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IJAEB - Volume 6 - Issue 4

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Title: Contents
Abstract :Contents of December, 2013
Title: Studies on Genetic Characteristic of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
The considerable amount of genetic variability was exhibited among the accessions of local collection obtained from natural habitat of Eastern U. P. (India) under the UPCAR project. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for total number of grains per panicle, filled grains per panicle, number of effective tillers, leaf width and grain yield per plant. Positive and significant association was recorded by days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, leaf length, leaf width, filled grains per panicle and total number of grains per panicle among themselves and also with grain yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Days to maturity, plant height, number of filled grains per panicle and test weight exhibited positive direct effect both at genotypic and phenotypic levels.
Title: Identification of Oats (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars by Seed and Seedling Protein Electrophoresis
Abstract :
Soluble proteins were extracted from seed and seedlings of eleven oats cultivars to analyze the protein profile through SDS PAGE
method. In seed protein electrophoresis totally 14 bands were observed, in these six bands were common to all cultivars. Based on the seed protein banding pattern two of these cultivars were differentiated easily. The unique band at Rf value 0.151 was common for all cultivars, but it was absent in cv. UPO 94. Similarly the band at Rf value 0.662 was present in all cultivars but it was absent in cv. Sabzar. In seedling protein electrophoresis totally nine bands were observed, four bands at Rf value 0.370, 0.524, 0.543 and 0.855 were common for all cultivars. The presence of band at Rf value 0.340 was common in all cultivars, it was absent in UPO 94 and the band at Rf value 0.641 was absent in all cultivars it was present in cv. Sabzar. In both seed and seedling protein cv. Sabzar and UPO 94 expressed the discernible banding pattern when compared to others. The other cultivars are differentiated
based on the total numbers of bands, banding pattern, intensity of bands, specific presence or absence of bands.
Title: Genetic Analysis of Sodicity Tolerance in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Abstract :
In order to estimate gene actions for sodicity tolerance, grain yield and its related traits in rice, six basic generations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Inheritance of salinity tolerance was determined in a cross between two rice cultivars, “ASD 18” (P1) a susceptible cultivar and “TRY” (R) 2 (P2) a tolerant one. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations were studied under sodic environment. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations were studied under
sodicity conditions (Exchangeable Sodium Percentage 23). The data on 10 physio-morphological traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, spikelet fertility percentage, single plant yield, Na+: K+ ratio, proline content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and chlorophyll stability index were recorded. Generation means analysis of the data revealed that all these traits exhibit significant non-allelic interactions and suggest that complex epistatic interactions are more important in controlling sodicity tolerance traits. The simple additive dominance model was adequate to explain the inheritance of chlorophyll stability index. Due to the presence of greater non-additive gene effects, selection for almost all of the studied traits in this cross, especially in early generations, would be complex in conventional methods. Regarding the existence of additive and
non-additive effects in controlling traits in this cross, inter se mattings followed by pedigree method of breeding might prove useful in improving sodicity tolerance in rice.
Title: Exploitation of Rhizobacteria for Functional Traits in Mungbean
Abstract :
The enrichment of plant rhizosphere with beneficial bacteria is a strategy that favours the production of more vigorous seedlings, which is essential for the success of legume cultivation. The aim of this study was to select rhizobacteria that are able to act as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). A total of 17 rhizobacteria belonging to genera Bacillus (8), Pseudomonas (5) and
Azotobacter (4) from mungbean rhizosphere were selected on the basis of their ability to solubilize phosphate. These selected rhizobacteria were further characterized for Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits for quantitative phosphate solubilisation, Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), organic acid production and Intrinsic antibiotic spectra (IAR), control of phytopathogen via siderophore and cellulase production and stress tolerant management by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Significantly
high phosphate was solubilized by strain of Bacillus sp. B2 (9.77 mg ml-100) followed by strain of Pseudomonas sp. P10 (9.14 mg ml-100) and strain of Azotobacter sp. A3 (8.98 mg ml-100). In the presence of L-trptophan P10, A3 and B2 were also able to produce significant high amount of IAA i.e. 55.6 µg ml-1, 52.6 µg ml-1 and 50.3 µg ml-1 respectively and they also produced organic acid, siderophore and cellulase. Of 17 rhizobacterial isolates, 11 were found compatible with Rhizobium sp. vigna (LSMR1) in-vitro.IAR pattern revealed 52.9 % of rhizobacteria resistant to ampicillin (10 µg disc-1) and chloramphenicol (25 µg disc-1). ACC deaminase activity was measured by their growth in DF medium supplemented with ACC (OD 600 ranged from 0.117 to 0.432) as nitrogen (N) source. In the present investigation, rhizobacterial isolates viz, B2, P10 and A3 were found most promising for
multiple activities (PGP traits, biocontrol and stress tolerant activities) and can be evaluated in-vivo for their possible role in mungbean growth and development.
Title: New Innovations in Bacillus Thuringiensis Research- A Review
Abstract :
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) “Wonder insecticide” is a well-known entomopathogenic bacterium used worldwide as an environmentally compatible biopesticide. This review lightens on new innovations of Bt research, categorizes into isolation of novel Bt strains from various environmental sources, novel approaches for molecular characterization of Bt and diverse application
of Bt. These new findings will expands the world of Bt application in safe, specific, effective, economic and ecofriendly manner. It has also been observed that new innovative activities in the emerging fields of Bt technology are increasingly growing. Opportunities are immense and sky is the limit for researchers who are interested to take R&D in Bt technology.
Title: Milking method’ - Novel Technology for Venom Collection from Aculeate Hymenoptera and used for Screening of In- Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Against Pathogens
Abstract :
Wasps were collected live from the field by using a hand net/sweep net and were maintained in the laboratory under caged condition by providing sugar solution (1:1) along with proteinex. Venom was collected from wasps by ‘milking’. Initially wasps were forced to sting on potato blocks with the help of forceps but the wasps failed to sting on potato blocks. In later trials the
wasps were made to sting on sterile paper disc, the wasps were not able to sting on paper disc and did not appear to release the venom either. The wasps were then offered freshly prepared pre-sterilized two per cent agar blocks of approximately 1 cm3. The wasps were able to sting the agar block during this ‘milking’ process and the venom containing agar block was stored in the
eppendorf tube containing 50 per cent acetonitrile (ACN) with 0.1 per cent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Venom from the selected wasps was collected by ‘milking’ at regular intervals.Then, extract was further concentrated and lyophilized and checked for the biological activity.
Title: Evaluation of Different Medium for Producing on farm Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculum
Abstract :
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a broad-spectrum non-specific organism known to colonize 85% of land plants hold considerable potential for use as inoculants. In the present perspective much attention is focussed on mass production of AMFinoculum, since this is of paramount importance in improving better uptake of nutrients, offers tolerance against a range of
soil stresses, plant production and enhances the chances of plant survival. Given these benefits, utilization of the AMF symbiosis should be an important tool in sustainable agricultural systems. Producing AMF inoculum is a complex procedure involving selection of a host plant , finding the right mix or medium and the inoculums starter . Seven different substrates were tested for the
production of AMF inoculum. Red earth in isolation or combination with solirite emerged as a suitable potential medium when compared to solirite for bulk production of pure, mature and infective AMF inoculum.
Title: Reaction of Banana Hybrids (Phase-II) for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita
Abstract :
Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the major biotic stresses affecting banana production. Breeding works carried out at the Department of Fruit crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), India. The potential diploids and hybrids developed were crossed with commercial triploids to develop primary tetraploids and improved diploids. The susceptible check cultivar used was
Rasthali (AAB), while the resistant reference cultivar used Pisang Lilin (AA). Banana suckers of uniform size and weight were collected, pared and planted in earthen part containing 5 kg sterilized pot mixture. Egg masses of M. incognita were picked from roots, allowed to hatch in a beaker of distilled water and the hatched juveniles (J2) were inoculated in the rhizosphere of the
hybrids by soil injection method @ 5,000 nematodes / pot. Same set of replicated banana hybrids were also maintained as uninoculated check. The reactions of nineteen new synthetic banana phase II hybrids to Meloidogyne incognita was studied under field conditions as well as in controlled inoculation tests in pots. Hybrid H 531 (Poovan x Pisang Lilin) was found to be resistant and six hybrids, H-02-34, H-03-05, H-03-13, H-04-12, H-04-24 and NPH-02-01 were found to be toterant to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita while the remaining were rated as susceptible and highly susceptible ones. Total phenols and PO, PPO, PAL and enzymatic activity of the hybrids in defense mechanism in response to nematode invasion indicated higher activities in resistant genotypes compare to susceptible ones. Hybrid H 531 had the maximum biochemical content and enzyme
activity among the hybrids included in this study. The resistant and tolerant hybrids had enhanced contents of total phenol, PO, PPO and PAL.
Title: Antagonistic Activity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tomato Rhizosphere Against Soil Borne Fungal Plant Pathogens
Abstract :
The use of single strain inoculum with multiple plant growth promoting activities offers a new concept to address mode of action by combined use of multi-strain inoculum of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) each with specific capability and function. In the present work, bacterial isolates with plant growth promoting activities like P-solubilization, IAA production,
siderophore production and broad spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of tomato seedlings. In vitro antifungal antibiotic study revealed that among eleven isolates N11 showed maximum inhibition against F. oxysporum (82.85%), R. solani (76.45%) and S. sclerotiorum (74.71%) after seven days of incubation. The per cent growth inhibition increased with increase in bacterial cell density from O.D 0.25 to
1.50. The novelty of the isolates is that the antibiotic production is induced only in the presence of fungal host and lack of antifungal activity in culture filtrate. Bacterial isolate N11 showing maximum plant growth promoting activities and was identified to species level by biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing. Preliminary identification of bacterial isolate was made on the basis of morphological and biochemical characters and confirmed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which validated
N11 as Bacillus subtilis CKT1.Thus, the present study concludes that these bacterial isolate could serve as a proficient biocontrol PGPR inoculant in the integrated management of soil borne diseases of tomato.
Title: Chemical Control and Economics of Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Brinjal in the Eastern Ghat Highland Zone of Odisha
Abstract :
A field trial was conducted during 2011 and 2012 for management of phomopsis blight and fruit rot of brinjal caused by Phomopsis
vexans by seed treatment with carboxin 37.5 % + thiram 37.5 % (Vitavax power) @ 2 g/kg and foliar application of copper oxychloride (Blitox-50) @ 0.3 %.The disease and economic parameters as well as yield were compared with that of untreated farmers’ field. It was revealed that the plant protection chemicals increased the seed germination by 21.18 % and reduced seedling
mortality, seedling blight and fruit rot infection by 90.25, 74.51 and 65.9 %, respectively. The improved germination and reduced disease infections helped to sustain 40.28 % higher brinjal yield with a net higher return of Rs. 26513 per ha.
Title: Evaluation of Plaster of Paris and Some Fungicides for Management of Foot rot of Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
Abstract : Incidence of Foot rot disease of Elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume, syn: A. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson] caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is common in West Bengal. Occasionally it causes severe damage of the crop. When Plaster of Paris used on the diseased tissue in standing crop, it showed strong adverse effect on mycelial growth and survival of sclerotia. White mycelia and sclerotia produced on disease tissue lost their viability. Plant with small lesion grew normally indicating that the disease was checked without causing any phytotoxic effect. Plaster of Paris of commercial grade (CaSO4.½ H2O), available in synthetic bag in hardware shop. In laboratory test on viability of sclerotia, Plaster of Paris showed similar adverse effect. Eight fungicides (Indofil M-45, Bavistin, Blitox, Vitavax Power, Kavach, Curzet, Krilaxyl MZ) used in this test reduced sclerotial germination. Vitavax Power (Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% WP) totally inhibited sclerotial germination. Kavach (Chlorothalonil 75%) and Krilaxyl MZ (Metalaxyl 8% + Mancozeb 64%) reduced germination upto 95%. Application of Plaster of Paris at three different doses at the base of the plant (2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 grams/plant) did not cause any phytotoxic symptoms like necrosis, epinasty, hyponasty, wilting, leaf tip injury, leaf surface injury, vein clearing, rotting at collar region on six different crops i.e. elephant foot yam, groundnut, brinjal, chilli, basella and radish. Hence, it may be incorporated in Integrated Disease Management (IDM) programme.
Title: In vitro Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects of Plant Extracts and Synthetic Antibiotic ‘Aztreonam’ Against Extended Bacterial Spectrum
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to assess efficacies of the various plant extracts for their pharmacological potential and synergistic effect in limiting the bacterial growth for formulating new cost effective antimicrobial agent(s) for multi drug resistant organisms. The antimicrobial activities of plant extract of Pterocarpus santalinus, Tectona grandis, Gloriosa superba and its synergistic effects among them as well as with a synthetic antibiotic ‘Aztreonam’ were assessed against Gram positive bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441; Gram negative bacteria viz. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Acetone extract of Tectona grandis and Gloriosa superba, isopropyl alcohol (IPA)
extract of Pterocarpus santalinus were found most effective in restricting the growth of bacteria. The efficacies of the various extract combinations in each plant sample varied and the mminimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of acetone extract in comparison with ‘aztreonam’ using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were found to be around 0.312 – 0.50 mg/
ml for Pterocarpus santalinus, 0.62 – 1.10 mg/ml for Tectona grandis and 0.7 – 2.9 mg/ml for Gloriosa superba. The combination of plant extract of Gloriosa superba + Pterocarpus santalinus (2:1) showed the maximum inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the strongest synergistic effect. Similarly the maximum inhibition on Bacillus subtilis was observed by the combination of plant extract of Tectona grandis + Gloriosa superba (2:1) whereas, the plant extract of Tectona grandis + Gloriosa superba
inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to the maximum extent.
Title: Influence of Vermicompost application alongwith Nitrogen on Growth, Nutrients uptake, Yield Attributes and Economics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of vermicompost application on growth, nutrients uptake, yield attributes
and economics of rice (variety ADT 43) at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during kharif season. Five main
plot treatments viz., M1- control, M2 - farmyard manure @ 12.5 t ha-1, M3- vermicompost @ 1.5 t ha-1, M4 - vermicompost @ 2.0 t ha-
1 and vermicompost @2.5 t ha-1 and three sub plot treatments viz., S1 – leaf colour chart critical value less than 3, S2 - leaf colour chart critical value less than 4 and S3- Recommended dose of nitrogen were replicated thrice in a split plot design. The results revealed that growth and growth attributes, yield attributes, N, P and K uptake and benefit :cost ratio were recorded higher
under application of vermicompost at the rate of 2.5 t ha-1 along with nitrogen addition based on leaf colour chart critical value less than 4. Application of vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 along with nitrogen addition based on leaf colour chart critical value less than 4 was registered highest benefit cost ratio of 2.14 when compared to control was 1.83.
Title: Yield and Yield Attributes of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Organic Practices in Semi Arid Region
Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive kharif seasons of research farm of Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur to study the effect of organic practices on the yield and yield attributes of groundnut in semi arid region with the treatments comprised of T1-Farmer’s practices, T2- 7.5 t FYM +PSB+ PSM+ Bio-Pesticides, T3- T2 + Seed
treatment with PSB+ PSM+ Bio-pesticides, T4 – T3 + Foliar spray of pseudo-monas, T5 – T3 + Foliar spray of NSKE @ 5 %, T6 - T3 + Foliar spray of Panchagavya and T7-Absolute control, T8-100% RDF (15kg N+ 60 kg 2O5/ha). The results revealed that in treatment T5, application of farmyard manure (FYM) (7.5 t/ha) inoculated with microbes (bio fertilizers+bio-pesticides) 15 days before sowing (heapit) and seed treatment with bio fertilizers+bio-pesticides at the time of sowing gave significantly higher pod yield (2750 kg/ha) over absolute control (2151 kg/ha) and FYM without inoculated with microbes but at par with other treatments.
The same trend was also observed in B:C Ratio (3.66) with treatment T5 (T3 + Foliar spray of NSKE @ 5 %). The study indicated that the groundnut showed greater response to the application of organic practices (i.e., organic farming) under semi arid region.
Title: Efficiency of Halosulfuron Methyl (NC-319 75%WDG) on Weed Control in Sugrcane
Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the efficiency of halosulfuron methyl for the control of weeds in sugarcane. The treatments consisted of new herbicide formulation halosulfuron methyl (NC-319 75% WDG) in different doses (52.5, 60.0, 67.5, 75.0 and 150 g a.i. ha-1) at 3-4 leaf stages of Cyperus rotundus compared with recommended dose of PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 on 3 DAP + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP, hand weeding on 30 DAP
and earthing up on 60 DAP respectively and also with unweeded control. The results revealed that the sedge weed density was distinctly lower in application of halosulfuron methyl at all doses. But grass and broad leaved weed density was perceptibly lower in PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP followed by hand weeding on 30 DAP and earthing up on 60 DAP and halosulfuron methyl 60.0 g a.i. ha-1. The lowest total weed dry weight, higher weed control efficiency and cane yield were recorded in PE atrazine 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 + hand weeding and earthing up on 60 DAP followed by hand weeding on 30 DAP and earthing up on 60 DAP and halosulfuron methyl 60.0 g a.i. ha-1. The herbicide doses evaluated in this study did not exhibit residual effect on succeeding crops of pearlmillet, sunflower and cowpea.
Title: Development of Profitable Integrated Farming Systems for Small and Marginal Farmers of Hyderabad Karnataka Region Under Irrigated Condition
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted on performance of integrated farming system over conventional farming system for one ha. area at Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur, Karnataka for three successive years of 2010-11 to 2012-13 under irrigated conditions in medium black soils to explore the productivity and profitability under irrigated condition. Among the system
evaluated integrated farming system has recorded higher average net returns (Rs. 1,50,710) and benefit cost ratio (3.61) over conventional method as it records average net returns of Rs.65,000 with benefit cost ratio (2.85). The productivity and profitability during third year (2012-13) was more than second and first year under integrated farming system. During third year of integrated farming system records higher net returns (Rs. 2,45,398) with 4.63 B:C ratio than second year (Rs.1,29,442 net returns with 3.34 B:C
ratio) and first year (Rs.76968 net returns with 2.53 B:C ratio) respectively.
Title: Uptake of NPK, Availability of NPK and Quality Parameters of Bt Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as Influenced by Different Bio-fertilizers and In-situ Green Manuring under Irrigation
Abstract :
A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2009-2010 at the Agriculture College Farm, Raichur, Karnataka (India) to study the response of Bt cotton to different fertilizer levels, bio-fertilizers and in-situ green manuring under irrigation. With respect to uptake and availability of NPK, application of sunnhemp in-situ green manuring found significantly higher N (128.27 kg ha-1 and 206.43 kg ha-1, respectively), P (30.63 kg ha-1 and 38.43 kg ha-1, respectively) and K (142.33 kg ha-1 and 342.14 kg ha-1,
respectively) over no green manuring. Among different fertilizer levels and bio-fertilizers, 150 % recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) recorded significantly higher uptake and availability of N (132.46 kg ha-1 and 212.48 kg ha-1, respectively), P (32.44 kg ha-1 and 39.21 kg ha-1, respectively) and K (147.21 kg ha-1 and 353.29 kg ha-1, respectively). Significantly higher ginning percentage and lint index were observed with sunnhemp in-situ green manuring (35.81 and 4.99, respectively) over no green manuring. Mean fibre length of Bt cotton was not significantly influenced by both use of in-situ green manuring and combined use of inorganic nutrients and bio-fertilizers.
Title: Effects of Temperature and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on seed Germination of Vicia sativa, Chenopodium album and Physalis minima
Abstract :
The interactions between temperature and GA3 are well known for their capacity to induce germination in dormant seeds of several weed plant species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of various temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations (50, 150, 250 and 350 ppm) on germination of Vicia sativa, Chenopodium album and
Physalis minima seeds incubated under continuous dark or light were carried out in 8/16 hr light and dark. Germination counts were taken until Day 13. We found that incubation temperature and GA3 significantly enhanced seed germination, as maximum germination was observed for V. sativa (79% at 20°C), C. album (69.8% at 15°C), and P. minima (62% at 20°C) in such treatments. Exogenous GA3 significantly promoted germination of V. sativa, C. album and P. minima. It was found that GA3 was more effective in the presence of light as compared to dark condition and lowest germination was found in weed seeds at control.
Title: Influence of Pretreatments and Varieties on Biochemical Quality during Aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) Murabba Preservation
Abstract :
Matured aonla fruits of three cultivars namely, Kanchan, Chakaiya and NA-7 were harvested and each variety was pretreated with water (control), salt 2%, alum 2% and salt+alum 2% so that a total of twelve different treatment combinations were made before processing in to murabba. Murabba was analyzed for quality during storage for six months. TSS and total sugars increased while ascorbic acid, titrable acidity and fiber content of the aonla murabba decreased during the storage period. For most of the biochemical parameters variety, NA-7 and pretreatment salt+alum 2% proved to be promising in retaining the quality.
Title: Screening of Rose Varieties Against Black Spot Disease and its Management in East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
Rose varieties were evaluated in field against Diplocarpon rosae, which causes of black spot disease of rose. Black spot resistance was visually evaluated for thirty seven rose varieties against D. rosae. Out of thirty seven varieties evaluated, none of the varieties were found immune, very highly resistant, highly resistant, resistant and moderately resistant. However, three
varieties namely Paradise, Shabnam and Pixie showed moderately susceptible in reaction. Whereas, eleven varieties viz., Angelica Renae, Atago, Folklore, Granada, Hot Cocoa, Mardigrass, Midas Touch, Mrinalini, Revival, Tipus Flame and Victor Hugo showed susceptible reaction. Twelve varieties viz. Baccardi, Claudia Ribond, Charles Mallerin, Crimson Lace, Dr. Pal, Impatient, Madam Dulbourde, Marcopolo, Melody, Rainbow End, Sonia and Sugandha were highly susceptible reaction at 75 per cent disease
severity. Whereas, eleven varieties namely Angelique, Christian Dior, Gemini, Gladiator, Golden Jubilee, Priyadarsini, Sand. Centenary, R. R. M. Roy, Sweet Promise, Unforgotten and Vale of Cloyd were highly susceptible reaction at 95 per cent disease severity. Further, five fungicides [three systemic fungicides namely Carbendazim, Hexaconazole (Contaf) and Ridomil MZ 72 WP and two contact fungicides viz. Blitox-50 and Mancozeb] were evaluated in vitro for the management of D. rosae. Hexaconazole (Contaf) was found to inhibit the mycelial growth of D. rosae significantly at a concentration of 200 and 250 ppm followed by Ridomil MZ 72 WP at same concentration.
Title: Phytoremediation for Defending Heavy Metal Stress in Weed Flora
Abstract :
Degradation of natural resources is perhaps one of the gravest lapses mankind has ever made in its journey of progress and development. Land, air and water resources are worst affected due to anthropogenic interventions. Heavy metal contamination is of special concern due to widespread reports emanating both from India and abroad about various diseases and disorders
observed both in human and livestock due to metal toxicity. The use of specially selected and engineered metal accumulating plants for environmental clean up is an emerging frontline technology called ‘Phytoremediation’ which describes a system wherein plants alone or in association with soil organisms can remove or transform contaminants into harmless and often valuable
forms. Excessive heavy metal accumulation can be toxic to most plants leading to reduction in seed germination, root growth and biomass production; inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis as well as disturbance in cellular metabolism and chromosome distortion. For studying the heavy metals load of sewage and sludge and their effect on crop quality in relation to non applied sites, solid sludge and leafy vegetable plants such as Amaranthus spp., Ipomoea spp, Basella spp. (Pui), Spinacia oleracea (Palak), were collected from seven STPs viz. Howrah, Garulia, Bhatpara, Nabadwip, Srirampur, Kona, Chandannager, and from the Periurban areas viz., Nadia/Chakdaha/Ektapur(N/C/E),Nadia/Chakdaha/Pumlia(N/C/P),Nadia/Chakdaha/Sikarpur(N/C/S), Nadia/ Chakdaha/Tatla(N/C/T). The results suggest that leafy vegetables like Amaranthus have more scavenging capacity for Cd and Pb, while Spinacia oleracea has more scavenging capacity for Cr. Therefore, if these plants are cultivated in sites abundant with
above heavy metals, these would scavenge the heavy metal toxicity from the soil.
Title: Threatened Rodent Species of Arunachal Pradesh
Abstract :
The rodents are important animals in food chain and play an important role in the ecosystem. They also serve as prey for many important and endangered carnivorous and make up almost 40% of the mammalian species. They are essential part in the regeneration of forests. In Arunachal Pradesh, there are three types of forest i.e. tropical, subtropical and alpine experienced with
different climate. Such type of environment is favourable for multiplication of rats, squirrels and porcupines, even though, their population is decreasing day by day due to indiscriminate hunting. Most of the squirrels and porcupines are hunted for meat, furs, skin, teeth and quills. Field surveys were conducted in different districts of Arunachal Pradesh for the present review. The presence of squirrels and porcupines were observed by direct sighting with the help of binocular or by hearing calls. Information was also collected through interaction of local people and forest staffs. The major threats for rodents are consequences due to hunting for meat, shifting agriculture (Jhum), deforestation, human settlements and infrastructure development in forest areas. Many of the rodents have come under endangered species and some gone extinct in recent years. Keeping this view, the present review has been made to document the diversity of rodents in Arunachal Pradesh and to review their habitat and conservation. The article reports 10 threatened rodent species under 9 genera belonging to 3 families.
Title: Growth Pattern of Soybean Cultivation in Madhya Pradesh: District wise Analysis
Abstract :
An attempt was made to examine the district wise compound growth rate in APY of soybean in Madhya Pradesh. Study found that among out of 39 districts only twenty two districts having the positive growth and two districts namely tikamgarh and sheopur found negative growth in area, production and yield. Four districts namely jabalpur, narsinghpur, shahdol and hosangabad
observed that negative CGR area and production but positive growth in yield. The negative growth in area and production was observed in Jabalpur district which was -16.29 and -15.04 per cent respectively. The maximum positive growth in area and production was observed in Anuppur district but it was examined for six years only therefore maximum positive was noted in
district shivpuri which was 9.00 and 10.14 per cent respectively. The substantial improvement in production has been noticed due to concerted efforts on soybean development in the state of Madhya Pradesh as well as in the country, resulting in a positive growth rate in area and production of Soybean.
Title: Impact of Water Saving Technology On Blue Wateruse and Productivity: Analysis fron North Gujarat Region, India
Abstract :
North Gujarat is an absolutely water scarce region in Gujarat, though it contributes around 40 per cent of total groundwater draft in the state. Excessive withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation is leading to alarming drops in groundwater levels in many parts of the region. Since scope of supply side intervention is limited, it is imperative to manage irrigation water from demand side interventions aimed at to reducing its use. Overall objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of water saving technologies on applied water productivity. A study on experimental plot revealed that highest physical water productivity was found for castor under drip irrigation with plastic mulching as compared to flood irrigation followed by crop with organic mulching and lowest under drip irrigation. In case of groundnut, highest physical water productivity was obtained from the crop irrigated
by easy drip method, whereas in case of sprinkler, highest physical water productivity was obtained from the micro-sprinkler. Potato crop was grown under drip and sprinkler methods of irrigation and highest physical water productivity was recorded from micro-sprinkler. From farmers’ field data, it was observed that farmers are using different types of water saving technologies for variety of crops. Before adoption of water saving technologies, on average blue water use for crop production was estimated to
be 8397 m3 per hectare which was reduced to 5175.45 m3 per hectare after adoption of water saving technology, showing a decline of 61.6 per cent. Per hectare net income received by farmers before adoption of water saving technology was Rs 54615.46 and it increased to Rs 95759.41 after adoption of water saving technology. The variation in physical water productivity for same crop under different types of water saving technologies, suggested that government/promotional agencies should promote suitable water saving technology for different crops, which would help in achieving water saving and improvement in crop production and productivity.
Title: Empowerment of Dairy Farmers Through ICT Enabled I-Kisan Project in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :
The present study was conducted in three districts namely, Anantapur, Ranga Reddy and Nalgonda of Andhra Pradesh State with a sample size of 240 dairy farmers (120 each of ICT users and non users) to measure their empowerment through ICT enabled ikisan project in Andhra Pradesh. Four components of empowerment of dairy farmers namely, knowledge regarding dairy farming, decision making ability, attitude towards dairying, and self confidence were selected based on relevancy, literature and experts opinion. The scale developed by Chaudhari et al., (2007), was used to measure decision making and self confidence, and test developed by Vijay babu (2009) was used to measure knowledge and Scale developed by Sah (2005) was used to measure attitude. It was observed that the mean values of components of empowerment of dairy farmers i.e., knowledge, decision making ability, attitude, and self confidence of ICT users were 40.70, 11.6, 9.80 and 4.60, and that of non users of ICT were 28.25, 9.24, 9.33 and 3.35
respectively. The mean values of overall empowerment of ICT users and non users of dairy farmers were found to be 16.59 and 12.54. Through Z-test it was also found that the components of empowerment namely knowledge, decision making, self confidence and overall empowerment of dairy farmers between ICT users and non users of ICT were found to have significant at 0.01 level of Probability, where as no significant difference was found between them as per as attitude is concerned.
Title: Performance Evaluation of Solid State Digester for Biogas Production using Biologically Pretreated Straw
Abstract :
The present paper reports biogas production from biologically pretreated paddy straw in a solid state digester made of HDPE plastic (124litre capacity). The trial was conducted with a mixture of 10 kg pretreated paddy straw, 20 kg cattle dung slurry, 20 kg cattle dung and 20 litre water. The chemical and proximate analysis of the feed was done and biogas production profile was studied over a period of one month. Parallel trial was also conducted with untreated paddy straw. The result indicated that 253.89 litre biogas/kg pretreated paddy straw was produced, which is 39.3% higher than the untreated paddy straw.
Title: Organogenesis from Callusing Cotyledon Explants of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit
Abstract :

The cotyledon explants excised from in vitro grown seedling of Leucaena leucocephala showed organogenesis when cultured on B5 medium containing auxins and cytokinins individually or in various combinations. The various types of morphogenetic responses were callusing, rhizogenesis and caulogenesis. This is another report where micropropagation of leguminous trees is experimented through in vitro culture techniques, otherwise most of the leguminous trees are very much recalcitrant to such studies that has hindered the improvement of these plants through genetic transformation.