. The highest population of spotted pod borer 2.13 larvae/plant was record during 38th standard week and flower thrips 3.47 nymph and adult/10 flowers was record during 37th standard week and spotted pod borer population showed significant positively correlation with sunshine hours while flower thrips and spotted pod borer population showed non significant positively correlation with maximum and minimum relative humidity and non significant negatively correlation with maximum and minimum temperature whereas population of spotted pod borer showed non significant negatively correlation with total rainfall, while population of thrips showed non significant positively correlation with total rainfall while sunshine hours showed non significant negatively correlation.

Title: Efficacy of some Medicinal Plant Oils against Cabbage Aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. On Cabbage
Abstract :

Field experiments were carried out at Vegetable Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi U.P. during the year 2016-17 to control the Bravicoryne brassicae in cabbage variety Golden acre. result revealed that Among the all the essential medicinal plant oils the maximum reduction of aphid population over control was observed in plots treated with Citronella oil (85.25%) followed by Pogostemon cablin oil (80.21%). Whereas, Mentha oil (58.48%) was found least effective in reducing the aphid population over control. The tested plant essential oils and insecticide on the basis of field efficacy in reducing aphid population are found in order of Citronella oil > Patchouli oil > O. basilicum var. saumya > Palmarosa oil > O. basilicum var. Surabhi > O. basilicum × O. tenuiflorum > Asataf > Turmeric oil > Mentha oil. The effect of different essential oils on cabbage yield was also studied under investigation; and maximum yield of cabbage heads was obtained in the plots treated with Citronella oil (233.89 qha-1) and Minimum yield obtained menthe oil (217.22 qha-1) Over the control and then The highest B/C ratio was found in the treatment of Cymbopogon martinii 0.05%(31.27:1) whereas, the lowest B:C ratio of 17.70:1 was obtained in Mentha oil treated plot followed by Curcuma longa 0.1% (22.82:1). Though the maximum yield was obtained from plots treated with Cymbopogon citrates oil. However, the highest B/C ratio was obtained from the plots treated with Cymbopogon martinii oil. This is so, because of differences in cost of essential oils.

Title: Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Ricebean [(Vigna umbellate) (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi)] Varieties and their Narrow Leaf Cross Derivatives using RAPD Markers
Abstract :

Genetic diversity in 13 ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) varieties and their 11 narrow leaf crosses was studied using in RAPD markers. A total of 147 amplicons were scored out of which 91 (61.9%) showed polymorphism indicating fair amount of variation at DNA levels. Per cent polymorphism among twenty four ricebean varieties and their crosses ranged from 38.9 per cent to 59.8 per cent, on the other hand, percent polymorphism among eleven crosses alone ranged from 40.5% to 53.0%. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method for Arithmetic Average) analysis with Squared Euclidean Distance revealed the patterns of relatedness among the ricebean varieties and their crosses. The polymorphism observed between the varieties and crosses were used as markers for hybrid analysis. The patterns of RAPD markers were classified into seven types according to the presence or absence of bands. The present investigation indicated that out of the seventeen RAPD primers used most of them were useful with good amount of reliability to identify ricebean crosses showing 49.5% to 68.0% shared markers with the parents (Type I, III and IV). However, Type VII markers were useful in identifying new cultivars of ricebean with 5% to 17.4% non-parental bands.

Title: Season wise analysis of productivity of maize hybrid COHM (5) with the influence of seed and crop management techniques
Abstract :

The Studies were initiated to evaluate the influence of seed priming technique (15 per cent Azospirillum + 15 per cent phosphobacteria, 10per cent P. fluorescens + 20per cent Humic acid, 15 per cent Azophos + 10 per cent P. fluorescens and hydro priming technique) in conjunction with crop management techniques viz., nutrient supplementation as basal (humic acid @ 10kg ha-1, micronutrient 5kg ha-1) and foliar (diammonium phosphate 2 per cent, humic acid 0.1per cent, sea weed extract 0.5per cent) along with NPK application. The results revealed that seeds primed with 20 per cent humic acid + 10 per cent P. flurescense, applied with humic acid @ 10 kg ha-1 as basal application and sprayed with 0.5% sea weed extract improved the productivity of maize and the grain recovery. On comparison of seed and crop management techniques the contribution of seed management technique was higher than crop management techniques. The evaluated seed and crop management techniques were further test verified at Bhavanisagar both during Kharif and Rabi season, which confirmed the influence of identified seed and crop management techniques on enhanced productivity and nutrient status of the grain, recommending it as package for commercial hybrid production irrespective of season and location.

Title: Study on leaf area index and leaf area duration of growth analytical parameters in Wheat, Barley, and Oat
Abstract :

An experiment were conducted in rabi season during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 to find out the effect of cereal crops (Wheat, Oat, Barley) and cutting schedule on forage and grain yield. The study revealed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation in Barley and wheat during the initial stage at 95 DAS and wheat and barley during the reproductive stage at 30 DAS. Cutting at 50 DAS is proved beneficial on chlorophyll accumulation. Photosynthetic rate was maximum in wheat at 90 DAS. However cutting did not affect photosynthesis rate stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Barley gave maximum fodder yield (fresh/day). Cutting at 50 DAS was beneficial in producing maximum forage yield without sacrificing grain yield of cereal crops.

Title: Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Productivity, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn)
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2018 at Bagusala Farm, of M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to study the effect of integrated nutrient management in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) on yield attributes, productivity and nutrient uptake under south Odisha conditions. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with ten treatments and replicated thrice. The treatment combinations are T1, control,T2, FYM @ 4 t ha-1, T3 FYM @ 8 t ha-1, T4, 100% RDF (40:20:20 - N: P2O5: K2O kg ha-1), T5, 50% RDF + 4 t FYM, T6, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM, T7, FYM 4 t ha-1+ Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T8, FYM 8 t ha-1 + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T9, 50% RDF + 4 t FYM + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1, T10, 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum @ 5 kg ha-1. Application of 100% RDF resulted in the highest yield components like number of effective tillers m-2, number of grains ear head-1, number of fingers ear head-1, test weight and length of fingers which remained statistically at par with the application of chemical fertilizers along with the FYM and Azospirillum (T10). The highest grain yield, straw yield and biological yield were achieved from the treatment with 100% RDF which was followed by application of 75% RDF + 2 t FYM + Azospirillum (T10) and 75% RDF + 2 t FYM (T6). However, the lowest values yield attributes and yields were recorded in control (no nutrients). Total nutrient (NPK) uptake by finger millet differed and it was found that application of 100% RDF recorded significantly higher nutrient uptake than other treatments. The lowest uptake of N, P and K was recorded in absolute control treatment.

Title: Sorghum Yield and Nutrient Uptake under Long Term Nutrient Management Practices in Sorghum-Sunflower Cropping System in an Alfisol
Abstract :
The long term fertilizer experiment which was initiated in 1999, was monitored during kharif 2013 to study the effect of different nutrient management practices under sorghum-sunflower cropping system
in an Alfisol to study the sorghum yields and nutrient uptake by sorghum. Integrated nutrient management practice by applying optimum NPK fertilizers along with FYM (NPK+FYM) or crop residues (NPK+CR) increased the sorghum grain yield significantly over application of only fertilizers (100% NPK). The sorghum yield significantly increased with increasing levels of NPK only up to 100% NPK. Super optima dose of fertilizers (150% NPK) did not increase the yield. Continuous application of only nitrogen resulted in reduced yields due to the imbalanced use of fertilizers. Additional application of phosphorus significantly increased the yield while there was no significant yield increase with application of potassium, sulphur, boron or zinc. Application of phosphorus, potassium and zinc significantly increased their uptake by the crop but application of nitrogen or sulphur did not increase their uptake.
Title: Genetic diversity associated with nutritive and grain quality traits using microsatellite markers in traditional land races and improved cultivars in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
Genetic diversity underlies the improvement of crops by plant breeding. Land races of rice (Oryza sativa L.)
can contain some valuable alleles not common in modern germplasm. The aim here was to measure genetic diversity and its effect on nutritive and grain quality traits among rice land-race genotypes grown in Tamil nadu and Kerala. The experimental material consists of six high yielding ruling rice varieties viz., IR 72, ADT 43, ADT 45, ASD 16, TPS 4 and ADT 39 were utilized as female parent. Four nutritive and medicinal landraces in rice consumed by the people in different parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala viz., Veeradangan, Kavuni, Kathanellu and Navara were collected and used as male parents. In molecular marker diversity analysis using SSR markers, the similarity indices for all the pair wise combinations among the 10 parents were computed. The similarity index was highest (0.93) between ADT 39 and ADT 43 along with TPS 4 and IR 72. The least similarity index (0.37) was observed between Kavuni and Veeradangan. On the basis of cluster analysis the 10 parents were grouped in to 5 clusters at 71 per cent similarity levels. Cluster 1 was constituted by Navara, Kathanellu, ADT 39 and ADT 43. Cluster 2 was constituted by IR 72, ASD 16 and TPS 4. Cluster 3, cluster 4 and cluster 5 consisted of single genotype viz., Veeradangan, ADT 45 and Kavuni respectively. It inferred that landraces have diverse genetic bases and can be utilized in future breeding programs. The results showed the potential of SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment.
Title: Optimization of anjeer, chicory and oats concentration for the preparation of prebiotic burfi
Abstract :

The present research work was carried to prepare a special anjeer, chicory, oat Burfi with improved product characteristics and consumer acceptability. Levels of different component were optimized using response surface methodology. Besides that, physico-chemical properties such as moisture, fat, carbohydrate, protein, ash and energy content were also analysed. Sensory evaluation of product was done on a 9 point hedonic scale by a panel of experts for color, body and texture, flavor, sweetness and overall acceptability. Fat, Protein, carbohydrate and ash content was respectively 16.6%, 11.55%, 57.86% and 3.06%. Per gram of Burfi provides 317kcal of energy. The color, body and texture, flavor, sweetness and overall acceptability of product was respectively 81.25%, 82.5%, 80.00%, 86.25% and81.25%.

Title: Effect of Agro-ecology on Nutrient Content, Yield and Digestibility of Forage oat (Avena sativa L.) Varieties
Abstract :

Effect of agro-ecologyon nutrient content, yield and digestibility of three oat varieties (Lamptone, CI8235 and CI8237) were evaluated. Two agro ecologies, which varied in altitude, were selected for the experiment. Gummer site was 2925 masl while Albazer was 2400masl. Representative soil samples at the depth of 20cm were collected from randomly selected spots (20 cm depth) of both the sites. The samples were then sent to the laboratory. Plots were prepared and assigned for each of the each variety randomly using RCBD design. Seeds were sown at 100 kg/ha rate on 7, July, 2015 with replication. Di-ammonium phosphate and urea were applied in the similar rate. From the two fertilizers, urea was applied in two levels. Plots were regularly weeded and supervised for the disease. At maturity, the whole plant from each plot was cut 2cm above the ground. Seed with its husk (SH) and straw were separated. Values were extrapolated to hectare. Similar to the soil sample, forge representative samples were sent to the laboratory. Soil type at Gummer was silt, acidic, with lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) and higher exchangeable acidity (EA) whereas at Albazer it was clay, alkaline with higher CEC and lower EA. Soil organic carbon (OC), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (AP) were more at Gummer than Albazer. Crop maturation period was varying between the two agro ecologies. At Gummer, maturation was 161days on average but at Albazer it was141 days in average. Straw had similar DM but more OM at Gummer than Albazer. The lowest DM and OM content SH was from Lamptone but highest from CI8235 and CI8237 at Albazer. Crude protein (CP) content of oats was more at Albazer than Gummer. Highest straw CP was obtained from Lamptone at Albazer than Gummer. CI8237 at Albazer had highest EE but Lamptone at Gummer had the lowest. SH at Gummer had higher EE than at Albazer. Lamptone’s SH was lowest in NDF at Albazer but highest at Gummer. Higher DM, OM and CP yields were from Gummer than Albazer. Interaction was observed between agro-ecology and the varieties for nutrient content and yield. Albazer had better CP content whereas Gummer was efficient in yield. CI8235 at Albazer hadlowest IVDMD while CI8237 at both sites had the highest. Thus, before introducing oats to a new area, determining soil physiochemical characteristics for suitability is recommended.

Title: Microsatellite based Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines
Abstract :

Molecular characterization of the genotypes provides reliable information about the extent of genetic diversity which aids in the development of an appropriate breeding program. In the present study, a total of seventeen polymorphic SSR markers were used across eight maize inbreds for their characterization and discrimination. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 alleles (UMC-1657) to 8 alleles (UMC-1097), with an average of 4.47 alleles across 17 loci obtained in the study. The PIC value ranged from 0.46 (UMC-1657) to 0.86 (UMC-1097) with average of 0.68. The dendogram constructed using similarity coefficient values divided 8 genotypes in three divergent clusters.

Title: Effect of Certain Chemicals on Post Harvest Life of Some Cut Foliages
Abstract :

Evaluations on post harvest senescence of ornamental cut foliages are deficient in contrast to cut flowers although they enact adequate prospective roles in floriculture industry. In this juncture, present investigation being employed fronds of Asparagus plumosus, A. densiflorus and Nephrolepis exaltata of uniform length congregated from the greenhouse of National Library, Kolkata during early hours of the day executed in the laboratory of Dept. of Horticulture, University of Calcutta under ambient temperature while GA and NAA@50 and 100ppm, AgNO3@20 and 40ppm, sucrose@4 and 8% and tap water as control utilized as vase solution and pulsing treatment duo for 24hrs. Here, experimental findings revealed that AgNO3@20ppm for both A. plumosus and A. densiflorus and GA@100ppm for Nephrolepis exaltata were ample competent to protract the vase-life of 20.66, 10.66 and 40.33 days respectively while effective vase-life after pulsing treatment of 25.66, 17.33 and 20.66 days for same aforesaid species were obtained by GA@100 and 50ppm and AgNO3@20ppm. The fresh weight of all foliages remained almost unchanged upto 120hrs in both treatments. GA@100ppm as vase-solution evidently enhanced pigment intensity irrespective of entire species but upgradation of the same regarding Nephrolepis exaltata was obtained by AgNO3@20ppm after pulsing. AgNO3@20 and 40ppm and GA@50ppm facilitated also total water uptake upto 96hrs in all species but surprisingly NAA@50ppm exhibited its potency for Nephrolepis exaltata by 11.8ml of total water uptake. Everywhere sucrose yielded disappointed outcomes. Hence, this survey pinpointed that GA@100ppm and AgNO3@20 and 40ppm as both holding solution and pulsing treatment could protract the vase-life of aforementioned irreplaceable cut foliages.

Title: Determination of Optimum Sowing Time of Grass Pea Based on Yield Variation as Affected by Varied Dates of Sowing in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal
Abstract :

To investigate the optimum sowing time of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, field experiment was conducted with grass pea (cv.: Prateek), sown on nine different dates from 26th October to 21st December at weekly interval during the winter season of 2016-17 at the Instructional Farm (22°58´ N, 88°31´ E), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India. Grain yield and different yield attributes viz. numbers of pods per plant (PP), numbers of grains per pod (GP) and test weight of grains (TW) were observed and statistically analyzed. It was observed that sowing time greatly altered grain yield and yield attributes. Highest mean grain yield (994.4 kg/ha) was obtained from the crops sown on 16th November. TW showed highest correlation with grain yield (r = 0.88**). Test weight of grains seemed to be the most important yield attribute in terms of adjusted R2 values (0.752**), obtained from the regression analysis between grain yield and different yield attributes individually and in combination. It was clear that grass pea should be sown after 2nd November and not beyond 16th November to obtain the potential productivity in the New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal.

Title: Maturity, Biomass Partitioning and Growth Response Indices in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under Water Stress
Abstract :

Water stress is the major abiotic constraint of cowpea production. The development of cowpea genotypes resilient to water stress is a practical approach to ameliorate the negative effects of water stress on the productivity. In the present study, a set of 20 genotypes of cowpea including 19 landraces collected from different areas of the Kashmir valley and one released variety viz, Shalimar Cowpea-1 released by SKUAST-Kashmir as check were evaluated under well watered and water stressed conditions.

Title: Screening and Identification of Genotypes for Natural Color from Grain Amaranth (Amaranth sp.)
Abstract :

Nature exhibits a wide range of colours in the form of plant pigments that are used as dyes. Anthocyanin is one such water soluble pigment responsible for an attractive red to blue colour and is known to possess high antioxidant activity. Research on grain amaranth thus far has been focussed on production and productivity besides its nutritive quality. The present study highlights on extraction of anthocyanin from grain amaranth, an underutilized crop. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) (mg/g) in leaf, inflorescence and stem peel was estimated and evaluated statistically (1% and 5% level of significance). Leaves, stem-peel and inflorescence of grain amaranth considered as a waste material after seed extraction is apotential source of anthocyanin adds value.

Title: Growth Performance and Yield of Intercrops in Agri-horti-silvi System in Hill Zone of West Bengal, India
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted at Dalapchand Science Farm, Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Kalimpong, West Bengal, which aimed at analyzing the growth performance and yield of selected intercrops under one silvi, Alder (Alnus nepalensis) and two fruit trees, Mandarin and Asian pear (Citrus reticulata Blanco. and Pyrus communis) in agri-horti-silvi system. The experimental site is located at 27.06o N latitude and 88.47o E longitudes at an elevation ranging between 979.93 m. to 1257.30 m. above the mean sea level. The experiment was fitted in the randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The fruit saplings were planted at a spacing of 10m × 10m and the silvi seedlings were planted in between the two fruit trees and boundary at 2.5 m spacing during kharif season of 2011. Suitable intercrops viz. maize, rice, french bean, pea and pumpkin during kharif and potato, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard and onion during rabi season of two consecutive years (2013-2015) were grown. The result revealed that the number of plants per m2 was higher under sole crop. But, it was found reverse in case of the plant height (cm) and recorded taller plant Sunder intercropping with Alnus nepalensis + Pyrus communis followed by Alnus nepalensis + C. reticulata and in sole crop. Soil organic matter percent at (0-15cm, 15-30cm, 30-60cm) soil depth was found to significantly increase under the agri-horti-silvi situation resulting with a decrease in the soil bulk density (gmcm-3) at the end of the study. kharif and rabi intercrops yield (t/ha) were found higher in sole crop. However, in the intercropping situation higher yield were recorded when intercropped with Alnus nepalensis + C. reticulata than Alnus nepalensis + Pyrus communis.

Title: Identification of a Calliphorid Fly, Pollenia Rudis (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Based on its Fragments through DNA Barcoding
Abstract :
A bottle was received from a pharmaceutical company containing fragments of insect species like antennae, two leg pieces, a portion of the abdomen and two intact wing pieces at ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bangalore, India, for the possible identification of the insect specimen. The wing pieces given to the taxonomists suggested that the wing fragments belonged to a calyptrate dipteran - Sarcophagidae/Calliphoridae relative. Furthermore, DNA barcoding based identification was employed to determine the identity by amplifying COX1 mitochondrial gene, which was 658 bp size and GenBank accession number and barcode were generated, viz., KT368817 and VETIP006-15, respectively. Our sequence matched 100% with GenBank accession nos. GQ409351 and JF439551 and identity were determined as Pollenia rudis (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The present work highlights that DNA barcoding based identification tool a powerful and imperative in determining the identity of insect, even if a part or fragment of the specimen is available. This method can be used for insect identification wherever fragments are available, which can lead to preventive measures.
Title: Study of cutting management on proximate analysis in wheat, oat and barley crops
Abstract :

An experiment were conducted in rabi season during 2012-2013 to find out the effect of cereal crops (Wheat, Oat, Barley) and cutting schedule on forage and grain yield. The study revealed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation in Barley and wheat during the initial stage at 95 DAS and wheat and barley during reproductive stage at 30 DAS. Cutting at 50 DAS is proved beneficial on chlorophyll accumulation. Photosynthetic rate were maximum in wheat at 90 DAS. However cutting did not affect photosynthesis rate stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Barley gave maximum fodder yield (fresh/day). Cutting at 50 DAS was beneficial in producing maximum fodder yield without sacrificing grain yield of cereal crops.

Title: Off-season performance evaluation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum l.) genotypes in coastal plain zone of odisha
Abstract :

Tomato grown during the rainy season fetches a premium price. But high temperature, rainfall and humidity hinder the success of rainy season tomato crop in coastal plain zone of Odisha. Therefore, a preliminary evaluation was done to predict the performance of twenty five advanced breeding lines along with five state released and two national tomato varieties during off-season in order to identify promising genotypes. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications during the year 2012-13. Overall performances of the genotypes in respect of growth characters and fruit characters were expressed in terms of growth index (GI) and fruit index (FI) and selection was done following metroglyph analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the genotypes for plant height, number of branches/plant, plant girth, fruit girth, fruit weight, total soluble solids, bacterial wilt incidence (%) and fruit yield except fruit length. From the results of preliminary evaluation it could be suggested that the advanced breeding lines BT 18, BT 101, BT 106, BT 213, BT 317 and BT 433-3-2 are the elite genotypes for off-season cultivation in coastal plain zone of Odisha.

Title: Productivity of Soil Amended with Rice Mill Wastes and Sawdust in Abakaliki, Nigeria
Abstract :
Rice mill wastes and sawdust were used to amendsoil in Abakaliki Southeast, Nigeria to study its immediate and residualproductivity for three cropping seasons. Randomized Complete Block Design
was used in laying out the field with four treatments replicated five times. Results showed that soil texture remained sandy loam after cropping for three seasons. Grain yield of maize was significantly
(P<0.05) higher in Burnt Rice Mill Waste (BRMW), Unburnt Rice Mill Waste (URMW) and Sawdust (SD) amended plots relative to control for the three seasons. The grain yield of maize in BRMW amended plot was 8, 11 and 11% higher when compared to control for the studied seasons. Total porosity, macroporosity, micro-porosity and cation exchange capacity (CEC) had r = 0.90, r = 0.86, r = 0.74 and r=0.80 with grain yield of maize. There were r2 =0.82 and r2 = 0.73 for total porosity and macro-porosity with grain yield of maize. Organic carbon (r=0.57), available phosphorus (r=0.63), exchangeable magnesium (r= 0.59), base saturation (r= 0.51) and aluminum saturation (r = 0.58) and micro-porosity (r2 = 0.55), CEC
(r2 = 0.64) were significantly related to grain yield of maize. Burnt rice mill waste was more superior to improving soil productivity compared to others.
Title: Regional Variation in Agricultural Water Demand and Water Availability in Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :

Water is one of the important and scarce natural resource that triggers the growth of crop production. But water availability varies from the region to region depending upon the rainfall, geological formation etc. Due to growing demand of water for various uses and erratic rainfall,the water availability for crop production declining very fast in different regions of Uttar Pradesh. Water scarcity is becoming a serious challenge for government, researchers, economist and policy makers. Much effort is being made to reduce water use by crops and produce ‘more crop per drop’. Present study was an attempt to find out region-wise consumptive water demand for crop production and water availability. The study was based on secondary data. The CropWat model was used to find out the crop water requirement. Results suggests that total water demand for Eastern region, Central region, Bundelkhand region and Western region and it was found to be 70478, 38366,13790, 64703 MCM, respectively. Out of total crop water requirement, the highest share comes from wheat, rice and sugarcane in Eastern and Central region. In the Eastern region the share of crop water requirement for wheat, rice (k) and sugarcane was estimated to be 92.93 per cent of the total crop water requirement, whereas in case of Central region it was 87.64 per cent to total crop water demand. In Western region share of water requirement for growing wheat, sugarcane and rice (k) to total crop water requirement was estimated to be 88.79 per cent. During 2013-14, the annual water availability was found more than the crop water demand for Eastern, Central and Bundelkhand region, whereas in case of Western region water demand for crop production was more than the water supply from all the sources.

Title: Response of Boron and Zinc Fertilization to Productivity of Rice in Piedmont Soil of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted in Piedmont plain soil of East Siang of Arunachal, India to predict the responses of rice ( Oryza sativa) to different levels of boron (B) andzinc (Zn) application. The result showed significance increase in grain and straw yield due to B fertilization. The highest yield response to the tune of 39.25 q/ha grain and 41.25 q/ha straw was recorded with 15 kg level of borax per hectare. Percent increase of grain and straw yield due to 15 kg borax alone over control was found to be 24.52 % and 17.78 % respectively. The soil also showed positive response to different levels of Zn fertilization but maximum response was observed upto 20 kg ZnSO4/ha. Boron and Zn interacted synergistically to boost yield of rice crop resulting in additional yield of 7.1 q/ha of grain and 6.28 q/ha of straw. The increased percent of grain and straw yield of rice with Zn and interaction between B × Zn were 24.87 %, 17.67 % and 47.04, 35.72 %, respectively. The boron concentration and uptake in grain and straw of rice also significantly increases with increase in level of borax upto 15 kg/ha and ZnSO4 10 kg/ha. However, a negative response was also observed in both grain and straw yield at level of 20kg/ha of borax and 30kg/ha of ZnSO4.
Title: Growth of rice affected by different treatment applied in SRI method
Abstract :

Field investigations were conducted at research farm JNKVV Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh) during kharif season of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study to the growth,development and production efficiency in rice by adopting suitable planting geometry, varieties and planting depth. The study revealed that the 30 cm × 30 cm planting geometry had superiority in parameters viz., plant height, and functional leaves/hill the 30 cm × 30 cm planting geometry had superiority in various parameters were significantly in plant geometry. Rice variety MR-219 with shallow depth of planting (2.5 cm) recorded better growth parameters viz., plant height, Number of tillers/m2 and functional leaves/hill were markedly superior in growth parameters. Grain and straw yields were superior with the MR-219 variety and 25 cm × 25 cm planting geometry with shallow depth of planting.

Title: Composting of organic wastes using newly developed cellulolytic microbial consortium
Abstract :

Experiment under glass house conditions was conducted to see the efficacy of newly developed microbial consortium for composting different organic substrates. During experiment period, in all the treatments, increase in temperature was recorded from the first week of composting. In majority of the substrates temperature increase was recorded upto fourth week of composting, and thereafter a gradual decline was recorded. Within 30 days there was steep increase in the bacterial and fungal population in all the treatments which continued to increase upto 120 days and thereafter a gradual decrease was recorded. While the population of actinomycetes increased in later stage and reached at peak between 120 and 150 days of composting. Test consortium was found significantly superior in reducing the decomposition time of substrates over other treatments. The reduction in composting time over control ranged from 9.65 to 23.36% in different substrates. Vegetable waste decomposed at the fastest rate (48.7 to 59.3 days) while saw dust required maximum time (179.7 to 214.3 days) for decomposition. Reduction in C:N ratio over initial was recorded in all the treatments at maturity while pH of all substrates shifted towards normal. The treatment with test consortium on different substrates recorded numerically higher mineral content over MPKV consortium and uninoculated control. Results indicated that the use of test consortium reduced the overall time required for composting besides producing the nutrient enriched compost product.

Title: Impact of integrated nutrient management on tomato yield under farmers field conditions
Abstract :

Field trials were conducted in farmer’s field of Kandhamal district of Odisha, India to assess the impact of integrated nutrient management (INM) on the performance of tomato crop during rabi (2014) and kharif (2015) season. Before conducting trials technological gap between actual and potential productivity were analyzed by interviewing growers to find out the major causes for low yield. Overall gap in use of fertilizers was recorded 64.90% whereas overall mean gap in technology was 43.83%. On farm experiments on INM were conducted by applying FYM (10t ha–1) (NPK) (150:80:60 kg ha-2) followed by dipping seedling roots in 1% Azotobacter solution for 15 min and foliar spray with 20 ppm ferrous ammonium sulphate after 30, 45 and 75 days of transplantation. The plant height, root length, number of primary branches, average fruit weight increased in INM plots as compared to farm practice. The increment in yield was found to be 28.84 and 33.86 % during rabi and kharif season respectively. The maximum marketable yield obtained in INM plot during kharif and rabl seasons was 1025 q ha–1 and 955 q ha–1 respectively, whereas as farm practice yielded 740 q ha–1 and 713 q ha–1 during the same seasons. The percent loss from total production was recorded 8.5% and 8.8% in control plot and only 4.9% and 5.7% in INM plot durmg rabi and kharif season respectively. The higher fruit weight and lower incidence of disease and pest were observed in INM field in comparison to farm practice. The benefit cost ratio with INM treatment was recorded 4.39 and 4.29 in rabi and kharif season respectively against the benefit cost ratio of 3.10 and 2.94 in control plot during the same respective seasons.

Title: Evaluation of Host Plant Resitance in Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Leaf miner (Chromatomyia horticola Gaur.) and Pod Borers
Abstract :
Different genotypes of Rajmash were sown at Agricultural Research Farm of Banaras Hindu University during Rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 for the evaluation of resistance to leaf miner and pod borers. During 2013-14 genotype 405 showed comparative resistance reaction to leaf miner damage (33.52%), whereas genotypes HUR 15 (51.74 %) and 180 (51.10 %) showed susceptible reaction with higher leaf miner damage. Maximum pod damage was recorded in genotype VL63 (11.00 %) and minimum in HUR 203 (1.93 %). Genotype M8 produced higher yields as compared to other genotypes (13.88 q ha-1), while genotype 180 (5.86 q ha-1) produced minimum yield. During 2014-15, genotype 405 (26.16 %) showed less leaf miner damage and genotype HUR 15 (45.12 %) was more infested by leaf miner. Genotype VL63 (11.67 %) showed maximum pod damage and genotype 405 (3.94 %) showed less damage.Maximum yield obtained from genotype 214 (13.36 q ha-1) and minimum from genotypes HUR15 and HUR 146 (6.48 q ha-1).
Title: Effects of social computing on students of agricultural sciences
Abstract :

With the advance of internet and web technologies, the increasing accessibility of computing resources and mobile devices, the prevalence of rich media contents, and the ensuing social, economic, and cultural changes, computing technology and applications have evolved quickly over the past decade. They now go beyond personal computing, facilitating collaboration and social interactions in general. As such, social computing, a new paradigm of computing and technology development, has become a central theme across a number of information and communication technology (ICT) fields. It has become a hot topic attracting broad interest from not only researchers but also technologists, software and online game vendors, web entrepreneurs, business strategists, political analysis, and digital government practitioners, to name a few. This research study explores the aftereffects or consequences of using the Internet sources of information as perceived by the students in their academic as well as social life. To answer the question, ‘What are the aftereffects of social computing on the students?’ a study was conducted with the specific objective to analyze the effects of social computing as perceived by the students of agricultural sciences. The study was conducted in Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh. One university, two colleges and 210 agricultural students, pursuing UG, PG and PhD, doing social computing formed the sample of the study. It was found that the students made new contacts, learnt new study techniques and had more reliance on self-study through social computing without having less contact with teachers or offline friends and less time for physical exercises.

Title: Effect Off Moisture Regimes and Phosphogypsum Levels on Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Nutrient Balance of Rabi Groundnut
Abstract :

The field experiment was conducted at College farm, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University (now Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi 2013-14 to study the influence of three moisture regimes viz., 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 IW/CPE ratios and five phosphogypsum levels viz., Control (500 kg ha-1 gypsum at flower initiation), Phosphogypsum @ 250 kg ha-1 at flower initiation, Phosphogypsum @ 250 kg ha-1 (½ as basal and ½ at flower initiation), Phosphogypsum @ 500 kg ha-1 (½ as basal and ½ at flower initiation) and Phosphogypsum @ 500 kg ha-1 at flower initiation and was replicated thrice. Among moisture regimes highest yield, nutrient uptakes were obtained with I3 (1.0 IW/CPE) moisture regime but highest available nutrients in soil after harvest of groundnut were recorded with I1 (0.6 IW/CPE) moisture regime. Among phosphogypsum levels highest yield, nutrients uptake and available nutrients in soil after harvest of groundnut were obtained with Pg5: Phosphogypsum @ 500 kg ha-1 at flower initiation.

Title: Drying Behavior and Mathematical Modelling of Bottle Gourd
Abstract :

Bottle Gourd slabs of 10×10×3 mm, 10×10×5 mm and 10×10×7 mm were dehydrated by fluidized bed drying technique with a sample size of 100 g at air temperature of 50, 60 and 70oC at air velocity of 10m/s. The drying rate is high for the slabs of 10×10×3mm at 70oC. Moisture diffusivity of bottle gourd slabs dried under fluidized bed drying conditions was found in the range of 1.03 × 10-09 to 6.18 × 10-09 m2/s water activity varied from 0.318 to 0.393 for fluidized bed dryer. The product of fluidized bed dryer at 70oC (10×10×3mm) has best quality in terms of water activity. The experimental data was fitted to page model other than the mathematical models available in the literature. The fluidized bed dried product for 10×10×5 mm slab at 60ËšC was of best quality in terms of color.

Title: Detection of salt gene expression in resistant rice lines to brown spot disease
Abstract :

Brown spot is one of the most common and damaging rice diseases and it has been reported to occur in all the rice growing countries. This disease infects the coleoptile, leaves, leaf sheath, panicle branches, glumes, and spikelets. It occurs at all crop stages, but infection is more severe during maximum tillering up to the ripening stages of the crop. In South and Southeast Asia, this disease causes 5% yield loss across all lowland rice production. In this study, 611 rice germplasm lines were evaluated for identification of resistant line against leaf brown spot disease at field level. Among them, 52 lines were resistant, 157 lines were moderately resistant and 408 rice lines were susceptible. In gene expression analysis, strong expression of SalT gene linked with Abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathway was found in resistant and moderately resistant rice lines. Thus selected resistant rice lines will be useful in breeding programme to improve rice cultivars against brown spot disease.

Title: An Economic Analysis of Paddy Fodder and Livestock Management in Tunga Bhadra Project (TBP) Command Area in Karnataka
Abstract :

Livestock plays an important role in the rural economy of the country. Livestock is a key source of supplementary income and livelihood, especially for small land holdings and landless rural poor households. India generates approximately 507.8 million tons of on-field crop residues, of which 43 per cent is rice and 23 per cent is wheat, remaining 16 per cent of crop residue is burnt on the field. In Thungabhadra project (TBP) command area 54 per cent were large farmers followed by medium farmers (21 %). Four methods of residue management practices were identified in TBP command area out of which removal of straw and burning of stubble method were found to be the highest (42.45%) and the major one. The main reason behind burning of residues are low cost and labour scarcity. Total cost of cultivation of paddy per acre was found to be marginally lower in case of burning of straw and stubbles method when compared (` 37577) to incorporating straw and stubbles (` 38838) method in case of high livestock density area. Among the different residue management practices the livestock possession per respondent was found to be the highest in case of the removal of straw and burning of stubbles (1.69) followed by removal of straw and incorporation of stubbles (1.52). The least was found in case of burning of straw and stubbles (1.09). Major constraints found during paddy fodder management practices were lack of technical knowledge about residue management and non-availability of custom hire service, especially reaping binder in TBP command area.

Title: Evaluating the Performance of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes for Terminal Heat Tolerance
Abstract :
Terminal heat stress is a key yield-reducing factor in late sown wheat. Twenty-five bread wheat genotypes were evaluated for terminal heat tolerance by planting in normal (non-stress) and late (stress) environments. To check the tolerance level of genotypes to heat stress, indices namely mean performance of genotypes, heat susceptibility index, and heat susceptibility percent were studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant variation due to genotypes for all characters in two sowing dates except grain filling period. In heat stressed environment, genotypes DBW 107, HUW 688, UP 2883, K 1314, HD 3118, HI 1604 and HD 3159 had high per se performance for grain yield/m2. Genotypes HD 3164, GW
463, PBW 718 and CG 1015 showed low heat susceptibility index (HSI<1) for grain yield/m2 and were thus consider as heat tolerant genotypes. Reduction in grain yield/m2 (14.97%) was mainly associated with a reduction in grain filling period (16.73%).
Title: Study of various characteristics of composite flour prepared from the blend of wheat flour and gorgon nut flour
Abstract :

The composite flour was prepared by mixing wheat flour and popped gorgon nut flour in different ratios. The composite flour was evaluated for different properties i.e. physical, functional, pasting and thermal properties. Bulk density and true density decreased wherever water absorption index and water solubility index increased with increase in percentage of popped gorgon nut flour in composite flour. In functional properties, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity increased but foaming capacity decreased with increase in blending proportion of popped gorgon nut flour in composite flour. Pasting temperature of composite flour ranged from 67.75°C to 67.85°C. Final viscosity of different composite flour samples ranged between 3042 to 3651 cp. Peak temperature and conclusion temperature of composite flour decreased with increase in proportion of popped gorgon nut flour.

Title: Vigna radiata: A Potent Phytofiltrator of Lead Grown Hydroponically in Sewage
Abstract :

Phytofiltration is an ecofriendly technique, which use plants biomass to remove toxic heavy metals from aqueous waste. Lead (Pb) present in sewage induces oxidative stress and cause deleterious effects on living organism, hence it has to be removed. The aim of the study is to evaluate efficiency of Vigna radiata as phytofiltrator of lead. The efficiency was estimated in terms of growth attributes, stress marker and accumulated lead content of V. radiata. In the present experimental design, Vigna radiata (Mungbean) plants were grown hydroponically in sewage and 50% diluted sewage for 15-days. V. radiata grown in Hoagland media served as the control. Accumulated lead content was estimated by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that, total height, fresh and dry weight of V. radiata was not changed significantly (p>0.05) in sewage as compared to control. Reduction in total height was significant (p<0.05) and fresh and dry weight was highly significant (p<0.01) in 50% sewage. Lead accumulation was observed in V. radiata grown using sewage. Malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxidase, and proline content increased significantly (p<0.05) in sewage when compared to control. In 50% diluted sewage, malondialdehyde, peroxidase reduced significantly (p<0.05), while proline content showed a significant increase (p<0.01) when compared to undiluted sewage. It was concluded that V. radiata has potential to phytofilter lead from sewage. Increased MDA level indicates oxidative stress. Increased antioxidative stress markers; proline and peroxidase activity shows that V. radiata has tolerance to lead stress. Use of 50% diluted sewage is effective in reducing oxidative stress but it also negatively affects plant growth when compared to undiluted sewage.

Title: Field screening of different rice entries against different insect-pests of rice during kharif season
Abstract :

The different rice entries were screened out against stem borer, leaf folder and whorl maggot of rice during kharif, 2014 at Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal. The experiment was carried out to note the reaction of promising advanced cultures with four check varieties viz. DRRH 2, Surakha, IR 64 and Taichung Native 1 (TN 1) against insect-pests of rice with a view to identify multiple resistant varieties. The lowest dead heart infestation was recorded in RP 5163-200-5-4-2 (0.70%) followed by RNT 14-1-1-2-2 (0.83%), IR 64 (0.49%) and RP 5588-B-B-B-B-76 (1.08%). Lowest white heads was observed in CR 1898-32-69-CN-12-2 (0.90%) followed by RP Bio 4918-142 (1.45%) and RP 2068-18-3-5 (1.60%). The lowest leaf folder infestation was noticed in RP 5588 (0.57%) followed by DRRH 2 (0.76%), CR 2274-2-3-3-1 (0.88%) and RP 5588-B-B-B-B-116 (0.93%). The minimum whorl maggot incidence was observed in RP 5587-B-B-B-267-1 (4.78%) followed by RP 5588-B-B-B-B-76 (5.09%), RP 5588-B-B-B-258-1 (5.16%) and RP 5588-B-B-B-133 (5.29%) entries. This experiment resulted that CN 2008-3-2, CN 2017-3-2 and W 1263 are the multiple resistant entries against all the test insect-pests, CR 2274-2-3-3-1, RP 5587-B-B-B-305-13, CN 2015-5-4, IET 23148 and CN 1233-33-9 against stem borer and leaf folder and RP 2068-18-3-5, RP 5588-B-B-B-B-76 and RNT 14-1-1-2-2 against stem borer and whorl maggot.