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Title: An Efficiency based Approach to Evaluate Attractiveness of Host Countries for Foreign Direct Investment
Abstract :
This paper investigates the impact of efficiency of countries for attracting foreign direct investment. Top 20 foreign direct investment receiving countries in 2013 were used for the study for a 20-year period from 1994 to 2013. The efficiency of countries was evaluated using non-parametric data envelopment analysis and the empirical analysis was estimated using pooled estimated generalised least square model. The results suggest that inflows of foreign direct investment have a significant positive relationship with efficiency scores of countries. Fully efficient countries, nine out of the sample
of 20 countries, have counted for 41.6 per cent of the global foreign direct investment in 2013. This indicates that multinational corporations operate in efficient countries in order to maximise the wealth of shareholders by reducing overall cost of operations through efficiencies 
Title: Impact and constraints faced by the borrowers of cooperative bank finance in Nagaland
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken on sixty borrowers of cooperative bank during 2009 to 2012 in Dimapur district of Nagaland to examine the impact of loan on borrowers a resource use efficiency on pooled data as well as on different farm size group were fitted, which was found to be significant. As per the client satisfaction index 48.33% were medium satisfied, followed by 23.67% as low satisfied and remaining 25.00% as highly satisfied with the extension services of banks available presently. It was further observed that on rank based quotient the foremost constraints was of amount of loan, followed by preparation of DPR, lack of technical guidance from bank, time of disbursement, subsidiary / rebate on loan, disbursement of loan, credit facilities and miscellaneous, form issued by the bank, knowledge about type of loan, bank interest rate, filling up of loan forms, repayment period etc at the lower scale.

Title: Understanding the social sector, economic growth, social development and economic development: Interrelationship and linkages
Abstract :

Issues relating to linkages of social sector with economic growth have been in much attention by researchers in recent times. A number of academic as well as policy measures have contributed to this phenomenon. At the academic level there has always been felt for relook into the importance of linkages of social sector with economic growth. A question that is frequently raised in connection with human development is whether it has link with economic growth and social development. Therefore, in this study, an attempt is made to study issues relating to linkages of social sector with economic growth.

Title: Current trends in pulse crops production: An overview
Abstract :

In, this study current trend in pulse crops production has been emphasised. The study was based on secondary data from 1950-51 to 2012-13. The data is based on several governmental documents and web sites. The linear, quadratic and exponential functions were fitted in order to analyse the trends in area, production and productivity of pulse crops in India. Quadratic functional form was employed to fit the trend due to its higher R2 value as compared to other two forms. Besides these, compound growth rate (CGR), co-efficient of variation (CV) and instability index (II) were also computed. In the present study the effects on area, productivity as well as their interactions towards increasing trend towards the production were estimated. Further study reveals that in the present fitted linear quadratic form the ‘c’ value have positive and statistically significant on overall time period of pulse production in the country more particularly during Phase I and Phase II. The growing of pulse crops was not risky as revealed by the lower CV. The CV of area, production and productivity of pulse crops were less than 0.08%. The instability indices for area, production and productivity for pulse crops were positive and thereby indicating no risk for growing pulse crops in coming days. The increase in production is due to increase in area as well as interaction of area and productivity of pulse crops in the study periods.

Title: Export of cashew kernel from india: its direction and prediction
Abstract :

Cashew is one of the most important dollar earning crops of the country. The quantity of export of cashew kernel had registered a growth of 5.71% per annum. This was made possible both due to increased export to countries of import and changes in composition of India’s cashew kernel exports to various destinations. The paper quantifies the changing structure of cashew kernel exports in order to understand the dynamics of changes and the growth rate analysis. The growth rate analysis reveals that, UAE shows the highest growth rate and the countries like USA, Netherland, UK show the negative growth rates. The markov chain model was used to assess the transition probabilities for the major cashew kernel export from India. The result revealed that, the country USA was the highest probability of reduction (0.87) compare to all other countries. The forecasted values for, the countries UAE and ‘other countries’ show the increasing trend and the countries like USA, UK, Netherland, Japan and France show the decreasing trend.

Title: Poverty alleviation programs of rural India: comprehensive policy analysis
Abstract :

The paper presents a critique of rural poverty alleviation programs especially on major programs like focus of analysis was put on The Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP), The Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment, Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREGA) Act and Debt Relief Scheme. Eradicating rural poverty’ as an improvement process, rural society is aspiring to move from lower economic and lower social standard to higher standard in the lives of the rural people. ‘Rural poverty’ is an extremely difficult subject to deal with because of a huge variety of socio-economic and ecological situations in which it takes place. Thus, the policies for the eradication rural poverty have to be targeted at the rural poor, which have been at the receiving end of the ill effects of poverty over the ages. In this gap it explains pros and cons of the programs based on existing literature which has emerged from empirical and exploratory sources.

Title: Market based financial measures of sugar industry in India
Abstract :

Worldwide sugar is being produced in over 100 countries for the past several years. Larger proportion of world sugar production is consumed domestically and internationally small proportion only traded. Due to the small trading proportion leads to changes in production and government policies. As only a small proportion of world sugar production is traded freely, sugar price is unstable in the global market. Government control over quantum distribution of free sale sugar in the open market in turn affected the price of the sugar and minimum support price for sugarcane. The study would help the decision makers of sugar companies to focus on the major activities that may improve the overall market performance. Forty sugar companies which are listed in the Bombay Stock Exchange were selected based on the extent of market capitalization and annual volume of sales. The data were collected from the PROWESS database Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), Mumbai for the period from 2007 to 2012. The data collected were consolidated and subjected to market structure, conduct and performance analysis (SCP) to draw meaningful inferences. In order to study the market structure and power of the sugar companies Herfindahl Hirschman index and Lerner index was used. The market structure of the companies in North and West zone was highly competitive and these companies had little control over pricing implying lesser market power.

Title: Benchmarking the critical success factors of TQM implementation: A review of 21 national quality awards
Abstract :

TQM has assumed a great importance in today’s highly competitive education industry. TQM has been widely implemented throughout the world. Many institutes have arrived at the conclusion that effective TQM implementation can improve their competitive abilities and provide strategic advantages in the marketplace. There are many approaches used for implementation of TQM in education sector. These approaches are based on number of National Quality Awards (NQA’s) developed by governments of various countries. Further each National Quality Award has its own different set of critical success factors (CSFs). It therefore creates a lot of confusion for the educational institutes, as to, which critical success factors to choose and which not, so as to implement the concept of TQM for achieving excellence. This paper aims to develop a new framework for TQM implementation by doing a comparative study of 21 major National Quality Awards. The comparative study will be beneficial for the institutes to find out comprehensive list of CSFs for TQM implementation and thus helps in achieving excellence in the educational field.

Title: Marketable surplus, pattern and constraints faced by smallholder dairy farmer in Punjab
Abstract :

The present study examined marketed surplus, disposal pattern of milk and constraints faced by smallholder dairy farmers in Punjab. For the purpose Amritsar district was selected and a sample of 80 dairy farmers consisting of 20 dairy farmers each from landless (LL), marginal (MR), small (SM) and others (OT) categories were selected from two blocks and four villages of Amritsar district. It was found that milk production, consumption and marketed surplus has direct relationship with farm size. The average production of milk was 27.55, 37.05, 40.95 and 45.2 litres/day for LL, MR, SM and OT dairy farm and per capita availability of milk was 690, 843, 869 and 935 gm/day which was quiet above the national average of 290 gm/day and minimum recommendation of ICMR of 250 gm/day. On an overall basis 11.26, 6.40, 7.40 and 18.12 litres of milk/day was sold by sample households through dairy cooperatives, private milk processors, milk vendors, consumers and halwaiis. Except MR farmers rest all of the selected dairy farmers sold their produce through modern milk marketing channels which includes milk cooperatives and private milk processor in the study area. Thus SM holder dairy farmers have equal access to modern milk marketing channel in the study area. Various constraints ranked by dairy farmers as costly feed and fodder ranked first followed by lack of A.I. and veterinary facilities in village. The lack of organized milk marketing was at the bottom of the constraints identified by dairy households. The sample dairy farmers faced all the constraints with almost equal intensity irrespective of the size categories.

Title: An economic analysis of input structure in context to information inaccuracy, improvement and predictions
Abstract :

During the last six decades, the information theory has attracted the researchers from worldwide and its literature is growing leaps and bounds. Some of its terminologies even have become part of our daily language. Every probability distribution has some uncertainty associated with it. The concept of ‘entropy’ is introduced here to provide a quantitative measure of this uncertainty. Different approaches for measure of entropy and its development has been made, viz: 1.An axiomatic approach, 2.Measure of entropy via measure of inaccuracy and directed divergence and 3.Information measures and coding theorem. A hypothetical data of agricultural, fisheries and forestry sectors, in each of nine years were framed. All inputs bought to fisheries and forestry sectors were supplied by other firms of the same sector. It was worked out that the smaller the distance of probability distribution P from Q, the greater will be the uncertainty and greater the entropy. This is always positive and vanishes if and only if P = Q.

Title: An economics of rice cultivation through appropriate management of zinc under northern gangetic alluvial plain
Abstract :
A field experiment was conducted to study the economics of rice cultivation through appropriate management of zinc at Agricultural Research Farm of Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University during the two consecutive kharif (rainy) seasons of 2010 and 2011. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three rice varieties (HUR-105, HUBR 2-1 and PHB-71) and seven zinc treatments. The hybrid PHB 71 showed the highest gross return of ` 78007 and ` 79570, but HUR 105 recorded maximum net return of ` 46886 and ` 48180 and B: C ratio 2.58 and 2.63 in year 2010 and 2011, respectively. Amongst the zinc treatments, application of Zn (EDTA) 0.25 kg ha-1 at basal + Zn (EDTA) 0.05% sprays at maximum tillering stage resulted in maximum gross return of ` 87211 and ` 88531), net return of ` 57572 and ` 58892 and B: C ratio 2.94 and 2.99 and was found economically feasible during both the years of experimentation.
Title: Rural aquaculture – Now and Then
Abstract :

Rural aquaculture as a weapon to fight poverty and reduce inequality has received renewed attention in recent years. It contributes to poverty alleviation and provides employment to millions of people, both in the sector itself as well as in support services. Rural aquaculture pertains to the farming of aquatic organisms by small-scale farming household or communities, usually by extensive or semi-intensive low-cost production technology appropriate to their resource base. In rural aquaculture there is low level of fish production for household use and family income. Its production and income potential has largely remained undocumented. Development of rural aquaculture can be accomplished in two ways - by increasing the area devoted to aquaculture and by intensifying production in existing aquaculture areas. Recent discourses on small-scale rural aquaculture concluded that aquaculture should not be viewed as an isolated technology but be considered as one aspect of rural development and form part of a holistic approach to development. The institutional mechanisms by which the rural poor can access and benefit from aquaculture are being duly emphasized. Researchers in India and elsewhere have demonstrated the impact of rural aquaculture on the lives of poor. In terms of providing nutritious food (fish being the cheapest animal protein) and creating employment opportunities aquaculture interventions have proved to be quite useful. Changing perspectives of rural aquaculture; shift in focus from productivity to profitability; aqua farmers turning into aqua innovators and several other aspects are discussed in the paper.

Title: Supply response with mix of stationary and nonstationary data: Case study in pulses, India
Abstract :

Supply response studies in the past were based on traditional econometric techniques (classic linear regression) and the nerlovian framework. Results of traditional econometric techniques are reliable when the time series data are stationary. However, there can be a possibility of some macroeconomic time series data are non-stationary, thereby results and conclusion drawn from using those techniques are having the risk of invalidity. This paper specifically attempted to quantify the relationship between pulses production and price and non price factors viz., land productivity, annual rainfall, irrigated area and revenue difference between cereals and pulses, when the variables in the data expressed in levels are neither stationary [I(0)] nor non-stationary [I(1)], and do not have the same order of integration.Finding of this study suggests rainfall and revenue difference between the cereals and pulses are major determinants of pulses production.

Title: Impact of micro finance on dairy enterprise women – A case study in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

Women constitute half of the world population, perform nearly two thirds of its working hours but still receive only one-tenth of income and one-hundredth of world’s property. Gender discrimination is distinct and common in all developing countries in the world. Agricultural wages paid to women are on an average 30-40% less than those of men in India. Women have extensive workloads with dual responsibility for farm in general and livestock and house-hold production in India. Micro finance is a broad term that includes deposits, loans, payment services and insurances to poor people. The poor families with very small loans to help them engage in productive activities or grow their tiny business. The activities vary widely ranging from care of animals, grazing, fodder collection, cleaning of animals and sheds to processing milk and livestock products. In livestock management, indoor jobs like milking, feeding, cleaning is done by women in 90% of families while management of male animals and fodder production are affected by men. The multi-stage random sampling method has been followed to select rural women in Rayalaseema region (Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa and Kurnool districts) of Andhra Pradesh. The objectives are to study the socio- economic conditions of rural women beneficiaries and analyze the feasibility of investment on dairy enterprise. To assess the impact of micro finance on income and employment of rural women through dairy enterprise and constrains faced by rural women and suggest appropriate measures to improve economic conditions of the rural women dairy entrepreneurs.

Title: An economic analysis of gladiolus cultivation in Jammu district of J&K state
Abstract :

Keeping this in view, a study has been conducted to analyse the economics of gladiolus cultivation for the years 2011-12 and 2012-2013 in Jammu district of J&K state. Primary data on costs and returns of the crop were collected by interviewing the farmers through personal visits with the help of an especially structured and pre-tested schedule. The per acre cost of cultivation (C2) of gladiolus were estimated to be ` 210140.00 in the first year and ` 70140.00 in second year on sampled farms. The ‘Cost A1’ constituted the whole direct cost were ` 159116.80 and ` 19116.80/acre, ‘Cost A2’ were ` 170316.80 and ` 30316.80 per acre, ‘Cost B1’ were ` 164815 and ` 24815.00 per acre, ‘Cost B2’ were ` 208580.00 and ` 68580.00 per acre and ‘Cost C1’ was ` 166375.00 and ` 26375.00 per acre for first year and second year respectively on sampled farms. The gross return was ` 300000.00 per acre in both years on sampled farms. The net return was highest in case of second year i.e. ` 229860.00 per acre compared to the net return in first year i.e. ` 89860.00/acre. The Cost-Benefit ratio was highest in case of second year (4.28) compared to that of first year (1.43).

Title: Micro aspects of farmer’s performance using data envelopment analysis: A study based on West Bengal
Abstract :

The concept of farm efficiency has important implications for size productivity relationship and the extent to which farms have adopted the current technology. Using farm level input output data on paddy cultivation of a set of farmers in West Bengal, we have tried to ascertain the pattern of efficiency. The study reveals that there is an over-utilisation of available resources as well as considerable scope for expanding output in West Bengal agriculture. The paper also deals with the efficiency differential among different categories of farmers in respect of agro-climatic zone in West Bengal. JEL Classification Number: O130, O400, O160, I310.

Title: Discrimination of gender in agriculture sector in Andhra Pradesh
Abstract :

Human resources in an economy constitute a significant input in the production process of goods and services. The study of human resources, their quality and problems is of immense use in manpower planning in both developing as well as developed economies. Due to low employment potential in other sectors; most of the population is forced to be dependent on agriculture. Employment in agriculture is mostly seasonal and intermittent in character. The labourers suffer with seasonal unemployment. During the periods of peak agricultural activity, the demand for labour is high and during the off season they have to face acute unemployment problem. In the areas where multiple cropping is practiced, the labourers get employment throughout the year with minimum period of unemployment. The low wages are responsible for their sub human standard of living. It is highly difficult for an agricultural labourer to make their both ends meet with these low wages. The chronic imbalance between labour supply and complementary resource in agriculture is normally expected to result in fixing up of wages subsistence levels over large parts of the country. Female labour use will be high in case of paddy than male labourers. The intensive and difficult nature of operation in case of sugarcane requires mostly male labour. Since, agricultural sector experiences excessive dependence of population eking out their livelihood. In the absence of alternative work, they joined the ranks of agricultural labour to earn their living. Their low standard of living permits them to be satisfied with subsistence and low wage.

Title: Multidimensional poverty index of totos- The smallest and primitive tribe in jalpaiguri district of West Bengal
Abstract :

The Toto is one of the smallest and primitive tribe of our country. Due to isolation these people are able to preserve their primitive culture. They had settled only in a small village situated on the western bank of the river Torsha. This area located on the border area between India and Bhutan. Its distance from Jalpaiguri district town is 100 k.m. North –East and 67 km North“West from Alipurduar sub divisional town and 21 km North only from Madarihat. In the old days the Totos were exclusively dependent on the forest products. Hunting and gathering of timber, fruits and forest nuts constituted their main source of living. But in course of time they have brought changes in their style of living, since their initial sources of income gradually became harder. Later they worked as porters and carried oranges from Bhutan to the sellers of plain area for their subsistence and livelihood. Recently government has taken many steps to facilitate the living hood of Totos , primary school, high school and health centers are there in Toto para. In this paper an attempt has been taken to measure the Multi-dimensional Poverty Index of Toto community. Poverty was measured in Human Development Reports through the Human Poverty Index (HPI) from 1997-2009. In 2010, the MPI replaced the HPI. The MPI addresses the imperfections of HPI by allowing comparisons across countries or regions of the world, as well as within-country comparisons between regions, ethnic groups, rural and urban areas. The MPI reveals the combination of deprivation that strike a household at the same time. A household is considered as multidimentionally poor if it is deprived in some combination of indicators whose weight sum is 30% or more of the dimension.

Title: Total factor productivity growth of the crop sector in Kerala
Abstract :

Productivity growth in agriculture is both a necessary and sufficient condition for its development. Total factor productivity (TFP) is an important measure to evaluate the performance of any production system and sustainability of a growth process. There are several reports that total factor productivity growth is declining over the years in many parts of India even with the application of increased inorganic fertilisers. The cropping system is sustainable if it can maintain total factor productivity growth over time. The TFP growth rate showed stagnation in the crop sector (negative and very low TFP growth rate Annum-1) in Kerala and a similar pattern was observed in all districts. A perspective of the TFP changes across the districts and state and the percentage share of total factor productivity in output growth of the crop sector in Kerala showed clear signs of unsustainability of the crop sector. The study revealed that all the districts (except Kollam, Idukki, Wayanad and Palakkad) and the state as a whole, the share of TFP in the output growth was negative during the time period 1980-81 to 2009-10. The period wise analysis also derived deceleration in the total factor productivity growth.

Title: Incidence and effects of diseases in sheep in Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to analyze the incidence and effects of diseases in Sheep. The prevalence of specific diseases (42.0%) (FMD 11.7% and HS 30.30%) were more prominent followed by parasitic diseases (18%) digestive diseases (18%) and respiratory diseases (18.0%). while reproductive and other diseases (enterotoxaemia, skin infections) were also prevalent at lower morbidity rate (2.0%) in the study area. Lambs were highly affected by parasitic diseases (41.67%). In young stocks the highest proportional morbidity rate was observed due to digestive diseases (26.32%) while in adults other diseases (4.0%) had high morbidity. Males were affected more by specific diseases (48.72%) followed by parasitic diseases (23.08%). But in females, highest proportional morbidity rate was observed due to respiratory diseases (22.95%).The highest mortality was due to specific diseases (41.86%) followed by parasitic diseases (20.93%) and digestive diseases (20.93%). The analysis of the data on the effect of disease on wool yield in sheep did not reveal any significant difference in wool reduction due to pasturellosis and circling diseases. Overall wool reduction due to both diseases was (44.88%) but pasturellosis had higher effect (44.94%) than circling disease (44.76%) on wool production in sheep.

Title: Export performance of Indian cashewnut – An analysis
Abstract :

The Indian Cashew industry provides employment to more than 5 lakh people both directly and indirectly, particularly in the rural areas and it thus plays a very vital role in the economy. Today nuts constitute an important part of diet in several countries of the world. In Indian cashew processing factories, over 95% of the workers are women. The total export earnings from export of cashew kernel and cashew nut shell liquid has increased from ` 447.80 crores in 1990-91 to ` 4390.68 crores in 2011-12. India is facing tough competition from Vietnam and Brazil in the exports of Cashew Kernels. The NPC for the period 2004 under exportable hypothesis was 0.98, which also revealed that the domestic prices received by the farmers were lower than the international prices, which also implied that the domestic producers were disprotected or rather taxed compared to a situation prevailing under free trade condition. USA was one of the most stable countries among major importers of Indian cashew kernel as indicated by the high retention probability of 70.49%. India could not retain the previous export share to Singapore.The major competitors for India in the world market are Vietnam, Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania. A dependency on one or two export market would increase the trade risk in the near future. Hence, appropriate export promotion strategies are to be evolved to diversify the geographical concentration.

Title: Economic analysis of marketing of major vegetables in varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract :

India is second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in world. India produces about 14% of world’s vegetables from 15% world’s area. The vegetable productivity in India is less than the world average productivity. Nearly 30-40% vegetables were wastage during the supply chain i.e. reaching from producer to consumer. Most of the marketing of vegetables in India is done in unorganised sector and very little quantity is marketed through organised sector. Present study was an attempt to study the marketing channels and to examine the marketing efficiency of organized retail chain. The Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh was selected purposively for the present study.Spencer retail Bhelupur was selected purposively. A total of 45 farmers, 4 intermediaries, one retailer and 60 consumers were selected. Vegetables viz tomato, cabbage, pea, okra and brinjal were selected for the study. Among the organized supply chain i.e. channel II, the cost incurred per kg of vegetables was much lower than the cost incurred in the traditional supply chain i.e. channel I. In channel – I, the net return and marketing efficiency was higher for channel II than channel I for all the vegetables under study. At the same time organized supply chain was found to be smallest price spread. Hence organized supply chain (channel – I) was found more efficient as compared to unorganized supply chain (Channel – II). Hence it is advisable to the farmers to sell their produce through modern supply chain i.e. channel II as it is more efficient because the commodity was purchased directly from the producer. However due to APMC Act Spencer retail was not permitted to procure commodities directly from the farmers. Therefore it was suggested that policy reform should be done to facilitate direct marketing.

Title: Crop biomass production and its utilization in Punjab: Some energy considerations
Abstract :

The present study was carried out to estimate the production and utilization of biomass along with the energy potential from surplus biomass in Punjab. It was found that paddy crop was harvested mechanically; cotton was harvested manually while basmati and wheat are harvested by using both mechanical and manual harvesting methods. Average yield of biomass was estimated to be 2.51, 7.59, 6.78, 1.96 and 6.20 tonnes per hectare in the case of wheat, basmati, paddy, paddy husk and cotton sticks respectively. It was estimated that 100, 93.86 and 43.18% of the area was put on fire to burn the stubble in the case of paddy, wheat and basmati respectively. The total production of the biomass was estimated to be 48.26 million tonnes in 2009-10 in Punjab. After meeting the farming consumption needs, the surplus biomass was estimated to be 35.96 million tonnes. Assuming the combustion efficiency being 30%, the energy equivalent of surplus biomass has a potential to run as many as 904 power plants of 5 MW capacities for 365 days 20 hours a day. The findings of the study showed that there exists a vast scope for using biomass in the electricity production and other useful purposes.

Title: Herbicides, Nitrogen-Scheduling and –Rates Effects on Economics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum  L.)
Abstract :

A field experiments was conducted during winter seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi to study the effect of herbicide mixtures and differential rate of nitrogen application of economics of wheat under Indo-Gangetic Plains of eastern Uttar Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized complete block design and replicated thrice, having three factors. First factor comprised of three herbicides viz. weedy check, sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron [32 g ha-1] and carfentrazone [10 g ha-1] + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl [100 g ha-1], whereas, second and third factors comprised of two nitrogen rates (120 kg N ha-1 and 160 kg N ha-1) and three times of nitrogen application ( 50% basal + 50% CRI, 50% basal + 25% CRI + 25% flowering and 33.3% basal + 33.3% CRI + 33.3% flowering), respectively. Significantly highest grass return, net return and benefit cost ratio were observed with application of sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron [32 g ha-1]. Increasing nitrogen level from 120 to 160 kg ha-1 significantly increased the economic return. Application of nitrogen in three split (50% basal + 25% CRI + 25% flowering) proved significantly in term of grass return, net return and benefit cost ratio over other split application of nitrogen.

Title: A comparative study on the economic viability of jute production by organic system of farming in West Bengal.
Abstract :

Lower productivity (7.28%) of organic jute associated with higher prime cost of cultivation (11.27%) has made organic growers to earn a net return 20.42 below conventional average. Higher premium prices for organic is not enough to cover the dual set back in yield loss and larger prime cost of organic jute production. But the yield of jute produced by this eco-friendly farming system is marginally greater (1.37%) than that of inorganic managed farms. Higher premium prices along with increased productivity has helped the farmers to realise 9.30% more total return which has not only compensated the 19.76% more prime cost of cultivation, but also held them to obtain a net return of 1.55% above inorganically produced jute. Development of dedicated marketing channel and extensive programme for promotion of products produced from organic jute will ensure higher premium prices is required to incentivise growers to continue and expand area under this sustainable crop production system.

Title: Constraints for adoption of recommended crop production technologies faced by the potato growers in the sub-tropical zone of Jammu division
Abstract :

The present study was conducted during 2011-2012 in purposively selected sub-divisions of Jammu province, Jammu and Kashmir covering 15 villages and a sample of 225 potato growers was selected through proportionate random sampling method. The study revealed that the major constraints for the adoption of crop production technologies faced by the potato growers were complicated seed treatment technique (100.00%), non-availability of fertilizers at proper time (76%), financial problem (72.89%), non-availability of insecticides/ pesticides at proper time (64.64%), high cost of fertilizers (61.77%), high cost of seed (60.04%), high cost of fungicides (57.78%) and labour problem (54.66%).

Title: Production and Export of Value Added tea in India and its Global Competitiveness
Abstract :

The study was conducted for Indian tea based on secondary data pertaining from 1971 to 2016 with the objective to examine the production of bulk tea and value added tea, trends and growth of value added tea and its competitiveness in the world tea market. The data were analysed through tabular as well as quantitative analyses like CAGR, Balassa’s Revealed Comparative Advantage and Nominal Protection Coefficient. It was observed that production, export and growth of graded tea increased during the last two decades. Among the value added tea, the export of tea bags was found to increase and the growth of values was higher in the country. Production of tea in Kenya was more advantageous than India and Sri Lanka. South Indian tea had labour and cost advantages while tea produced in North India and Assam gained profit advantages for selling quality tea. Revealed Comparative Advantage indicated that India is still competent in the global tea market and tea is not an efficient export crop as the domestic prices were higher than the world prices. The study concludes that India should go more for graded and value added tea by reducing the costs of production to gain the competitive advantages.

Title: Yield gap analysis and the determinants of yield gap in major crops in eastern region of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops namely wheat, rice and sugarcane in eastern region of Uttar Pradesh, and the constraints that contribute to this yield gap. In the study area, yield gaps exist in different crops ranging up to 53%. In Uttar Pradesh, yield gap varied from 20.01 to 53.85 %, 15.56 t0 30.10% and 5.8 to 28.89% with the average gap of 28.26 %, 20.93% and 17.5% for rice, wheat and sugarcane crops respectively in the irrigated region of Uttar Pradesh. The yield gaps are mainly caused by socio-economic, credit institutional/policy related factors, extension services and lack of improved technology. Different strategies, such as integrated crop management (1CM) practices, timely supply of inputs including credit to farmers, research and extension collaboration to transfer the new technologies have been discussed as strategies to minimize yield gaps. Suggestions have been made to make credit available to resource-poor small farmers to buy necessary inputs. Efforts should be made to update farmers’ knowledge on the causes of yield gaps in crops and measures to narrow the gaps through training, demonstrations, field visits and monitoring by extension agencies to achieve high yield. The government should realize that yield gaps exist in different crops of Uttar Pradesh and therefore, explore the scope to increase production as well as productivity of crops by narrowing the yield gap and thereby ensure food security.

Title: Evaluating media reach and its effectiveness to disseminate agro-technologies among rural community
Abstract :

This study was conducted to evaluate the media reach and its effectiveness to disseminate agro-technologies among rural people. One hundred respondents were interviewed randomly with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and differences in mean were assessed by using Turkey-b. The study showed that respondents have different degree of accessibility to radio (73%), television (99%, P<0.05) and newspaper (66%). The use of television (17%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher as compared to radio (10%) and newspaper (8%) to listen/read about agriculture. Only 4%, 2% and 2% respondents were used television, radio and newspaper, respectively to learn new agro-technologies where as 10% respondents used interpersonal sources. Therefore, from the present study it may be concluded that in order to enhance the effectiveness of mass media in dissemination of agro-technologies, there is dire need to motivate rural community to use mass media to gain agricultural information.

Title: Benchmarking Farmers’ Economic and Social Status in Anantapuramu and Kurnool Arid Districts of Andhra Pradesh for Probable Introduction of Potato Crop
Abstract :
India has experienced rapid growth in potato production during recent past and the country has almost doubled its potato production during 2003-2013. The potato productivity improved 31.4% over this period of time. However, potato production scenario in southern states of India is quite grim and with the result potato consumers of these states always have to purchase potatoes at very high prices compared to the national average prices. With the objective to augment potato production in southern states this study was carried out for analysing socio-economic characteristics of
potential potato growers in non-traditional Anantapuramu and Kurnool districts of arid region in Andhra Pradesh. A long list of socio-economic factors viz. education level, occupation pattern, house condition, tractor ownership, food security level, access and affordability to civic amenities, children’s education type, possession of household amenities, expenditure pattern and level of mechanization adoption were studied in this study so that most suitable area for potato introduction may be identified.
Title: Agricultural marketing system in Uttarakhand: Structure and functioning
Abstract :

Uttarakhand state has 26 principal market yards, 31 sub-market yards and 27 weekly markets for marketing of agricultural produce which are regulated effectively in 11 districts of the state. However, majority of the districts of this state is located in hilly region, but the principal markets are largely located in the plain regions. Although, the entire hill region is covered under the provision of Agricultural Produce Market Act, 1964; despite this, the major hill markets are still non-functioning. However, Haldwani market which is the best market in terms of marketing welfare has the highest number of functionaries and covers about 20% of total functionaries, As far as the farmer’s perception about the prevailing marketing system and practices is concerned, majority of the farmers from Nainital, Udham Singh Nagar and Almora district were satisfied with the boarding/lodging, weighment, grading, cleanliness and, information sharing, who largely sell their produce to Haldwani market or the grain Mandies in Rudrapur, Jaspur, Sitarganj etc. But these farmers have also expressed their dissatisfaction on the account of cold storage facilities and the exploitative practices of traders and management of the markets especially during the rainy season in the agricultural markets of Uttarakhand. It may be inferred that the hilly regions of the state require special attention on the marketing interventions and infrastructure due to difficult terrains and limited bargaining and handling capacity of the growers resulting from lower size of holding and lack of resources.

Title: Impact of television on purchase decision making among rural community
Abstract :

The study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of television on purchase decision making among rural community of Punjab. One hundred respondents were interviewed randomly with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and differences in mean were assessed by using Turkey-b. The study revealed that 59% respondents were under graduates with 51% females. The 99% respondents have television sets and 93% respondents considered the television as medium of education. About 43% respondents devoted 1-2 hours daily to watch television whereas 60% respondents (P<0.05) opined that women watch more television as compared to others. The 36%, 22% and 25% respondents liked news, serials and musical programmes, respectively on television. Among different news channels 31%, 25% and 52% respondents preferred Aaj Tak, DD News and Star news. The 52% respondents felt that advertisement on television impacted their purchase decision making but only 35% rural respondents remembered television advertisements during purchasing. With respect to sex, 60% male and 40% female respondents ignored advertisements seen on television while purchasing the goods whereas only 24% female respondents purchased goods as learnt from television but the differences were statistically non-significant. Therefore, from the present study it may be concluded that as television has no significant effect on purchase decision making among rural community of Punjab, there is need create advertisements brilliantly to persuade them to purchase the advertised products.

Title: Globalization and its effect on India
Abstract :

Globalization has many meanings depending on the context and on the person who is talking about. The term globalization refers to the integration of economies of the world through uninhibited trade and financial flows, as also through mutual exchange of technology and knowledge. Ideally, it also contains free inter-country movement of labour. Globalization has played a major role in export- led growth, leading to the enlargement of the job market in India. Indian economy had experienced major policy changes in early 1990s. The new economic reform, popularly known as, Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG model) aimed at making the Indian economy as fastest growing economy and globally competitive. With the onset of reforms to liberalize the Indian economy in July of 1991, a new chapter has dawned for India and her billion plus population. This period of economic transition has had a tremendous impact on the overall economic development of almost all major sectors of the economy, and its globalization on India. Throughout this paper, there is an underlying focus on the impact of globalization on India’s foreign trade and Indian economy.

Title: Growth Performance of Agriculture and Allied Sectors in the North East India
Abstract :

The North East India comprising of eight states namely Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura has a total geographical area of 262180 km2 which is about 8% of the country’s total area with a population of about 45 million (2011 census). Agriculture and allied sector is the major source of livelihood for the majority of the workforce (around 50-70% across the states). By and large, the region is characterized by frazility, marginality, inaccessibility, cultural heterogeneity, ethnicity and rich in biodiversity. Rural population (82%) is agrarian and depends on agriculture and allied sector for livelihood in the absence of industries, except in the state of Assam. Around 56% of the area is under low altitude, 33% mid altitude and 11% under high altitude. The agricultural production system is characterized by and large CDR (Complex diverse risk prone) type, low cropping intensity, subsistence farming, undulating topography and faulty land use pattern. Under this low investment-low-income farming situation, probably horticulture sector has desirable attributes to accelerate the agricultural growth process in the region. Agriculture and allied sector particularly horticulture sector plays very important role towards sustainable rural livelihoods in all farming system in general and in rainfed and hilly farming system in particular like the north east region. Increase in production can be induced by research, development/extension and infrastructural facilities to take prudent public investment decision through understanding the relative importance of productivity enhancing factors (Thorat et al., 2006).

Title: Effectiveness of SHGs in Improving Livelihood Security and Gender Empowerment
Abstract :

To achieve a satisfactory level of human development, it is imperative for all individuals to enjoy a sense of security. Self-help Groups (SHGs), besides being a microfinance mechanism are a method to implement developmental schemes at the grass root level and also help the marginalized community come together to solve their problems through participatory approach. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of self-help groups in their developmental influences on the livelihood security and gender empowerment. In all 80 SHG members were selected through purposive and random sampling methods. The present study purposively included both women and men, successful and non successful self help groups so as to analyze the effectiveness of SHGs for genders empowerment. Data were collected through personal interview using pre-tested structured interview schedule and focused group discussions. In successful SHGs the upper age was 45 years, in non-successful SHG majority of respondents were in age group of 46 years and above. Among women’s successful group majority of the members (45per cent) were educated up to secondary level and 90% of respondents were educated up to secondary level in men SHGs. In case of non-successful women SHG forty 5% respondents were illiterate while 55% were educated up to primary level. There was a definite improvement on all aspects related to empowerment and livelihood security after joining the SHGs as compared to before joining the SHG as there was positive impact in all types of groups. This may be due to the fact that the group processes improve the human capability of its members to deal with life conditions with confidence in a better way

Title: Status and Constraints in Livestock Farming amongst Tribal Farmers of Kamrup District in Assam
Abstract :

Livestock is an integral part of the agricultural economy of Assam and its role is particularly significant in the social, economical and environmental system of the tribal society in the state. In recognition of its importance and potential, the development of livestock was viewed as a key strategy for overall development of the tribal economy.

Title: An Analysis of Constraints in E-Learning and Strategies for Promoting E-Learning among Farmers
Abstract :

In a country like India where most of the farming communities have low access to the right information sources, extension has so much scope to enter into new vistas like e-learning which can be utilized for virtual education, training and dissemination of information. e- Learning and its promotion carry a number of barriers too along with the favourable factors. In the study undertaken among sixty e-learner farmers of Malappuram district of Kerala state to analyze the various constraints coming in the way of e-learning of agricultural technologies, the most important constraint observed was: technological constraints out of the four groups of constraints. Lack of prompt reply to online queries and information, high cost of establishment, lack of time and relevant information in the website was found to be affecting the e- learner farmers.

Title: Indo-Nepal Trade Relations in Agricultural Commodities
Abstract :

India and Nepal are the neighboring countries which have strong trade ties among themselves. More than 43% of total agricultural import of Nepal comes from India. The present study was undertaken to examine the present status and composition of agricultural trade between India and Nepal and impact of treaty on trade. The competitiveness and trade intensities were also analyzed. Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) was measured to find out the comparative advantage of India and Nepal in global market. It was found that after signing the treaty in 1996 India has emerged as a major trading partner of Nepal.The share of India in Nepal’s total export of agricultural commodities went up from 21% in TE 1995 to about 56% in TE 2011 . Comparative advantage was calculated for six agricultural commodities (jute, pulses, spices, wheat, tea and fresh vegetables). Over the years, the comparative advantage of jute exports of Nepal decreased and India outsmarted Nepal. Nepal had high comparative advantage than India in pulses export. Compound annual growth rate of pulse production in Nepal was found negative (-3%). Therefore, the comparative advantage in pulse export was because of export of processed pulses. The agro climatic conditions of Nepal favor tea production which was apparent from the compound growth rate of production (13.7%) and increasing positive values of comparative advantage It was concluded that the treaty has boosted the trade between India and Nepal. Therefore, it was suggested to maintain the treaty in the interest of both countries.

Title: Characterization of farm households in terms of market accessibility- A case study in West Tripura district of Tripura
Abstract :

In this study focus has been given on characterization of farm households in terms of market accessibility and identification of factors determining input purchasing behavior in West Tripura district of Tripura state. It refers to an exhaustive survey covering 100 sample farms during the period 2011-12.The study area has witnessed by low intensity of cropping (119%) though more than 90% of the net area gets irrigation which implies that farmers are lagging much behind the adoption of modern technologies and practices. The factors determining the input purchasing behavior have been examined. The sample farms were classified into two groups namely, market-prone and market-averse groups on the basis of involvement of farmers in output market. The study reveals that 40% of the sample farmers do not have proper market access and remain beyond the orbit of market forces. Characteristics of groups have also been identified by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) method.

Title: Technological change and its impact on tenancy relation in West Bengal
Abstract :

An attempt has been made to examine the changes in tenurial contracts in consequential to the changes in agricultural production technology in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal where a dramatic change in agricultural production scenario has been witnessed over last one and half decade. The study has been made with the help of primary data collected by suitably designed schedule and questionnaire. A trend of surrendering land by the bargadars in exchange of getting ownership for a part of land thereof and thereby possibility of increasing earning as owner operator after getting ownership in foreseeable future has been elicited as a prime factor for the long sustenance of lease cultivation. From the entire analysis it comes out that with the advancement of technology, the bargaining position of the landowners vis-à-vis tenants in land lease market has been gradually favorable to the landowners and the security of tenure ensuring of getting ownership for a part of leased-in land and thereby possibility of increasing income by the tenants seems to be a compromising settlement between tenants and landowners.

Title: Economic Reforms and Sources of Productivity Growth in Selected Organised Manufacturing Labour Intensive and Capital Intensive Industries in India - A Comparative Study
Abstract :

This study uses the non parametric data envelopment technique to investigate the impact of economic reforms on Total Factor Productivity Growth in Selected 20 Indian Organised Manufacturing Industries by classifying them into Labour Intensive and Capital Intensive industries; by using non parametric DEA technique to four-digit panel data for the period 1990 to 2011. The study reveals that the Labour Intensive Industries have negative Total Factor Productivity Growth as -6.1% deteriorated mainly due to Technological Change which is -4%. Meanwhile, the Capital Intensive Industries have positive Total Factor Productivity Growth of 6.7%, mainly contributed by Efficiency Change of 1.6% and Technological Change of 5.0%. Eight out of ten Organised Manufacturing Capital Intensive Industries have shown positive Total Factor Productivity Growth during the economic reform period, whereas seven out of ten Organised Manufacturing Labour Intensive Industries showed negative Total Factor Productivity Growth due to lack of technological change.

Title: Opportunities perceived by participants at commodity exchange in the state of Rajasthan
Abstract :

In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the opportunities perceived by farmers, traders and non-traders at bikaner commodity exchange limited, Bikaner Rajasthan. For this purpose primary data were collected for the year 2007- 2008. The required information was collected through personally interviewing the authorized brokers, trading members and farmers associated to the exchange. These data were then analyzed by simple percentage method to obtained objective oriented results. The major opportunities perceived by the traders at Bikaner Commodity Exchange Limited were the futures market are less risky as compared to spot market (92.31), helps traders concentrate on core activity, arbitrage opportunity, price discovery and price risk management, and a good investment option. Taking benefits of prices discovered on platform of commodity exchange (76.32), integrating trade and market support infrastructure, getting benefits indirectly from the use of active futures, using low cost MIS based on various media such as Cell-phone networks, T.V., Radios, Newspapers, and regularly using the market for hedging cash market position at the grass root level were the major opportunities perceived by the farmers at BCEL, Bikaner. Provide long term price signals (89.47), provide facilities for payment and settlement at delivery contract, transparency in prices were the major opportunities perceived by the non-members clients at that exchange.

Title: Cost and income structure of wheat cultivation in Vindhyan Plateau of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

The present study has been made to work out the cost of cultivation, profitability and production as well as marketing constraints of wheat cultivation faced by farmers. The primary data were collected from 105 sample respondents (40 small, 40 medium and 25 large) through pre-tested interview schedule. The cost of cultivation was found to be highest on large farm (` 29379.88/ha) as compared to medium farm (` 26155.99/ha) and small farm (` 21942.80/ha). The gross income received from wheat cultivation was to be ` 50166.54 per hectare on overall farms, while gross income was found to be maximum in case of large farm (` 55817.55/ha) followed by medium farm (` 50191.20/ha) and small farm (` 44490.87/ha). The net income, farm business income, family labour income and farm investment income were found to be ` 24340.32, ` 35779.93, ` 27969.70 and ` 34498.43 per hectare, respectively on overall farms. The benefit cost ratio was to be highest on small farm (1:2.027) as compared to medium (1:1.918) and large farm (1:1.899). The wheat cultivators reported that potential yield could not be achieved due to various production constraints viz. lack of soil testing facilities, lack of knowledge of plant protection measures, lack of knowledge of recommended package of practices, unavailability of hired human labour, irregularity of electricity supply, lack of capital, lack of proper training, disease problems, unavailability of high yielding variety seed and unavailability of fertilizers at operation period.

Title: Contractual Arrangements in Agricultural Labour Market: Some Lessons from Tarai Regions of U.P. and Uttaranchal
Abstract :

The new farm technology has created avenues for contractual arrangements in labour and land markets. Contractual agricultural wage labourers have an incentive for better earnings but it is necessary to supervise them closely which involves cost. Recently, the group contract is emerging in different regions for various agricultural activities. Keeping in view these facts in mind, the present paper is an attempts to study the organization, functioning, pattern of employment and earning of Agricultural Labour under Contractual arrangements in Tarai regions of U.P. and Uttaranchal. Two districts have been selected purposively to represent the whole Tarai belt, namely Udham singh Nagar (Uttaranchal) and Sidharth Nagar (Uttar pradesh). Out of these two selected districts one block from each district has been selected randomly. From these two blocks, three villages from each block have been selected randomly subject to the availability of sufficient numbers of labour households. Thus, 150 labour households have been selected randomly from the lists of labour households prepared from six villages. To study the organisation and functioning of contractual labour, engaged in various activities have been identified .The data is collected from the labour house hold involves in contractual arrangements for the year 1999-2000. The findings of the study reveals that due to more earning in all the agricultural operations performed on contractual basis, the labourers formed a group consisting male and female workers of a family and neighbourers family workers. The group leader usually bargains the terms, conditions and amount of payments for certain activities. However, the wage rates are fixed for most of the piece rate jobs and on that basis, the group of labour is getting employment opportunity. Thus, due to no time limit of work, they have the opportunity to get more employment and earnings by way of engaging themselves in various agricultural activities. It was also observed that they are tempted to engage themselves in contractual arrangements so that they may able to get more employment and income. The possibilities of increasing income of workers are much brighter if they get the employment under contractual arrangements.

Title: Resource use and Technical Efficiency of Rice Production in Manipur
Abstract :

Rice is regarded as the first cultivated crop in Asia as well as important food crop of India. The cost and return structure and technical efficiency in rice production has been reported in different regions as well as in the state of Manipur to show different regions have adopted the latest technology. Primary data have been collected from the sample rice farms with the help of pre-tested scheduled through personal interview with respondent farmers. Technical efficiency of individual farms has been estimated through stochastic production function analysis. The total cost of cultivation on small farms was much higher than the large farms. Imputed rental value for owned land was the major cost items for all the farms. On an average majority (40%) of the rice growing farmers were operating at the technical efficiency level of (99-100)% in relation to frontier output level. Gross return as well as net return per hectare have been observed to be highest for category I followed by category II. Most of the farms have been observed to be potential to expand production and productivity, increasing technical efficiency as majority has been performing with increasing returns to scale.

Title: Growth rate and survivability patterns in Jamunapari breeds of goats under farm conditions in Mahoba district of Bundelkhand region
Abstract :

The present investigation was carried out in the breeding and migratory tracts of jamunapari goat in district Mohoba of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. For study, data were collected from 10 villages of belonging to Jaitpur block of the Mohoba district in 2012-2013. The climate of the breeding and migratory tracts was hot, semi-arid and tropical in nature with matching vegetation and cultivated crops. The average migratory flock size was 58 ± 3.71 (range 30-100). In stationary flocks the size ranged between 2 and 35 with an average of 17.The average flock contains 16.0 ± 2.57 individuals (range 8 to 41), of which 0.25% adult males, 8.65% adult females and 7.1% young. It has been observed that Feeding system significantly affected body weights and weight gain at all the growth stages and. In stationery tracts approximately diarrhea 21.7%, pneumonia 7.1%, parasitic disease 5.5%, F.M.D. 4.9%, Nutritional disease 10.6%, Blot 6.7%, P.P.R. 11.5%, enterotoxaemia 8.4% and unknown other diseases 5.9% were found. In Migratory tracts approximately diarrhea 24.5% , Phenomena 9.6% , Parasitic disease 7.8% , F.M.D. 6.6%, Nutritional disease 12.8%, Blot 8.2%, P.P.R. 13.7%, enterotoxaemia 10.1% and unknown other diseases 7.4%, which were found to have more than stationery tracts. The study revealed that jamunapari goat was reared under traditional method of rearing with less scientific management practices.

Title: Dynamics of Livestock and Poultry Sector in Assam: A Critical Analysis
Abstract :

This paper is a reflection of the recent status of livestock and poultry sector in the state of Assam. Assam has copious livestock and poultry population in the country, accounting for 3.25% and 8.36% of the country’s total livestock and poultry population. Assam’s pig population is highest in the country (17.96% of the country’s total). In case of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat Assam stood at 11th, 19th, 15th and 13th rank respectively. District wise Nagaon and Dibrugarh district has the largest livestock and poultry population with 3076004 and 2890161 numbers respectively. Livestock and poultry population reveal a good growth trend in terms of all the species except buffalo (-7.33%) during the inter census period; 2003-2007. Despite large population, production, productivity and per capita availability of milk, meat, eggs are minimal in Assam. The total milk, meat and egg production of the state for the year 2008-09 were 827 million litres, 30 thousand tonnes and 4664 lakh number respectively. Assam contributes only 0.67%, 0.8% and 0.78% to the country’s total milk, meat and egg production respectively during 2009-10. There is a decline in production of milk and egg in the state during recent years and growth rate in production of meat is also not satisfactory.

Title: Economic Analysis of Plant Nutrient Sources on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilium L.)
Abstract :

To study the economic evaluation of organic of inorganic plant nutrient sources on sweet basil. The results revealed that the maximum fresh herbage yield (3237.25 kg/ha), essential oil percentage (0.44%) and oil yield (14.25 kg/ha) were found in treatment combination T8 (100% NPK i.e. recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers) at 60 DAP i.e. first cutting. Net monetary returns from the crop treated with 100% recommended dose of NPK fertilizer fetched maximum net income of ` 36160/ha whereas the minimum net income recorded (` 7950/ha) in treatment T9 i.e. (control).

Title: Adoption of Jute Production Technology in West Bengal
Abstract :

Jute being crop is an important source of income of growers of West Bengal. In jute cultivation requires a considerable amount of cash investment, an average grown has to face a number of socio-economic and technological problems. A study was conducted on adoption of jute production technology in West Bengal. The objective of this study is to measure the knowledge level adoption index to some important jute production technologies and to find out nature of influence of some of the socio-personal characteristics of the jute growers on their knowledge and adoption of modern jute technologies. Villages were selected as progressive and non-progressive with regard to agro-technological criteria of jute cultivation. The members were selected randomly and total numbers of respondents were 112. The data were processed into mean, median, standard deviation and correlation co-efficient. The factors like mass media exposure, personal cosmopolite sources, age, education and extra village contact are found to have influenced to significant extent the knowledge where the investigation was carried out.

Title: Industrial sickness and its impact on the economy: A case study of haora district, West Bengal
Abstract :

Industrial sickness acts as great hurdle for economic growth. It is considered as a disease that can change a strong unit into a sick or weak unit with low productivity. It is slow poison which can make an economy paralyzed. Haora district is one of the industriallyoprominent districts of West Bengal since colonial period. It is composed of different types of industries like engineering, jute and cotton textile units. With the march of time many of these have lost their glamour and gradually have become economically sick. After suffering from sickness for a long time some of them became closed. Increasing number of sick units in Haora district has affected the economy of this district as well as economy of West Bengal. The contribution of secondary sector in NDDP is declining and the share of registered manufacturing sector is decreasing while the share of unregistered sector is increasing day by day. This is a symptom of weak economy. To reveal actual scenario this study is based on secondary and primary data with purposive sampling technique. To recover from this situation Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) has been established and it takes necessary actions for fruitful results. It is true that without recovery and resurgence of these units and reduction in number of sick units revitalization of the economy is not possible.

Title: Are the Terms of Trade in Cotton Production Favourable to the Indian Farmers?
Abstract :

This study analyses the changes in Terms of Trade (TOT) in cotton production in major cotton growing states of India during the period 1996-97 to 2010-11. The results revealed that during the initial years of analysis TOT was in favour of the cotton producers, but during the later period it turned against them due to unfavourable price terms. Though the quantity terms were favourable, they showed declining trend during last three years. TOT should be made favourable through improving price received by the cotton farmers and controlling the input prices. Similarly cotton productivity should be improved through proper technological as well as policy interventions to make the terms favourable to the cotton producers.

Title: Instability in Indian Agriculture:An Inter-State Analysis
Abstract :

Instability in agricultural production has attracted renewed attention due to change in factors that affect instability positively as well as negatively. There is considerable concern about effect of climate change on production trend. Studies on instability found in the literature have not gone beyond mid 2000s after which Indian agriculture witnessed a structural change in growth. In this paper instability analysis is extended to year 2010-11 to capture recent developments. The study covers entire post-Independence period since 1950-51. The analysis is undertaken at the national and state levels. The analysis reveals that the instability in foodgrains production in India has undergone substantial decline whereas oilseeds production showed significant increase over time. The states which are well endowed with irrigation facility are showing more stability in foodgrains production. The increase in crop yield has been a major factor for accelerating production in the country. The better irrigation facilities, use of modern seed varieties, and improved fertilizer consumption helped to improve foodgrains output in the country.

Title: Study on growth of major cereals in West Bengal
Abstract :

An effort has been made in this study to measure the sub-period growth rates of area, production and yield of two major crops i.e. rice and wheat in West Bengal. The study also tries to examine the changes in costs and profitability of these two crops during this period. It has been observed that the agriculture of the state had been able to boost its performance during the decade of eighties, at least in terms of growth rates production of rice and wheat, mainly for tremendous increment in the yield growth rates of the crops along with expansion of area under cultivation. The effective introduction of HYV technology coupled with successful implementation of land reforms programme at the very grass root level set the path of agricultural development in West Bengal. However, this scenario of impressive growth performance did not sustain for a very long period of time. The fall in the yield growth rates of crops reduces the production growth rates during the era of globalisation which have been started in the early nineties. During this period, crops such as boro rice, and total food grain experienced fall in their growth rates to a significant extent with marked deceleration in growth trend. The trend of declining cost of production with higher growth in yields got reversed in the nineties and beyond and they went up at nearly 1.5% per annum for rice and wheat. The returns over paid-out costs also for rice farmers declined at 1.15% per annum in real terms leading to distress for them. This declining profitability seems to have discouraged them in increasing spending on yield augmenting technology as shown by the relatively declining growth rate of cost of cultivation.

Title: A study of cropping system in Kandi area of Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir state
Abstract :

The present effort undertaken in the Kandi belt of Jammu region aimed to study the different crops grown in the area, the cropping pattern followed and to find out the cropping intensity of the selected area. The results of the study revealed that among the districts selected the Net Cultivable Area was the highest in Jammu district (59.50 ha) and the least was in Rajouri (55.15 ha). However, the Total Cropped Area was highest in district Udhampur (98.70 ha). The cropping intensity was highest in Udhampur 167.57 and the least in Jammu (163.61).

Title: Pre-harvest forecast models for wheat yield based on biometrical characters
Abstract :

Some statistical models for pre-harvest forecast of wheat yield based on biometrical characters in situation of normal and late sowing of wheat have been developed in the present paper. In both the situations, linear multiple regression model (model-I), where biometrical characters are used in the original form, has been found to be the best forecasting model as it has consistently smaller percent standard errors for the forecast yield of wheat alongwith maximum value of R2adj.(49 to 51%).

Title: An analysis of changing land use pattern and cropping pattern in a scenario of increasing food insecurity in Kerala state
Abstract :

Kerala state is unique in its agro-climatic variations and cropping pattern as compared to other states of India. Changes in Land Use pattern and cropping pattern in Kerala have been creating a lot of concern from the environmental as well as food security point of view. The present study examines shifts in land use pattern and changing trend of cropping pattern in Kerala from 2001to 2012period. Secondary data on area, production and productivity of major food crops and non food crops were collected from various sources. Compound annual growth rate and Cuddy-Della Valle instability index was computed to examine the growth and instability of the crops over the period (2001-2012). Crop diversification index was also calculated for the state for each year. The study observed that land which is categorized as cultivable waste, fallow other than current fallow and Current fallow recorded a positive growth in area. It is also found that banana(1.53%) and rubber(1.07%) showed maximum positive growth in terms of area. Among food crops rice (4.01%) tapioca (3.83%) and plantain (1.01%) showed a negative growth in area. Rice recorded negative growth in both area and production, which should be considered as an alarming situation as far as food security of Kerala is considered. It can be concluded that in Kerala Total cropped area is decreasing and food crops are more hard hitted by this shift than non food crops. Crop diversification index also point towards the trend of increasing monocropping in the state which favour non food crops.

Title: Cost and return analysis of phalsa (Grewia asiaticaL.) propagation by semi-hard wood cuttings
Abstract :

Phalsa (Grewia asiatica L.) belongs to family Tiliaceae and is native to the Indian sub-continent and South-East Asia. But there is hardly any work which has analysed its costs and returns.In order to evaluate the most profitable treatment, economic analysis of treatments was worked out in terms of net returns and benefit cost (B:C) ratio. The cost and analysis structure of production of 1000 plants through rooting of cuttings was worked out for 15th July, 30th July, 15th August and 30th August planting in combination with IBA (150 ppm, 300 ppm and 450 ppm), NAA (150 ppm, 300 ppm and 450 ppm) and untreated cuttings planted i.e., treatment seven on different dates of planting. The cost incurred on preparation of land (`500.00), labour charges (`515.00), Farm yard manure (`180.00), planting material (` 1500.00), irrigation (`560.00) and depreciation on assets (` 79.80) was found to be same in all the treatments. The cost incurred on the preparation of different solutions of IBA in various treatments was found to be `403.20 for 450 ppm IBA followed by `269.00 for 300 ppm IBA and `134.40 for 150 ppm IBA and in case of preparation of NAA it was found to be `378.00, `252.00 and `126.00, respectively. It was found that 30th July was best date of planting of phalsa cuttings and IBA treatment was best among growth regulators treatment. Also phalsa cuttings treated with IBA 300 ppm and planted on 30th July showed highest survival percentage (71%) and net returns (` 3496.20) Thus, planting of phalsa cuttings on 30th July and treated with IBA 300 ppm was found to be best treatment combination as evidenced by the cost: benefit ratio of 1:1.97.

Title: Pattern and trend in labour use in Indian agriculture: An analysis across major crops and states
Abstract :

The technological change in agriculture has made significant impacts on labour absorption, notably since green revolution. In this context the present study analyses the pattern and trend in labour absorption across major states and crops during the period of mid-1970s to 2010. The entire period of analysis has been sub-divided into two, upto mid-90s as first period and post-mid 90s till 2010 as the second period, broadly corresponding to the period of green revolution and market reforms, respectively. The analysis was carried out for rice and wheat, two major food crops and cotton and sugarcane, two major commercial crops. The results indicated that at national level, there is wide variation in the trend in labour absorption among the four crops under study: while a continuous decline has been observed in the case of wheat during the entire period, it has been continuously rising in the case of cotton. On the other hand, paddy and sugarcane depicted varying trends over the time- increasing labour absorption up to mid-1990s, but declining thereafter. This trend at national level corresponds to the spread of technological changes in agriculture.

Title: An analysis of profitability trend in Indian Cement Industry
Abstract :

In Indian manufacturing sector cement industry is one of the oldest and established one contributing a large share of total industrial production and employment. Unfortunately however, the industry has long been a victim of various regulatory measures taken by the government on its production and distribution from its time of commencement. These have worsened its competitive structure from the very beginning. The disadvantageous situation of a large number of companies is reflected in the haphazard movement of the industry’s profitability ratio. The industry is overburdened with different types of tax imposed by the government. Burden of unfavourable sales tax and excise duty, uncertainty in supply of raw materials, underutilization of capital and high capital cost added to the aforesaid fluctuation in profitability. The lower base of profitability ratios and the waning financial position of the majority of the companies have left them with little resources to undertake renovation and modernization. It is high time that some fiscal measures imposed by the government, together with a drive to modernization be effective for reconstructing the condition of Indian cement industry.

Title: A Study on Utilisation of Credit by Marginal Farmers in Nadia District of West Bengal
Abstract :

The study has been conducted in Nadia district of West Bengal. Two villages have been purposively selected for the study. Out of 50 marginal farmers 17 (34% of the total) have reported to have taken loan from various sources like nationalised banks, moneylenders and churches. The marginal farmers have been grouped into three on the basis of level of annual income. Tabular method of analysis has been extensively employed in this study. Simple correlation analysis has been exercised between use of credit in productive purpose and each of the variables like size of operational holding, income from off farm sources, gross cropped area under non-cereal crops, per capita income and number of crops grown. No significant correlation has been found in any case. The study also reveals that the highest percentage of the borrowing households exist in medium income group. As a whole percentage ofborrowing marginal agricultural households (farm) taking loan from non-institutional sources is considerably higher than the percentage of households taking loan from institutional sources. Nationalised banks are the only institutional source of credit. No wide difference has been found in the amount of loan taking from institutional and non-institutional sources. No agricultural household in high income group has taken loan from non-institutional sources. Amount of credit per household is the largest in high income group and smallest in low income group. In low and high income groups of borrowing marginal households, amounts of loan in productive purposes are higher than those used in non-productive purposes. But use of higher amount of loan has been recorded for non-productive purposes in medium income group. Irrespective of income groups amount of loan used in non-productive purposes has been recorded to be higher than in productive purposes. Concerned to the productive activities, loan has been used only in crop production across all the income groups of borrowing agricultural households. In case of non-productive activities majority of loan has been used in building houses. The other uses of loan in non-productive purposes are related to ceremony, consumption and health

Title: Producers organisation and economics of cultivation of turmeric as high valued crop against rice-wheat cropping system for increasing farm income: a case study in hoshiarpur district of Punjab
Abstract :

The study was conducted in the Ghugial village of Hoshiarpur district of Punjab during 2010-11. The main objectives were to study the cropping and crop diversification of the members of FAPRO and to examine the relative advantages of cultivation of turmeric as a high valued crop amongst the members of FAPRO unit. The study was based on primary data collected from 40 member farmers selected proportionately. It was observed that the cropping pattern was more diverse towards high valued horticultural crops, sugarcane and fodder as cash crop from cereals that occupied more than 70.00% of gross cropped area. Cultivation of turmeric was found relatively advantageous over Rice –Wheat cropping system in respect of input use and profitability as an annual crop. Price of turmeric was more assured due to the presence of FAPRO as a buying agent. The crop was also found to be more protective.

Title: A study on adoption of modern agricultural technologies at farm level in Bihar
Abstract :

Among socio-economic, technological and managerial reasons, ineffective transfer of farm technology are important causal factors for poor performance of agriculture. Transfer of technology has been the major obstacle in achieving the targets in past. Present study deals with level of adoption of modern agricultural technology, access and quality of modern technology, outreach of agricultural extension institutions and problems faced by extension officials in transfer of farm technology in Bihar. Study is based on primary data obtained through survey of farm households, agricultural scientists and extension officers in Bihar. Study revealed the coverage of agricultural development programmes limited to few villages, and line departments still dominating technology transfer arena. Institutions like ATMA and KVK were limited to few activities only. Adoption level of artificial insemination is comparatively high due to active participation of co-operatives and private sector, but less than one fourth of farmers could adopt advanced horticulture and modern crop seeds in Bihar. Small size of land holding and fragmented land emerged as main constraint to adoption of modern horticultural technology in Bihar. While analyzing use of modern varieties of principal crops, comparatively high level of adoption on small and medium farms was observed. Dissemination of information about modern agricultural development projects/ schemes is a necessary factor for adoption of modern technology. ATMA and KVK have performed better in dissemination of the information, however, inadequate staff, infrequent supervision and lack of conveyance facility are most important constraints faced in transfer of technology in Bihar.

Title: Directing the Credit for Agricultural Growth in Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract :

Jammu and Kashmir is a hill state having majority of farmers falling under marginal and small holding categories. Diffusion of modern agricultural techniques and practices to the farmers by way of strengthening and activating the extension machinery can go a long way in improving the situation. This adoption of new technologies depends largely on the state of infrastructure and resources available with the farmers. Therefore credit is an important input for maintaining resources to improve agriculture at local level. However, both the Government and the financial institutions are taking several steps to enhance the credit flow to agriculture. During the past few years significant progressive changes have taken place in banking and financial structure of Jammu and Kashmir. The growth of commercial banks and co-operative credit societies has been really spectacular. The Banks have played a crucial role in the mobilization of savings and Investment. Bank credit to productive sectors of the economy has a critical role in sustaining the growth process. Banking structure in J&K consists of Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks and Cooperative Banks. At the end of December 2008, the state was served by 944 bank branches of all Scheduled Commercial Banks.

Title: Income and employment generation through MGNREG scheme in Haryana
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in Mahendragarh district of Haryana state. All the five blocks were taken from the selected district and from each block two villages were randomly selected totaling 10 villages. Ten MGNREGS job card holders were randomly selected from each selected village. Thus, the total sample consisted of 100 respondents. Most of the job cards were applied and issued during 2006-07 followed by the year 2010-11 in all the blocks. The proportion of persons doing actual work to the total job cards issued was very low in almost all the selected blocks. Majority of job card holders did not get employment in almost all the years. In the year 2011-12, 63% of workers did not get work for even a single day. The average employment per respondent decreased from about 23 days in 2006-07 to about 14 days in 2011-12. This indicates that participation of workers is very low in MGNREGA in the study area. The root cause of low participation is lack of information/awareness about MGNREGS and job card not handed over to them. The contribution of MGNREGS income was about 9% to the total family income of the working respondents (37%). In the study area, there was a common problem of non-availability of camel carts at low rate fixed by the government. There is a need of further strengthening of the MGNREGS to generate sufficient employment for rural workers.

Title: Marketing behaviour of cumin in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan
Abstract :

The study pertains to Jodhpur district of Rajasthan state where cumin is cultivated extensively. The study examined various economic aspects of cumin such as assessment marketable surplus, sale pattern, and channels involved in marketing of cumin. Out of which two tehsils namely looni and falodi were selected on the basis of highest production and area. Six villages were selected randomly from selected tehsils. A sample of sixty cumin growers was selected randomly. Primary data were utilized in the study. The primary data utilized in the study were collected from the respondent farmers by personal by interviewing them with the help of a set of pre tested schedule. The marketable and marketed surplus ranged between 95 to 97% on different sized farms. The sample farmers disposed 85.74% surplus cumin seed in the Mandor regulated market and only 14.26% quantity was disposed in the villages to village traders of the surplus cumin seed, 53% was sold in the first quarter immediately after harvest (March to May) and others 47% was marketed in remaining three quarters of the year (Aug. to Feb.). Small sized farmers disposed off their total surplus cumin seed in one lot as against this medium and large sized farmer disposed off their total surplus in two and more lots. Following two marketing channels were identified in the study area for marketing of cumin. Channel I: Producer – Village trader – Wholesaler- Retailer – Consumer. Channel II: Producer –Wholesaler- Retailer – Consumer. Among these channels, 75% quantity of cumin moved through channel –II and 25% quantity was moved through channel-I.

Title: Agricultural Marketing Information System– A Case Study of Traders in Meghalaya
Abstract :

Agricultural marketing information is an essential input for boosting agricultural growth in rural areas. An attempt has been made to identify the various pattern of awareness, sources, utilization and its benefits, constraint, and expectations to agricultural marketing information(AMI) among the traders in the study area of two regulated markets namely, Mawiong Regulated Market in Mylliem Block of East Khasi Hills and Garobadha Regulated Market in Selsella Block of West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya.The sample size consisted of 40tradersfrom both selected regulated market areas were selected for the study based on purposive and random sampling technique.From the findings of the research study, It was revealed that the degree of awareness on prices in local markets placed the I Rank (first) followed by arrivals in local markets, arrivals and prices in reference markets (III Rank). It was observed that traders were always relied on contacts in other market (90%) and fellow traders (75%) for market information. Newspaper placed the III rank on degree of awareness of AMI sources among the traders. It was clearly seen that the agricultural market information was utilized by traders in deciding price to be quoted (I Rank), followed by the quantity to be purchased (II Rank) and the quantity to be store (III Rank). It was observed that traders were most benefited by changing time of sale (90%), followed by mode of storage (85%). About 75 per cent of traders expressed that AMI was not available in required form.The expectation aspects of traders on AMI indicated that the prices in other nearby markets (95%), future price projections (87.5%) and quality wise prices (75%) were given more priority by traders in the study area. It is necessary toensured flow of regular and reliable data to producers, traders and consumers to derive maximum benefit of their sales and purchases.Emphasis should be given on delivery mechanism of information, so that market information reaches timely to the end users in the hilly regions of Meghalaya.

Title: Economic viability of milk production in private dairy farms in Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
The present study based on data collected from 70 private dairy farms in Muzafarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh during reference period 2011-12 was undertaken to analyze economic viability of milk production in private dairy farms in study area.The analysis of the data (ANOVA) on plot size in blocks revealed the significant difference (p<0.01). The total plot sizes, plot size used by dairy were 687.86±21.40 yards2, 565.00±24.28 yards2 respectively. Analysis of data reveled that blocks had also significant (P≤0.01) effects on per litre sale price of cow and buffalo milk along with total daily milk sale (Table 40). The overall mean of litre sale price of cow and buffalo milk along with total daily milk sale were ` 27.03 and ` 32.0 per liter and ` 4713.90 per day. The blocks had also highly significant effect (P≤0.01) on total monthly income (`) through sale of milk, sale of manure and gunny bags. The overall mean for total monthly income (`) through these traits were ` 143231.77±4260.46 were Rs 1575.00 and ` 665.71 respectively.) The overall mean for total monthly receipts monthly recurring expenditure and monthly net economic gain were ` 145472.49±4298.80, ` 109106.09±2494.28 and
` 36366.39±2447.71.
Title: Growing private providers and constraints in the choice of higher education institutions: Impact on access to higher education
Abstract :

The choice by students in higher education has assumed importance due to the forced intrusion of neo-liberal principles. In a market economy consumers are sovereign and thus, students should have freedom to choose their life path (the courses and institutes). But, financial constraints hinder them to get that liberty. In a pro-market economy, the proliferation of private higher education institutions to meet the growing demand for higher education and their higher fee structures put an impact on access by the underprivileged. They end up with higher education institutions not of their choice.

Title: Growth and performance of Kisan Credit Card Scheme in India with special reference to Karnataka
Abstract :

The credit is the life blood of agriculture and which was disbursed through KCC Scheme in our country. The number of KCC issued and amount sanctioned in India, Karnataka, North-East Karnataka region and Bellary district was estimated using the compound growth rate analysis. The necessary secondary data about KCC scheme for India were collected from RBI publications since inception of the scheme. The same data for Karnataka, North East Karnataka region and Bellary district were collected for the period 2006-07 to 2011-12. The collected were pertaining to three formal agencies viz., commercial bank, RRBs and co-operatives. At national level, the commercial banks have issued the highest number of KCCs amongst the three formal financial agencies. The commercial banks issued highest KCCs (45.33%) followed by co-operative banks (40.30%) and minimum issued by RRBs (14.37%). The similar pattern was observed for Karnataka state and Bellary district. Whereas in North-East Karnataka region, the highest number of KCCs was issued by RRBs. The highest percent of operational holding covered by KCC was in case of North-East Karnataka region (610.09%) followed by Karnataka (391.82%) and Bellary district (332.87%).

Title: ICT based market information services in Kerala-Determinants and barriers of adoption
Abstract :

ICT based market information services are getting wide importance as a means of empowering farmers by enabling them to take informed decisions, and in removing information asymmetry. This study analyses determinants of adoption as well as barriers to adoption of ICT based market information services (MIS) in Kerala. Logistic regression model revealed that factors like education, family size, and contact with extension agent positively influenced adoption of ICT based market information services by the farmers whereas income from other sources negatively influenced the adoption. Technical barriers and language were found to be the most important barriers for adoption of MIS followed by irrelevancy of contents, lack of reliability, lack of awareness and cost involved. The study suggested that further efforts to create awareness about such interventions among farmers, providing content in local languages in user friendly manner will increase the adoption of MIS and would remove information asymmetry in agricultural marketing.

Title: Rural infrastructure and agricultural growth linkages in Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :

An attempt has been made in this study to analyze the growth and impact of rural infrastructure on agricultural land/labour productivity in Jammu and Kashmir employing secondary data. The results indicated that although the road network in the state has significantly expanded but still number of regions are yet to be connected. Similarly 3% of the villages are yet to have electricity facility though the proportion of village electrified has increased since 1980s’. Moreover it is interesting to note that the electricity consumed for agricultural activities constitute only 5% of total electricity consumption in the state. As far as irrigation capacities in the state are concerned, it has shown only a marginal improvement over the years. While cooperative have shown a decline, the branches offices of banks have increased significantly. The estimates of agricultural land/labour productivity models revealed that rural infrastructure variables have significantly contributed to the growth of agricultural productivity and may have significant marginal impact. On the basis of major findings, this study suggests that the pace of growth in development of the agricultural economy has to be accompanied by consistent growth in rural infrastructure. The study also advocated the public-private partnership in building basic rural infrastructure uniformly across the state.

Title: Work time allocation and valuation of women’s contribution in household activities in the urban economy of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Women constitute half of the population and so their participation in the household and economic activities at par with men is necessary for the development of mankind. The equality of women with men would remain a myth till women become economically self-reliant. Unpaid works affect women “employment” and income, social benefits and well-being. Women’s employment is generally low because unpaid work tends to constrain women’s participation in the formal, paid labour market. However, poverty and the financial crisis compel women to engage in economic activities and earn income in the informal economy. Thus women perform subsistence and livelihood activities or engage in micro-enterprises and generate income for the household. But their informal activities do not reduce their unpaid work; in fact, they continue to perform both the unpaid and paid work.

Title: A comparison of resource use efficiency and constraints of wastewater and freshwater fish production system in West Bengal
Abstract :

The study was carried out to find the profitability and resource use efficiency of two fish production system i.e. wastewater and freshwater in West Bengal, India. The study revealed that though the productivity of freshwater fish production system was higher by 74.5 kg/acre over the other system but the freshwater fish production farmers realized lower net returns of ` 1933.53/acre as compared to the wastewater fish production farmers. This was due to mainly two facts, firstly, higher rent of leased-in freshwater fish ponds and secondly, the locational advantage of wastewater fish ponds (proximity to the megacity Kolkata) which fetched higher price of the produce. The results of the study indicated that under both the system of fish production, fish seeds, area, and labour has greater influence on gross returns. Further, it was found that, fish seeds and labour were under-utilized in freshwater fish production system whereas fish seeds, labour and area were under used in wastewater fish production system. Theft and pilferages, non availability of quality fish seeds, lack of government support, lack of capital, lack of natural feed, labour crisis etc. were some of the major identified problems and constraints encountered during production of fish.

Title: Study on Growth and Instability of Sesame in North-Eastern Hill Region of India
Abstract :

Alongside making considerable progress in the production of food grains and oilseeds especially during the last three decades, the Indian agriculture has simultaneously been indicative of growing instability in the production front for several reasons. It was in this backdrop, an attempt was made through the present study to examine the growth and instability of sesame over five of the six sesame growing states of North-Eastern Hill Region of the country by way of analyzing the time series data of 20 years. The growth rate of area and production found to be highest in Nagaland state but in terms of productivity it was highest in Manipur state. The instability which was highest observed in case of area and productivity for Manipur was observed lowest in Nagaland state. Hence, the study highly recommends the use and adoption of site specific scientific package of practices of the crop to avoid the prevailed instability.

Title: Growth and Export Performance of Ginger in India– An Economic Analysis
Abstract :
India is rightly called as “spice bowl of the world” for its production of variety and superior quality of spices. Indian agriculture has to face competitiveness in international trade for each commodity due to liberalisation and agreement of WTO. Spices are the major exports from India and it is generally expected that trade policies would influence the spice trade. In the area of export ginger occupies fifth position in terms of quality and sixth position in export earnings among the spices. In recent years, there have been ups and downs in export of ginger from India. This situation called for a detailed study. Hence this study was conducted to analyze growth and export performance of ginger in India. The required data collected for the period of 29 years.
The objectives are analyzed with nominal protection coefficient and growth rate analysis. The growth rate between pre and post-WTO period in terms of area and production were positive. The export growth of post WTO period in terms of quantity and values were found to be not significant and declining but unit price value were found to be significant and positive. Nominal protection coefficient was found to be more than one indicates the non profitability of export.
Title: Commercialization to Specialization: A Scenario of Punjab Agriculture
Abstract :
The present study was carried out to examine the changes in cropping pattern and the contribution of food grains to central pool over the years by Punjab. The study revealed that the area under wheat and paddy crops, which was 40.50 and 6.90 per cent of gross cropped area (GCA) during 1970-71, has increased to 44.65 and 35.66 per cent during 2011-12, respectively. However, the area under pulses, maize, bajra, oilseeds and sugarcane has declined by 7.18, 3.47, 9.75, 3.61 and 0.69 per cent, respectively. Thus, paddy-wheat crop rotation became predominant at the cost of maize, other cereals, oilseeds and pulses in the state. Food grain production in the state has grown from 20.00 million tonne in 1992-93 to 23.49 million tonne in 2002-03 and further increased to 27.22 million tonne in 2011-12. The share of Punjab state in food grain production has decreased over the years, and came down to 10.57 per cent in 2011-12 from 11.14 per cent in 1992-93. The study revealed that the production in food grains and cropping pattern in Punjab has almost stagnant, and there is a need for diversification of agriculture at this stage. Emphasis must be given on cultivation of water saving crops as well as the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides may be minimized to enhance the sustainable agriculture in Punjab 
Title: Migrant Labour and Industrial Work Environment: A Relationship Vital to National development
Abstract :

The present paper focuses on the work environment, which is the core of employment relationship, faced by the migrant labourers that work in the industrial units of Ludhiana, also known as ‘Manchester of India’. Despite their unquestionable vital role in the economic growth of the city, especially the secondary sector, many of the migrant labourersinhospitable work environment as they are made to work for more than the stipulated time, not paid for the overtime work, not provided with safe work environment, face health issues due hazardous work, do not get work according to choice, employed as temporary labour, and discriminated during the routine work and at the time of payment of wages. Though dissatisfied with the workplace, these labourers are change averse for they put up with the existing work conditions and prefer to get employed again at the same place of work. This clearly points to the fact that these labourers are helpless, neglected, exploited and discriminated to which they wilfully accept for being financially depressed. There is a dire need to preserve the interests of the migrants to ensure aflourishing homogeneoussocial and economic environment.

Title: Benchmark survey of Rajapanichandra village in Rani Block of Kamrup District in Assam
Abstract :

Benchmark survey of Rajapanichandra in Rani Block of Kamrup district was undertaken during the month of August and September, 2013 with the purpose of adopting as a KVK village with emphases on popularizing poultry enterprise (Vanraja breed). To fulfill the objectives of the study, primary data was collected by personally interviewing the households along with a general survey of the entire village. The findings of the survey revealed that the farming system prevailing in the area was crop based with livestock and homestead as secondary activities. Moreover, the farming system practices were traditional and on subsistence basis and thus the output mostly fulfilled the domestic needs. About 98 percent of the households belonged to the Bodo (tribal) community and as a part of their socio-cultural and religious tradition were interested for rearing of poultry on a commercial basis.

Title: An Economic Analysis of Silk Saree Weaving by Power Loom: A Study in Tumkur District of Karnataka
Abstract :

The growth of power looms had begun during the 1960s and year after year there has been a tremendous growth in the number of power looms. As a result, presently there are more than 22.69 lakhs power looms in the country (3rd census, GOI, 2008). And Karnataka is the fifth state with respect to the number of registered power looms (89,900), offering employment to 2, 04,725persons (www.indianstat.com, 2014-15). The study was conducted in Tumkur district of Karnataka with a total sample size of 60 respondents from three different taluks of Tumkur District. The result of the study revealed that there is a variation in man days used in saree production. The man days depended on the type and design of the saree produced in Power loom (Resham Saree: 0.4 MD, LT (Low twist yarn) Saree: 0.30 MD, Cotton Silk saree: 0.40MD) and the weft used for LT type saree was very less when compared to Resham and cotton silk saree. The total cost of production of Resham saree was high (`401.56) compared to LT and Cotton silk sarees (` 224.69 and ` 395.70). This is because of the differences in design and colour combination of the sarees. The net returns obtained from Resham saree was ` 123.44 with the B:C ratio of 1.30, which means that if you invest one rupee in a power loom , Resham silk saree production can be obtained in ` 1.30.

Title: Two-tier Co-operative Credit Structure in Manipur: An Overview
Abstract :

Serving the Indian society since 1904; the cooperative credit structure has proved itself to be the life blood of the Indian economy and the mechanism as well as the booster for many a developmental programs especially in agriculture dominated rural sector by playing a pivotal role in triggering the welfare of common individual, financing his business and other personal needs. The paper is an effort to provide an overview of the two tier co-operative credit structure, of Manipur of NEHR in order to reveal its performance with special reference to operation, recovery performance, financial performance and loan delinquency rate for last 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12). The co-operative structure in the state shown satisfactory its growth but at the same time the loan delinquency of MSCB was observed to be in higher side which shows poor recovery of the loan from the farmers. Further, to strengthen the co-operative system study suggests opening more branches of co-operative for more outreach of loan to the remotely located villages in the state. Campaign of awareness programmes should be initiated to reduce the delinquency of loans in the state.

Title: A study on effect of Change in Prices of inputs and outputs on food security of Agricultural Households in Coastal Saline Zone of West Bengal
Abstract :

The study was conducted in Kakdwip block of South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. Primary data were collected from 56 agricultural households belonging to two villages by the technique of Simple Random Sampling without Replacement. The reference years of the study are 2001-02 and 2011-12 agril years. The study aimed at finding change in income of the agricultural households earned from crop production in a period from 2001-02 and 2011-12 agricultural years owing to changes in price of inputs and agricultural commodities. The study also attempted to find capabilities of agricultural households in maintaining food security with their income earned from crop production at two points in time. Requirement of food commodities of agricultural households was estimated on the basis of dietary guidelines regarding balanced diet for people given by National Institute of Nutrition under the aegis of Indian Council of Medical Research. Results of the study revealed that agricultural land was allocated to a number of crops like aman paddy, lathyrus, vegetables boro paddy and betelvine. Cropping intensity was found to decrease with the higher size classes of farms. Percentage of irrigated land was noted to be the highest in marginal size class. Cost per farm was found to escalate by 139 per cent due to increase in prices of inputs. Gross return per farm went up by 122 per cent. Net income earned from crop production could meet only 26% of expenditure on food materials in 2001-02. In 2011-12 only 21 percent of the food security was insured by this income.

Title: Impact of Women Labour and its Utilization under different Agro-Climatic Zones with Reference to different Farm Size Groups in State of Assam
Abstract :

In this paper an attempt has been made to estimate the impact of women labour and its utilization undertaken based on different agro-climatic zones with reference to different farm size group in the state of Assam, study further reveals that out of the total population in the sampled households, 48.27 per cent are female, out of that 23.07 per cent were comprising between the age group of 15-59 years, 16.42 per cent were below 15 years and it was least with 8.78 per cent were above 59 years. The availability of human labour was found to be 763.61 mandays (out of that 733.79 mandays are of family and 29.8 mandays attached labour) per farm of which 50.58 per cent was female labour. On the other hand, per hectare availability was recorded to be 515.8 mandays. The above study brought out the fact that in Assam, women participation was substantial in crop production activities. The utilization of female labour in rice cultivation, especially in HYV rice, is most noteworthy, respectively.

Title: Export-led-growth Hypothesis: Further Econometrics Evidence from India
Abstract :

Over the last three decades the role of export in the process of economic growth has been the subject of debate among economists. The recent policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization and growth process of developed and developing countries further helped fuel this debate. The main questions in this debate are whether an outward oriented trade policy is preferable to an inward oriented trade policy in stimulating economic growth. There are two types of hypothesis that are build up in this debate: Export-led Growth (ELG) hypothesis and Growth-led Export (GLE) hypothesis. This paper investigates the relationship between GDP and exports in India for the period of 1980-2009. To achieve the objective of this study, Granger Causality Test has been applied. The test results support that there is bilateral causality between GDP and exports. This study suggests that export promotion policy is pursued consistently with an emphasis on inclusive and sustainable growth. This study supports the view that export is an engine of growth.

Title: Knowledge of Farmers about Privatization of Agricultural Extension Services and the factors influencing it
Abstract :

The present study was carried out in five districts of Haryana during 2011-12. All the 200 farmers selected for the study had heard about privatization of agricultural extension services(PAES), gathered information regarding PAES, knew name and location of PAES and utilized PAES for agricultural purposes. They also knew that PAES provided different kinds of inputs like HYV, seedlings, fertilizers, crop protection, spray pumps, infrastructure facilities and value addition to crop produce. More than three-fourth (82.50%) of farmers had high level of knowledge towards PAES. Extension contact (0.198) and education (0.179) were highly significant and positively associated with the knowledge of farmers towards privatization of agricultural extension services. While other important variables like age, family type, occupation, land holding, cropping intensity, irrigation facilities, social participation, socio-economic status, mass media participation,economic motivation, risk preferenceand scientific orientation were positively associated but found non significant.

Title: An Examination of the Factors Discriminating Onion Growers in West Bengal
Abstract :

The present study is based on empirical survey (2013-14) on hundred sample onion growers from Nadia and Hooghly districts of West Bengal in an attempt to characterise them into different classes in terms of several indicators covering both categorical and continuous variables and examining the factors discriminating them. The goal of this research article is to advocate intervention measures for augmenting onion production in a deficit state of West Bengal. K-means cluster analysis, Group characterization technique and Linear Discriminant Analysis tools have been used for the study. It has been found that the causes of poor performance among low-yield group emanate from cultural practices, technology adoption and managerial lapses. Institutional linkages, developing and restructuring farmers’ oriented bodies, promoting SHGs and building up Onion Producers Company and providing marketing infrastructure and provision of cold storages may change the status of poor onion growers.

Title: Supply response of coconut cultivation in Kerala
Abstract :

Kerala’s agriculture development experience since the last few decades has been characterised by sharp decline in the area under food crops and the substantial expansion in the area under non-food crops. The analysis of the growth trends of area of principal crops in Kerala clearly revealed that the cropping pattern in the state made a significant change from food crops to non-food crops. Coconut came to the first position by pushing rice to the third. There must be certain determinants that motivated the farmers to make such a shift. Supply response in terms of area response and yield response models were used to analyse the determinants. The determinants estimated are lagged area, expected price of the crop, lagged yield, expected yield risk and price risk, average annual rainfall, irrigated area, etc. The analysis revealed that the irrigated area, rainfall and price risk factors are the significant variables affecting the area allocation of coconut in Kerala and the crop’s yield response, irrigated area, rainfall and expected price risk are the strong variables.

Title: Financial Literacy Status in the Villages of Kanyakumari District in Tamil Nadu State, India
Abstract :

Financial literacy is knowledge about finance. The importance of financial education has improved in recent years due to developments in financial markets as well as demographic, economic and policy changes in India. Financial literacy is an important adjunct for the promotion of financial inclusion and ultimately financial stability. The main objective of the study is to assess the financial literacy in the villages of Kanyakumari district. The study conducted in ten villages belonging to three blocks of Kanyakumari district. Financial literacy relates to educational status, income and frequency of operation (transaction) in positive sense. The overall satisfaction level of financial services of the customers lies in educating rural people clearly about the financial services available, how to use them and its benefits is inevitable. This would improve their usage and satisfaction level on these financial services.

Title: Export of Fruits from India: Growth, Pattern and SPS Issues
Abstract :

The total export of agricultural products from India has touched $45 billion during 2013-14 from about $18 billion during 2009-10. In present context non tariff barriers are playing greater role as compared to tariff in the international trade. This study was conducted to analyze the growth of major fruit (Mango, Grapes, Banana) export, changes in the direction of export and various SPS issues related to export of fruits. Mangoes export has showed significant growth rate of 6.5 per cent per annum in terms of quantity. Export value showed significant growth rate of 8.75 per cent per annum while export price showed significant growth rate of 2.25 per cent per annum. Bananas export has also shown significant positive growth rate of 21.91 per cent per annum. At the same time export value and export price showed significant growth of 25.8 per cent per annum and 3.89 per cent per annum respectively. Growth rate in export quantity, value and price of Grapes was found 12.7, 16.77 and 4.08 per cent respectively during 1990-91 to 2011-12. UAE was found more stable market in case of Grapes and in case of mangoes; Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh were more stable market. Bahrain, Iran and UAE were stable market for banana, therefore it was suggested that the attention should be focused on the market requirement and specifications of those stable markets.

Title: Income and Livelihood Issues of Farmers: A Field Study in Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir State
Abstract :

The study has been conducted in five districts of Jammu region to discuss the income and livelihood issues of farmers. The overall household income from agriculture has been estimated to be ` 56034.24 with highest of ` 97876.02 from Kathua district and lowest of `34491.78 earned by the farmers in the Doda district.It has been found that the large farmers earn only 33.04 per cent of income from agriculture followed by 29.26 per cent, 25.30 per cent and 25.24 per cent by medium, small and marginal farmers, respectively. Livestock contributes highest of 11.03 per cent in case of marginal farmers followed by 10.86 per cent, 8.51 per cent and 5.63 per cent in case of small, medium and large farmers. The per day per capita income from agriculture has been found to be ` 15.43, ` 17.77, ` 26.42 and ` 36.12 for marginal, small, medium and large farmers, respectively, with an overall average of ` 20.55. As the poverty line fixed by the government is `22.00 which shows that only medium and large farmers fall above the poverty line whereas marginal and small farmers are below poverty line if they depend exclusively on agricultural income. Service sector has been found the important one as it contributes 34.59 per cent of to the total household income of all the farmers. Therefore the farmers of Jammu region have to develop livelihood strategy for their existence.

Title: Constraints in Production and Marketing of Citrus Fruit in Jammu region of J&K State
Abstract :

The various production and marketing constraints faced by the Citrus growers of various districts of Jammu region were studied by selecting a sample of 192 citrus growers from four districts of Jammu region and suggestions were also made to overcome the said constraints. The data revealed that in Jammu region as a whole it was observed that in the cultivation of citrus several constraints such as lack of finance and credit facilities, inadequate irrigation facilities, non availability of good quality seedlings, farmyard manure, educated members of their family go outside and lack of latest technical knowledge were predominant and expressed by most of the farmers. In the process of marketing, lack of processing units and marketing societies was the major constraint as expressed by almost all the respondents. Moreover, not getting remunerative price for the produce, un-organized marketing, low price paid to farmers, less demand of fruits, lack of market information and cheating in marketing by the middlemen in the form of malpractices, high and undue marketing margins and deductions in the market were the other major problems expressed by the farmers. To overcome the constraints the 100 per cent respondents suggested that government should take initiative to establish fruit processing units in rural areas. There were other large number of respondents who demanded the bank loan facility at nominal interest rates and at proper time. The majority of the farmers also expressed that adequate provision for obtaining remunerative prices be made available and market information regarding market prices by opening of information centre at village level should be made available to them were also few suggestions given by them.

Title: Stability Analysis of Indian Spices Export – A Markov Chain Approach
Abstract :

Spices are an important horticultural crop of India as it adds substantially to the agriculture GDP. It has been seen that there is high fluctuations in the export of spices to other countries. To, this end, we employ the concept of Markov chain (MC) to analyze the dynamics of spices export to different countries of the world. It was observed that the countries which were stable destination for Indian spices export were Canada for black pepper, UK for chilli, Bangladesh for turmeric, UAE for cumin and Malaysia for coriander. The transitional probability matrix obtained using MC indicated that most of the traditional importers have shown low retention probability which may be due to tough competition arising in spices trade and trade related barriers in the developed nations. So, policies may be framed by planners for export towards these countries. Though in most of the spices, India has managed to retain one of its original markets, but it should not have high dependency on one market alone to avoid trade risk in the long-run. New markets also need to be explored and more stress has to be given to the traditional buyers for maintaining present status of export and market share in future.

Title: Constraints to Agricultural Diversification in Mirzapur District of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

Institutional constraints play a significant role in diversification of agriculture in backward regions of the country. The present study was conducted in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh with an objective to examining constraints that affect diversification. Using data from a primary survey in Mirzapur, it was found that lack of skill in modern agriculture, poor access to financial services, and lack of marketing facilities played a decisive role in agricultural diversification. Providing institutional support in the form of access to formal sources of finance and making farmers organizations will help in promoting diversification and reducing livelihood risks.

Title: Rainfall Variability and its Influence on Agricultural GDP in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka: An Econometric Analysis
Abstract :

Agriculture is highly dependent on rainfall. Any irregularities impact the production and farm income of the rural households. Hence it is important to estimate the impact of rainfall on farm income in order to understand the extent of dependence and responsiveness of agriculture income on climate parameters. Analysis of the time series data on rainfall for the period 1901 to 2015 of Chitradurga district exposed the existence of breaks in the series. Auto-regressive error correction model revealed a significant influence of rainfall received on agricultural GDP of Chitradurga district of central dry zone.

Title: Constraints Perceived by Dairy Farmers in availing and Repayment of Dairy Loans in Punjab
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in six villages from three blocks of three districts (Sangrur,Amritsar and Hoshiarpur of Malwa, Majha and Doaba regions of Punjab respectively) to find the constraints perceived by dairy farmers in availing and repayment of dairy loans).A sample of 150 dairy farmers was selected on the basis of multistage random sampling technique.and categorized as small(less than 10 animals),medium(10 to 20 animals) and large (more than20animals).High rate of interest,too many intermediaries,lengthy complicated loan procedure,problem of financial guarantor and attitude of the loan officer were the main constraints in availing dairy loans. Low price of milk,costly feed and fodder,shortage of quality breed animals,low milk productivity,expensive animals and exploitation by animal traders and milk vendors were the main constraints in repayment of dairy loans.

Title: Technological interventions for improving livelihood security
Abstract :

Kupwara district lies in the extreme Northern of  Jammu and Kashmir valley and is situated at an average altitude of 5300 feet from the mean sea level.   The geographical area of the district is 2379 km2 which comprises of367 villages and 11 community blocks. The district is divided into three agro- ecological situations, based on soil and topography i.e., high altitude 2000m: mid altitude 1800-2000m and low altitude1500-1800m above mean sea level (amsl). Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kupwara formulated technical action plan based on the priories of the farmers.The study entillted:Technological interventions for improving livelihood security was conductedin KVK Kupwara the two villages of block langatewere selected for its activities like Front Line Demonstration; ON–Farm Testing and trainings. .In this back drop SKUAST-K released varieties with high yield potential were introduced and performed better in terms of quantity as well as quality. Paddy variety Shalimar rice-1 resulted in 36% increase in the yield over the local varieties. Maize particularly composites tried in hilly areas also recorded double yield than the land races. Seeing the performance of variety KS-101, the cultivation of the crop in the district had increased besides improving the cropping intensity.

Title: Water Intensity of Milk Production : A Comparative Analysis from Waterscarce and Water Rich Regions of India
Abstract :
Livestock plays an important role in socio-economic development of the rural population and also contributes significantly to India’s economy. Dairy farming is one of the water intensive livelihood activities in rural area because it consumes lot of embedded water in the form of feed and fodder. The overall objective of the present study was to estimate the irrigation water productivity of milk production in water rich and water scarce regions of India. The study shows that total irrigation water used to produce a litre of milk from buffalo, crossbred cow and indigenous cow is 3.27 m3, 2.18 m3 and 2.30 m3 respectively in Gujarat, whereas, 5.49 m3, 3.01 m3 and 4.86 m3 respectively in Punjab. In case of Kerala, total water used for producing a litre of milk from buffalo, crossbred cow, and indigenous cow is 3.90 m3, 2.51 m3 and 3.45 m3 respectively. India has a vast bovine population dominated by unproductive/ low milk yielding animals and these animals are competing with the natural resources i.e. land and water. Further amplification of bovine population in the country would add additional burden on already over-exploited natural resources including water. The gradual replacing a part of water intensive milk producing animal with water efficient milk producing animal, would help not only reduce the population of the unproductive animals but also substantially ease the pressure on our precious irrigation water without compromising on milk production. It is imperative to use available natural grasses which are available in forest/grazing land as a fodder for dairy animals to cut down the irrigation water which is used for fodder production. Further more it
is required to cultivate water efficient green fodder crops to cut down the blue water use for milk production.
Title: Economics of production and Resource use efficiency of soybean production in India
Abstract :

Soybean is one of the most important oilseed crops in Madhya Pradesh where it is grown 5.56 million ha area with the annual production of 6.67 million tones. It cultivation is pre dominantly done in Mandsaur district. The study finds that the total cost increased with the increase in the farm size. All costs increased with increase in farm size. The net income, family labour income, farm business income and farm investment income is increases with increase in farm size. Output input ratio indicates that which indicates that the return to every rupee of investment in soybean cultivation increased with increase in farm size. Manure, chemical fertilizer and machine works have significantly influenced the production of soybean in the study area. The agencies working in this area should plan their future course of action regarding soybean cultivation technology for enhanced production

Title: Costs, returns and profitability of soybean cultivation in India: Trends and prospects
Abstract :

Soybean has emerged as a leading oilseed crop in India which accounts for 55.6 per cent of area under kharif oilseeds and 38 per cent of area under total oilseeds during TE 2012-13, 42.5 per cent of total oilseeds production, and contributing to 28.6 percent of the total vegetable oils production in the country. Input use, cost, returns and profitability of soybean cultivation for major soybean growing states was analysed by using CACP data. The results revealed that farmers use higher than recommended seed rate and lower than advised fertilizers and manures, impacting the yield realisation by the farmers. The operational cost of soybean cultivation has increased gradually indicates that soybean cultivation is turning capital intensive. Growth in real cost of cultivation of soybean outpaced the growth in real returns from soybean in all major states. The decrease in price realised was faster than the real cost of production, indicating declining profitability of soybean cultivation, though started improving recently. The inverse relationship in cost of production and productivity of soybean was observed in major growing states. As the productivity of crop is the major factor in reducing the relative cost of production government should focus on the non-price incentives to increase the productivity and also to reduce the cost of cultivation, apart from price incentives.

Title: Economically Viable STCR Based Nutrient Management on Soybean (Glycine max)
Abstract :

Soybean is the principle oil seed crop in India. Blanket recommendation of fertilizers for soybean over large area irrespective of soil type has lead to indiscriminate use of costly inputs. This has also resulted in imbalanced use of fertilizers and environment related problems. Hence to economize the fertilizer use soil testing should play important role. Therefore, a study on the soil test for improving soybean productivity was performed as a part of mandatory program of Agriculture Science Center, Rewa in Madhya Pradesh (MP) of India. Soils of study area had pH 6.8 to 7.4, EC 0.17 to 0.23 dSm-1, organic carbon 0.33 to 0.71%, available nitrogen 105 to 214 kg /ha, phosphorus 7.30 to 16.80 kg/ha and potassium 173 to 325 kg/ha. Experiment were conducted in rainy season of 2009-10 with two treatments, farmers practice -T1 (50 kg DAP/ha only) and application of fertilizer on the basis of soil test value -T2. Higher grain yield was observed in T2 (1830 kg/ha) than T1 (1180 kg/ha). The maximum increase in soybean yield was noted due to applied fertilizers on the basis of soil test values in T2. The highest Benefit Cost ratio (B:C ratio) 4.05 was registered in T2.

Title: Doubling of Small and Marginal Farmers Income through Rural Non-Farm and Farm Sector in Karnataka
Abstract :

The paper has examined the importance of rural non-farm and farm sector in meeting the consumption expenditure and the nutritional security of the small and marginal farmers. The study has analyzed the factors affecting the income of the diversification. The role of small farms is well recognized in the contribution towards total food grain production and poverty reduction. The study revealed that the contribution of marginal and small farmers to the total output is higher when compared to their share in the total land holdings. The contribution of small and marginal farmers to output ranges from 19 percent in Punjab to 86 per cent in West Bengal and it indicates the significant regional variations in their contribution to output. The farm level study conducted in Raichur district of Karnataka clearly indicates that income from the horizontal diversification is unable to meet the monthly expenditure of the household. The medium farmers and the income from crop enterprise are enough to meet the monthly household consumption expenditure. All the categories of the farmers were nutritionally better off and were consuming more than the recommended level with regard to milk, vegetables and fruits through diversified farming. Further, the availability of irrigation, farm mechanization, farm size and the experience of the farmers have been identified as the important factors influencing the diversified farming income. Thus, this study suggested that giving importance to both farm and non-farm sector will be the best option to double the income of the farmers particularly small and marginal farmers.

Title: An Economic Analysis of Cut Flower Marketing in Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

An economic analysis of cut flower marketing was taken up in Hosur block of Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu. Four channels were identified for the marketing of the cut flowers in the study region namely two commission agent channels, one a wholesaler channel and another a retailer channel. The price spread analysis by the sum of average gross margin method revealed that marketing channel IV namely the retailer channel was the efficient marketing channel because of better pricing mechanism, lesser price spread and better regulation that is prevalent in this channel. Marketing efficiency was estimated by Shepherd method and Acharya and Agarwal method. In this analysis also, marketing Channel- IV was found to be the most efficient marketing channel for all the three flower crops. Further, SWOC analysis of cut flower production was carried out and the strength in cut flower production is the production of flowers throughout the year and the spread and prevalence of new high tech technologies. The weakness included poor air freight capacity and the lack of airport infrastructure of the region. Lot of opportunities for cut flower production exist with the development of Agri-export zone in the region. The challenges daunting the cut flower production are labour problems and price fluctuation of cut flowers. Marketing constraints were studied by Garrett ranking technique. Higher price fluctuation was an important marketing constraint and the lack of continuous supply of cut flowers was the most important problem of intermediaries. The policy advocacy to overcome higher price fluctuation is by adopting the Action market forecast of Bengaluru and by following forward trading.

Title: Can Financial Variables Predict Recessions? A Study of U.S.A. and India
Abstract :

The institution of private enterprise does not produce growth at an even pace; rather economies observe alternating periods of expansion and contraction giving rise to recurrent business and trade cycles where the growth of production, real incomes and spending fluctuates. Policymakers, investors and economic agents have avid interest in predicting the future course of economic activity and growth rates. Monetary aggregates, exchange rates and structural macroeconomic models have been traditionally used to forecast the direction of economic activity, however, all these have been shown to be problematic and unstable. The present study uses an indicator approach to portend future changes in the level of economic activity. The study has identified from a set of financial indicators, those indicators which register some significant aspect of the performance of the economy and thus have the ability to forecast changes in economic climate. Most of the research is done for the developed countries which are characteristic of free market economy where fluctuations in business activity are driven by endogenous factors. Similar studies for emerging market economies are lacking. The present study identifies from a wide array of financial variables those variables which can predict cyclical fluctuations in U.S.A., which is a free market economy and in India which is steadfastly proceeding towards a free market economy post liberalization that is, after 1991. The study then determines the lead of various variables in predicting recessions and provides the best model with highest predictive content for the world’s largest economy, U.S.A. and the world’s second fastest growing economy, India.

Title: Economics and Employment Generating Potential of Gherkin Cultivation in Karnataka
Abstract :

Gherkin (Cucumis anguria L.) is popularly known as “pickling cucumber” belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. The present study was conducted to assess the level of inputs use, economics and employment generating potential of gherkin cultivation in Karnataka state. Multi-stage sampling design was followed to collect primary data from Gherkin growers. Descriptive statisticsand Economic indicators like gross return,net return, B:C ratio and breakeven yield were assessed. The results revealed that, there was an inverse relationship between size of the gherkin area and output per acre. The champion farmers realized higher yields and income compared to other farmers and it was mainly due to better soil dressing and adopting appropriate cultural practices(crop rotation and border crop). Champion farmers realized positive and higher gross profit per acre (` 20490), whereas medium farmers realized (` 2076). The Low yield farmer incurred loss to a tune of ` 10427 per acre. The loss among low yield farmers could be attributed to the reduced crop cycle (75.33 days), harvesting days (35.63 days) and low yield (2511.20 kg/ac). The rate of return per rupee of expenditure was highest among champion farmers (1.41), followed by medium (1.03) and low yield low yield farmers (0.67).The employment generation especially for harvesting was highest among champion farmers (274 mandays) followed by medium (110 mandays) and low yield farmers (71 mandays).From the results it could be inferred that, the gherkin cultivation is not profitable always. The crop requires intensive management throughout the year and any divergence in management practices results in the huge loss to the farmers and it is difficult even to recover the variable cost of cultivation. Hence, appropriate training should be imparted to increase yield and income.

Title: Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Rural Women on Bamboo Handicrafts in Tripura, North-East India
Abstract :

Women entrepreneurship development is an essential part of human resource development. Any strategy aimed at economic development will be lop-sided without involving women who constitute half of the world population. Entrepreneurship enhances financial independence and self esteem of women which empower them socially and economically. The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. The present study has been conducted to know the entrepreneurial behaviour of rural women of Tripura. Being one of the major bamboo growing states in India, bamboo handicrafts providing self employment to many rural women and in order to understand the intricacies associated with the bamboo handicrafts, this enterprise has been selected purposively for the study. The study has been conducted in Sepahijala and West Tripura district in 2015-16. Total sample size for the present study was 80. Result shows that 58.75% rural women belong to medium entrepreneurial behaviour category followed by 25% low and 16.25% belong to high entrepreneurial behavior category. The study also indicated that investment on enterprise, annual income, credit orientation, extension participation, mass media participation and level of aspiration have positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial behavior. The entrepreneur are solely dependent on the middlemen for marketing of their product which ultimately reflected in the marketing orientation as it is evidenced negative significant relationship in the study. Therefore, to promote women entrepreneurship and improve their socio-economic condition adequate institutional, financial support should be given by the Govt. for sustainable livelihood besides the development of infrastructure on marketing.

Title: An Economic Analysis of Sugarcane Cultivation and its Productivity in Major Sugar Producing States of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra
Abstract :

An effort has been made in this study to examine the trends in area, production, productivity, costs, returns and profitability of sugarcane and to determine the factors which are contributing toward productivity of sugarcane in major sugar producing states of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. It has been observed that area expansion has significantly contributed towards increased production of sugarcane but productivity has remained stagnant. Cost of cultivation of sugarcane also witnessed increasing trend and due to much higher use of inputs, it was found to be higher for Maharashtra than Uttar Pradesh. However growth of value of output has outpaced the growth of cost of cultivation and thus rising trend of profitability was observed and was higher for Uttar Pradesh as compared to that of Maharashtra. The study found the positive and significant contribution of human labour, machine, fertilizers, insecticides and size of plot towards productivity of sugarcane and thus efficient management of these inputs can certainly led to increasing the productivity of sugarcane in India.

Title: Growth dynamics and forecasting of finger millet (Ragi) production in Karnataka
Abstract :

The study aims at examining the growth and instability of area, production and productivity and forecasting of area and production of Finger Millet crop in the state and India. The study is based on the time series data on area, production and productivity from 1984-85 to 2014-15. The study period was divided into two sub-periods coincides with the introduction Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) in 1997-98 i.e., period I (1984-85 to 1997-98) and period II (1999-00 to 2014-15). Thus, the total study period consists of 31 years. The growth rates in the area, production and productivity were calculated using compound growth rates. The trend lines showed an increase in both production and productivity in major ragi growing districts of Karnataka in both the periods, even though the showed area under the crop is decreasing. The analysis indicates that there was negative of growth in area and positive growth in productivity in all the major ragi growing districts of Karnataka in period I (1984-85 to 1997-98) and period II (1999-00 to 2014-15). The variability in production is attributed to declining in area and increase in productivity. The instability in the area, production and productivity were found to be more accelerated in period-II (1999-00 to 2014-15), compared to period-I (1984-85 to 1998-99). For forecasting ragi production, different linear and nonlinear growth models were explored. The forecasting results showed that, even though there was a deceleration in area, the production of ragi was increasing due to increase in productivity in the future time.

Title: Crop Response to the Application of NCU in Major Kharif Crops: An Impact Assessment in Central India
Abstract :

The study confined to two major kharif crops i.e. paddy and soybean of central India. A multistage stratified simple random sampling method was used to select the districts, blocks, villages and farm households, and to assess the impact of NCU over NU with respect to yield, cost of NCU over NU, other fertilizers use, cost of pest & diseases control and weed management. They were analysed using paired t-test and the cost of cultivation and partial budgeting technique. The impact of NCU was found to be highly significant in paddy and soybean when compared with NU in terms of yield of main and value of main and by product, while yield of by product in case of paddy and soybean was found to be significant. The cost of NCU fertilizer had reduced by 10.25% when compared to NU fertilizer, while the cost of weed management, pest & diseases control and other fertilizers were found to have increased by 13.44, 12.82 and 4.44% respectively in the cultivation of paddy. In case of soybean, the cost of NCU over NU, other fertilizers, and weed management was found to be reduced by 9.14, 9.20 & 1.68 respectively. The total cost of ` 1140/acre was added under different sub-head due to the application of NCU in paddy and soybean with added and net return of ` 3959 & ` 2819 and ` 2545 & ` 1405 per acre along with benefit cost ratio of 3.47 and 2.23 in case of paddy and soybean, respectively.

Title: Production Economics of Strawberry in Haryana, India
Abstract :
The present study was conducted in Hisar and Bhiwani districts of Haryana which was selected
purposively on the basis of highest area and production of Strawberry cultivation in the state. One block
from each district and two villages from each block were selected. Saharwa and Satrod (Hisar-1) and
Chanana and Siwani (Siwani) were selected purposively since they have the highest number of strawberry
growers in the district. 120 growers were selected from which 43, 30, 30, and 17 farmers were from Satrod, Saharwa, Chanana and Siwani, respectively depending upon the availability of strawberry growers in the region. On the basis of the nature of the data, simple tabular analysis was carried out. The cost concept namely cost A, cost B and cost C and various economic tools were used for the estimation of per ha cost of strawberry cultivation. The overall average cost of strawberry production in both districts of Haryana was found to be ` 937.18 thousand per hectare. The total cost of cultivation was highest in case of large category growers followed by medium and small category. The overall net return earned by strawberry growers was ` 1174.80 thousand per hectare. Cost of production of per kg of Strawberry was highest in large ` 78.57per kg, followed by medium ` 74.33 per kg. and small ` 71.34 per kg. Benefit-Cost ratio of Strawberry cultivation calculated under cost A was 2.79, Cost B was 2.56 and Cost C was 2.25.
Title: Post Harvest Losses, Marketing Pattern and Constraints of Chick pea in Northern Hills of Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

The study to examine the post harvest losses and marketing pattern of chick pea has been done in Jaspur district of Northern hills of Chhattisgarh state. The study was undertaken by taking 60 sample farms during the year 2016-17. Formal survey method was used to collect required information from sample area. The objectives were achieved by using exponential function, regression and perception analyses. The overall post harvest loses at farm level was estimated to be 6.06 kg/quintal and 38.21 kg/hectare and maximum losses found during drying (36.93 %) followed by storage (35.61%) and harvesting of chick pea (09.81%) to the total losses. Total post-harvest losses at farms level was found to be the maximum in large farms being 7.02 kg. The marketable surplus in chick pea at marginal, small, medium, large and overall farms were 1.81, 2.62, 4.43, 18.27 and 4.17 quintal per farm constituting 67.79, 70.37, 73.46, 77.87 and 71.41 per cent to their total production respectively. The overall quantity of chick pea sold by producer was 2.07 (49.65%), 1.19 (28.47%) and 0.91 (21.88%) direct to consumer, village trader and wholesaler respectively. In post harvest losses unavailability of capital (80%) ranks first among all constraints and in marketing of chick pea lack of cheap transportation facility (95%) was the major constraint. It is suggested that there is a need to smoothening the process of farmer credit by financial agencies in the study area for minimizing post harvest losses. Also availability of cheap transportation facility will help to strengthen the marketing channel of the study area.

Title: Performance of Pomegranate Export from India
Abstract :

In the present study efforts have been made to explore the current status and performance or direction of trade and changes in the export of pomegranate from India. The secondary data on value of Pomegranate exported to various countries were collected for the period 2006-07 to 2014-15. The collected data were analysed using Markov Chain analysis. The study reveals that the production of pomegranate in India during 2006-07 was to a tune of 839650 tons and the quantity exported was 21670.43 tons accounting for 2.6 per cent of production, which increased during the year 2012-13 with production of 744950 tons and correspondingly the export as 35970.60 tons (4.8%). The dynamic nature of trade pattern was analyzed by applying first order Markov process. Examining the gains and losses in export share of major pomegranate importing countries showed UAE as one of the stable importer of Indian pomegranate as reflected by high probability of retention at 0.83811. Netherland and Other-countries were found able to retain their market share by probability of 0.55988 and 0.48860 respectively.

Title: Socio-economic profile of the common adopters of improved practices of crops and livestock enterprises and their problems and suggestive measures - A case study in adopted and non-adopted villages in North Eastern India
Abstract :

The study on socio-economic profile of the common adopters of improved practices of crops and livestock enterprises was conducted in 13 purposively selected districts in North East region with 130 sample size from each adopted and non-adopted village. Data collection from the selected respondents was made with the help of pre-tested structured schedule through personal interview method. The study reveals that majority of the respondents in adopted villages belonged to middle age category and had low to medium level of education, single family type and medium size of family. They engaged farming as primary occupation and had operational land holding size above 3 hectares with income level ranging from ` 50,000.00 -100000.00. Most of the beneficiary farmers received medium level of trainings, mass media exposure and extension contact. While in case of non-beneficiary respondents, the study shows that majority respondents belonged to middle age category, possessed low education level and belonged to SC/ST caste with single family type and medium family size. Farming was the main occupation among the non-beneficiary respondents with average annual income less than ` 50,000.00 and were small farmers with operational land holding size ranging from 2-3 hectares. The study further indicates that majority of the respondents in non-adopted villages received medium intensity of trainings organised by different developmental organisations and agencies other than Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and had medium level of mass media exposure and extension contact to acquire knowledge and skills related to different farming activities.

Title: Impact of MGNREGA on income, expenditure, savings pattern of beneficiaries in North–Eastern Karnataka
Abstract :

This study was undertaken to assess the impact of the scheme on change in the income, savings pattern and extent of employment after the implementation of the scheme in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka state. Kalaburagi district was covered during the third phase of implementation of MGNREGA which was selected for the study with the pre set objective of analyzing the impact of MGNREGA on the participant households. For evaluating the specific objectives designed for the study, required primary data was collected from the participants for the agriculture year 2013-14. MGNREGA fully implemented village farmers (` 18718/year) were earning significantly higher income (74.48%) than that of partially implemented MGNREGA village farmers (` 4775/year). The average amount of savings made in SHGs was ` 2,380, in fully implemented MGNREGA villages, whereas in partially implemented MGNREGA villages it was ` 1,543. The savings was made in banks ` 12, 000 by the participants in fully implemented MGNREGA villages. Whereas, in case of partially implemented MGNREGA villages the savings was made by participants ` 8,120 it was less compared to fully implemented MGNREGA villages.

Title: Economics of Milk Production in Mandya District of Karnataka
Abstract :

The study was conducted in Mandya district of Karnataka by collecting data from 90 milk producing households which were post-stratified into small, medium and large herd size categories. As far as productivity of the animal is concerned, the average productivity for milch animal was lowest for local followed by buffalo and crossbred, respectively. Similarly the average feed and fodder taken by the animals were found to be lowest for local cows followed by buffalo and crossbred, respectively. Per day maintenance cost was found to be highest for crossbred cows followed by buffalo and local cows. Among total maintenance costs feed and fodder costs accounts highest followed by labour cost, total fixed costs and miscellaneous costs, respectively. The return per litre of milk was highest for crossbred cows followed by buffalo and local cows. The net return from crossbred cow was more than that from buffalo and local cows indicating higher profitability in rearing crossbred cow in the area.

Title: Effectiveness of Training Programmes of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) towards Socio-economic Development of Farmers in Meghalaya
Abstract :

This study, to analyse the effectiveness of training programmes conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, West Garo Hills, was conducted in six purposively selected villages under KVK West Garo Hills districts, with 120 sample size from the adopted villages selected by proportionate random sampling. Data collection from the selected respondents was made with the help of pre-tested structured schedule using personal interview method. The study reveals that majority of the respondents in KVK adopted villages had medium level of knowledge and adoption of improved rice cultivation practices with medium level of productivity, annual net income, self-confidence and materials possession. Majority of the respondents also perceived that KVK trainings had enhanced the social recognition of the farmers. The training effectiveness score reveals that effectiveness score for social recognition was the highest followed by materials possession, level of knowledge and skills, economic condition, extent of adoption, productivity and self-confidence respectively.

Title: Impact of Sustainable Soil Management Practices on Tomato M (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill ) production in Dhading District of Nepal
Abstract :
Sustainable management of soil is a benchmark of organic and sustainable agriculture. A research on economic impact of sustainable soil management practices on tomato production in Dhading district of Nepal was carried out in 2012 where sustainable soil management (SSM) program was successfully
launched for five years. Altogether, 60 tomato producers were selected randomly for the study. Primary data were obtained using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule, focus group discussion and key informant interview. Per ropani expenditure on seed, manure and average cost in
tomato production were found significantly increased whereas, cost of chemical fertilizers, cost of pesticides and total cost were significantly decreased after the adoption of SSM practices as compared to before adopting SSM practices. Gross margin was higher by NRs.1472.31 compared to before SSM practices. Similarly, B: C ratio was significantly higher by 0.32 after using SSM practices whereas, return to scale was 1.098 and 0.719 for after and before adopting SSM practices respectively.
Cobb-Douglas production function revealed human labor and organic manure for after SSM practices and seed including organic manure for before SSM practices as the significant factors determining tomato production. All the resources were not utilized to optimum economic level in tomato production
and for optimum allocation human labor, expenditure on seed and organic manure is required to increase by 42.1 per cent, 64.1 per cent, 79.6 per cent respectively whereas, expenditure on chemical inputs is required to decrease by 137.1 per cent. For healthy soil and environment and achieving
sustainable production and quality product farmers were adopting SSM practices.
Title: FDI Inflow, Export and Economic Growth Relationship in India: An ARDL-Bound Cointegration Approach
Abstract :

There is a debate about the role of Foreign Direct Investment (specially from Developed nations to developing nations) for raising economic growth of the host nation. Some researchers’ support that FDI raises the economic growth of the host country since it brings sophisticated technology, efficient management, raises employment opportunities and fills the gap between domestic savings and investment. Other researchers think that no entrepreneur wants to sacrifice their self interest for interest of a foreign nation. Hence, whatever the positive outcome for FDI inflow put forwarded by MNCs or developed nations ultimately these FDI sucks the main juice of a less developed nations and try to keep a control on the central government of that poor nations. Empirical finding also shows the impacts of FDI on economic growth is not unique. The outcome depends on many factors of the receiving nations. Under these circumstances this paper tries to investigate this FDI inflow, Export and economic growth nexus in the economy of India by applying a newly developed econometric tools ARDL Bound Cointegration Approach.

Title: How equipped are the regulated agricultural markets? evidences based on selected markets in Uttarakhand
Abstract :

The study compared the status of market infrastructure across the selected regulated markets of Uttarakhand by market infrastructure development index computed for three categories viz., trade infrastructure, storage infrastructure and support infrastructure. Haldwani emerges as the best-equipped market as per the combined index (score of 0.62) and also outscores highest among the trade, storage and support infrastructural categories. Kashipur stands next in the category due to its better positioning in trade infrastructure while Dehradun scores low in the combined index due to poor trade and storage infrastructure despite standing second in the infrastructure support category. A positive and significant association was noticed between the commodity arrivals (potato and tomato) and market infrastructure categories. A panel regression analysis between potato arrivals, price, and market Dummies reveals that price has no time varying effect on the arrival of potato, but showed a significant and positive relationship between the markets and arrival reflecting the dependence of arrivals on market attributes.

Title: Farmers Perception on Contract Farming of Sugarcane in Orissa : A Village Level Study
Abstract :
Sugarcane is a major cash crop of India, particularly in UP, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujurat, and foot hils of Uttarakhand. Sugarcane crop has an productivity of 70 tonnes/ha and an area of 4.2 mha. It plays a pivotal role in the state and national economy. Sugarcane is considered as one of the best cash crops in Orissa. It is grown in all the 30 districts of Orissa. The selected district Dhenkanal occupied 10th position in area (1.19 thousand ha), 9th position in production (81.46 thousand MTs) and 14th position in yield (68510 kg/ha) in 2004-05.
The establishment of a sugar factory in Dhenkanal district has increased the prospect of this crop in the surrounding area. On contract farms the important constraints experienced by the sugarcane contract growers in its order of importance were (i) delay in payment of produce, (ii) lack of credit
for crop production, (iii) scarcity of water for irrigation, (iv) difficulty in meeting quality requirements and (v) lower prices of crop produce. The constraints expressed by the sugar industry were (i) violation of terms and conditions by farms, (ii) lack of proper management by company, (iii)
frequent price fluctuations in international market, (iv) scarcity of transport vechicle during peak periods, (v) inability to provide proper transport facilities to farms and (vi) families negligence in maintaining quality. Among different benefits from contract farming, contract farmers felt that lack of
initial investment was the prime factor to prefer contract farming as the firms provided the inputs such as seeds, fertilizers etc. to the farmers without cash from the farmers and these costs were deducted at the time of final payment.
Title: Econometric analysis of wholesale coffee prices and exports from India
Abstract :

Coffee is referred as Brown Gold as it accounts major share in Indian exchequer. In recent years, increase in the domestic coffee consumption attributed to expansion of domestic markets and growing young population. To study the trends in wholesale prices of coffee, the monthly price data of Arabica plantation ‘A’ and Robusta cherry ‘AB’ of Bengaluru, Chennai and Hyderabad markets were collected from Coffee Board of India, Bengaluru. These data were subjected to Linear trend, Co-integration and Granger Causality tests. The Markov chain model was fitted to study the structural changes in export. The results indicated that, the wholesale prices of Arabica plantation ‘A’ and Robusta cherry ‘AB’ in selected markets increased during the study period but the extent vary from market to market. The co-integration test indicated that, the wholesale prices at Bengaluru market for Arabica plantation ‘A’ and Robusta cherry ‘AB’ influence heavily on both Chennai and Hyderabad markets. Italy and Germany emerged as most loyal/stable importer of Arabica plantation ‘A’ whereas Italy and Spain for Robusta cherry ‘AB’ coffee.

Title: Geographical Penetration, Composition, Unit Value Realisation, Exports Competitiveness and Market Diversification of Shrimp Exports from India
Abstract :

In India, fisheries is an economic activity contributing 17.07% of the total agricultural exports during the year 2016-17 with annual earnings of US$ 5.78 billion (` 37,870 crores). Frozen shrimp contributes maximum share of about 66% by value and 39% by quantity. The present study has examined the geographical penetration, composition and unit value realisation of frozen shrimp exports from India. It also estimates the competitiveness index, comparative advantage and market diversification of Indian frozen shrimp exports in the world exports market. India’s total fishery exports has risen from 0.3 million tons to 0.95 million tons during the period 1995-96 to 2015-16 with a compound growth rate of 6.46%. India has lost its market share in Japan but has gained in South East Asia and European Union market during the period 1995-96 to 2014-15. India’s frozen shrimp exports to major export destinations like Japan, USA and EU have been getting diversified over the period.

Title: Economic Analysis of Cashew Nut Processing in India
Abstract :
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) tree grows widely in warm and humid climatic regions of the world. India is leading producer and processor of cashew nuts. Cashew nut processing has undergone lot of developments from traditional to modern processing. Survey was done in various cashew nut processing units in different parts of West Bengal, and a case study is presented regarding economic analysis of a local small scale cashew nut processing plant of 100 kg capacity. Based on the observations, economic analysis of cashew nut processing plant showed that, if the plant be operated with full capacity and efficiency then there would be profit of
` 1329.07 per day, excluding all expenses. This is quite profitable, but the profit margin could be increased more by plant mechanization and modernization. Processing capacity could be increased with significant reduction in labour requirement and processing time by modernizing the processing plants.
Title: The marketing of non-timber forest products in the western ghats region of Attappady, Kerala
Abstract :

The marketing of non-timber forest products (NTFP) are the main source of income to earn a livelihood for the indigenous communities residing to the fringe areas of the forest. The study analyzed the significance of different marketing agencies involved in the marketing of NTFP’s to the livelihood of the indigenous communities of Attappady. Primary data and secondary data were used for the study. Among the marketed 23 NTFP’s, nine products were exclusively marketed through the society and one product exclusively through the private shop, 10 products through society and private shops, one product marketed through the Eco Development Committee (EDC) and private shop and 2 products through all the 3 channels. Even though the procurement price given by the private shops and EDC for commercially important NTFP’s were higher than that of the Kurumba society, the indigenous people were more benefited by the marketing through the society. Because the EDC and private shops do not share their profit with the collectors, where as the society gives certain percentage of their profit back to the primary collectors in addition to the procurement price. But the financial constraints during the lean seasons are forcing the indigenous communities to sell their products to the private shops. If the society and EDC can start the value addition units of the NTFP’s with the involvement of indigenous communities, it ensures effective utilization of their free time and a better livelihood through enhancement of their income from NTFP’s.

Title: Cost of cultivation and resource use efficiency of major rabi crops in vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

The present study has been made to work out the cost of cultivation, resource use efficiency, profitability and constraints of wheat and chickpea production in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh. The study is based on primary data, collected from 40 wheat and 40 chickpea cultivators in Vidisha district through interview schedule. The cost of cultivation of wheat was found higher (Rs. 28037.18/ha) in comparison to chickpea (Rs. 23899.00/ha). The variable cost was 57.86% and 55.46% of the total cost of wheat and chickpea cultivation, respectively. The Cost A1 was 56.87% and 55.15% of the total cost of wheat and chickpea, respectively. The family labour and seed have a positive and significant impact on the productivity of wheat. The only fertilizer has a positive and significant impact on the productivity of chickpea. The 0.554 and 0.616 return to scale from the cultivation of wheat and chickpea respectively shows decreasing return to level. The gross income, net income, farm business income, farm investment income, contribution margin, margin safety, break even point and benefit cost ratio of wheat were higher in comparison to chickpea. The benefit-cost ratio was higher in wheat (1:2.18) compared to chickpea (1:1.97).

Title: Livelihood Diversification Pattern among the Farmers of West Bengal
Abstract :

Based on research from Darjeeling and Uttar Dinajpur districts of West Bengal this paper presents evidence that non-farm and off-farm activities are carried out by a significant proportion of farmers and make an important contribution to livelihoods. The average diversification index in the study area was 0.46. Majority of the diversifiers had medium extent of diversification. It shows that there is a high involvement of farm women (24%) in diversification activities. Diversification activities make a greater contribution to cash incomes for poorer households. The study found that farmers from Darjeeling district are more diversified (52%) compared to Uttar Dinajpur district (39%). The reason might be that the scope and marketing in non-farm sector are higher in Darjeeling as compared to Uttar Dinajpur district. In Darjeeling district unavailability of land as well as unproductive land particularly in the hill and comparatively high cost of living also forced farmers to diversify into other sectors for their livelihood. Despite the vast potentiality to diversify the livelihood towards farm and non-farm activities in the study area, there were problems such as negative perception of the community, outdated method of production, lack of improved technology and skills, lack of business start- up budget and absence of market for the non-farm output. There are also lacks of potential researchers to study the effect of non-farm activities on farm production and to identify the major problems that hamper the non-farm sector. State machinery should play a facilitator’s role in terms of promoting investment in infrastructure such as road, electricity, irrigation facility etc. more of a decentralized operations for government programmes, especially using the local institution for greater efficiency and better outreach.

Title: Trends of Pulses Production: A Study on Current Scenario and Strategies in India with Special Reference to Bihar
Abstract :

Bihar is one of the important pulse growing state of India with productivity of 839.3 kg/ha in 2010-11 which is projected to attain 1461.3 kg/ha by 2050-51, highest in eastern India. With nearly 2.2 million ha of rice fallows, a small technological intervention can transform the rice- fallow to rice-gram or rice-lentil system bringing about pulse revolution. The present study tries to review and analyze the current policy environment and suggests ways and means to improve the pulses production scenario in the country. It advocates, the need to diversify from cereal–based cropping systems to pulses-based cropping system with certain policy decisions like identification of additional rice fallow lands largely in Eastern India, crop diversification, improving seed replacement rate, improved crop production techniques etc. Study also suggests that provisions should be made for easy credit, insurance, attractive Minimum Support Price (MSP) with procurement and appropriate incentives for pulse producers as well as creating necessary infrastructure for processing, marketing and value-addition. This paper analyses status of pulse crop in India as whole and Bihar in particular along with paradigm shift required in policy decision, pulse research, technology generation and dissemination, commercialization along with capacity building of farmers and frontier areas of research and extension.

Title: Reviving dairy co-operatives in Kashmir: what has been achieved?
Abstract :

Dairy cooperatives that are mandated to be an instrument of rural development have transformed the rural economy in several parts of the country. The present investigation was carried out to study the performance of dairy cooperatives in Kashmir region. The study is based on secondary data collected from J&K Milk Producers Cooperative Limited. The performance of dairy cooperative societies (DCS) was assessed in relative terms using indexing technique. The results indicated that the physical and financial performance of most of the DCS was far from satisfactory, primarily due to reduced membership and hence, low level of milk procurement. Out of 344 DCS analysed in the study, only a handful of 15 DCS had registered moderate to good level of performance.

Title: Growth Rates and Decomposition Analysis of Onion Production in the Rajasthan State of India
Abstract :

This paper investigates the trends in the area, production and yield of onion in Rajasthan state of India by using component analysis model. The study data period has been divided into three periods: period one, 1984-95, 1996-2005 and 2006-2015. The comparison of area, production and yield growth rates in all periods revealed that cotton show better performance in state as well as national level. The decomposition analysis of growth suggests that for onion yield effect is the major source of growth in period 1984-95 and 1996-2005 except for period 2006-2015 for which area effect was the major source in Rajasthan. At the national level, the source of output growth for onion was the yield effect. The sources of output for the overall study period revealed that in the case of onion crops, the main output source was the yield effect for the respective crop. The results of decomposition analysis have important policy implications because each growth component alone has a limited scope to expand over time. For example, land’s growth potential (the acreage effect) is limited due to the scarce supply of water resources in Rajasthan As such, efforts have to be directed toward further increasing the productivity of crops. The future government policy should focus on developing new high-yielding with drought-resistant varieties in Rajasthan.

Title: State Budgetary Resources and Agricultural Development in West Bengal
Abstract :
State budgetary support to agriculture plays an important role in its development. The nature and magnitude of budgetary support influences the technical progress to a large extent. Needless to say, that the higher level of expenditure lays the foundation for higher rate of growth. Given the critical importance of agriculture to the Indian economy, capital assumes added importance. As the potential for further increases in crop area is nearly exhausted, the future growth of agriculture need to be yield based. The latter requires large investment in creating and maintaining productive assets like irrigation and rural infrastructure as well as in promoting growth agents like agricultural research, education and extension.
Title: Fodder Market in Bihar: An Exploratory Study
Abstract :
Dairy farmers in Bihar are mostly smallholders having one or two local-bred milch animals, which are raised on crop residues and natural pastures with under-employed family labour. Feeding grains, oil cakes and green nutritious fodder are limited to crossbred cattle. Feed and fodder deficiencies are
major limiting factors in raising livestock productivity. Fodder markets are important for communities, which have limited ability to produce their own fodder, but need quality fodder at reasonable prices to produce milk at competitive cost and trading is an important livelihood activity for poor who
engaged in it. The study tries find ways to improve the livelihoods of resource-poor livestock producers by alleviating fodder scarcity. Livestock being an important source of livelihood in Bihar, the study has a direct poverty relevance for state. The findings indicate a huge gap between demand
and supply of both dry and green fodder. South Bihar is fodder surplus area because of irrigated cultivation of paddy and wheat, while north Bihar is fodder deficit and depend on fodder surplus regions. There are no dedicated market places so, trading takes place along roadsides and without legal credentials. Fodder being a bulky item, makes its trading and handling difficult. Some traders do use compressing machines to make fodder blocks. Development of technology for cost-effective and nutritive feed requires urgent attention and here public sector R&D can play an effective role which
can also be done in public-private partnership mode.
Title: Price Spread of Minor Millets in Bastar District of Chhattisgarh
Abstract :
An attempt has been made in this study to examine the price spread of minor millets in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Four villages of Jagdalpur block namely Bhatagudai, Turenar, Kalcha and Kumhrawand were selected to collect the required information and the study was confined to three commercial minor millets namely Kodo, Kutki and Ragi. The data were collected for the crop year 2007-08. The total marketing cost paid by the retailers was ` 32.60 per quintal. The sale price of producer came to ` 395.00 and ` 400.00 in channel-I and channel-II respectively. Net price received by producer was being ` 400.00 in channel-II, which came to 74.90 % to consumer price. Net margin received by the retailer was ` 101.40 per quintal i.e. 18.98 % to consumer purchase price. The price paid by consumers for per quintal of minor millets products was calculated `534.00 in Channel-II. Producer’s share in consumer rupee was 74.90 % in Channel-II of the minor millets. 
Title: Agricultural Vocational Training and the Labour Market in Hungary
Abstract :
Agriculture is a traditional activity in Hungary. The role of this sector in the national economy has decreased considerably since 1990, which influences the number and composition of applicants to agricultural education. The study investigates the expectations of the labour market concerning  newly graduated agronomists in light of the economically and socially changed circumstances since 2008. The relationship between agricultural vocational training and employment are in the focus of the investigation. The aim of the research is to map how professional training is utilised in practice;
how vocational training meets the requirements of employers and in which areas vocational training should be developed in order to meet the expectations of the labour market. A further aim of the research is to ascertain the opinions of the employers and to make recommendations for any necessary modifications in the engineer-teacher training programme. Structuralised interview has been conducted with agricultural employers in 2010 and 2012 with different samples. This study has been based on
15 and 22 interviews made at mainly small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises. Respondents were mainly CEOs or technical or human resource managers of companies. Findings of the investigation reveal that employers believe that the career advisory system does not function properly; the ratio
of practical training is low within professional training; and certain knowledge and competencies of agricultural graduates is incomplete. Research findings show the importance of modifying the pedagogical programmes of institutions in order to improve the competencies of pupils to better meet labour market requirements (individual development programmes).
Title: Economics of Production and Marketing of important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Mid Hills of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Himachal Pradesh has a rich diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants. These plants have good potential of generating income. Owing to its natural habitat the economics of production of some important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), has been examined based on the field level information from the state of Himachal Pradesh. This study was designed to appraise multistage random sampling technique to select the sample of 50 farmers cultivating MAPs. Local and distant markets were selected purposively for conducting marketing study. A total sample of five traders from local markets and five wholesalers from Amritsar market was drawn randomly from the selected markets dealing in MAPs. Cost of cultivation of these medicinal plants was calculated and the financial tools like NPV, BCR, and IRR were applied to determine the financial feasibility of the plantations. The analysis revealed that the net return per hectare was maximum from Stevia (` 173627.29), followed by Safed Musli (` 85462.01), Aloe vera (` 63832.29) and Lemongrass (` 43325.69). The benefit–cost ratio was found to be in the similar trend i.e., Safed Musli (1.30), followed by Stevia (1.27), Aloe vera (1.22) and Lemongrass (1.19). However, the internal rate of return was found to be highest in case of Lemongrass (40%), followed by Aloe vera (36%) and Stevia (32%). Hence the cultivation of MAPs seems to have good returns which farmers can opt instead of growing other plants.

Title: Growth and Instability of Jute Production in Assam
Abstract :
Jute is one of the cheapest, strongest and most versatile of all natural fibres and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Assam is the largest producer of raw jute amongst the North Eastern states and is the third largest producer in the country. The state has produced
625575 bales during 2010-11. Assam registered the highest growth rate of production (2.18 per cent) during 1951-60 and highest productivity (1.86 per cent) during the year 1961-1970. The highest significant growth rate of area (10.60 per cent) was observed in Kokrajahar district while the highest
production (14.36 per cent) and productivity (9.80 per cent) was observed in Goalpara district during the year 2001-2010. The most stable district for area under Jute was Kamrup (5.08 per cent), for production N.C. Hills (12.80 per cent) and for productivity Bongaigaon district (17.57 per cent), respectively.
Title: Cobb-Douglas Production Function For Measuring Efficiency in Indian Agriculture: A Region-wise Analysis
Abstract :

The paper examines the production efficiency of agricultural system in four regions of India categorized as eastern, western, northern and southern regions using state level data for the period 2005-06 to 2013-14. Stochastic production frontier model using panel data, as proposed by Battese and Coelli (1995), has been used for estimating the efficiency variations taking an integrated effect model into consideration. State level mean efficiency estimates of regions ranges from 0.8824 to 0.3759 for 2005-06 to 2013-14. The statistically significant variables explaining inefficiencies in the agricultural production are total state road length per unit of area and share of agricultural NSDP to state NSDP. The major inputs were institutional credit, net irrigated area and consumption of both fertilizers and pesticides.

Title: Constraints Perceived by Dairy Farmers in Adoption and Repayment of Dairy Loans: A Case study of Amritsar
Abstract :
The present study was conducted on two villages of one block of Amritsar District of Majha region of Punjab to find constraints perceived by dairy farmers in adoption and repayment of dairy loans. Majority of dairy farmers belongs to different categories according to herd size. Most of dairy farmers considered, high rate of interest, too many intermediates, lengthy complicated loan procedure, problem of financial guarantor, attitude of the loan officer, low price of milk, high cost of feed & fodder, low milk production, failure of milk animal to conceive every year, exploitation by milk vendors and animal trader as the serious problems.
Title: Stochastic Model for Sticklac Forecasting in India
Abstract :

In the present study, we aim to devise most appropriate prediction model for India’s annual sticklac production data based on Exponential Autoregressive (EXPAR) model. Statistical modelling and forecasting of agricultural time-series data plays a vital role in comprehending the underlying relationships among statistically significant variables and helping the planners in policy making. Accordingly, in this paper, a promising methodology of EXPAR family of models has been employed to describe India’s annual sticklac production data that depict such cyclical fluctuations.The fitted EXPAR model captured the data in a satisfactory manner. Further, the performance of the model is compared by computing various measures of goodness-of-fit and forecast performance. We conclude that EXPAR model performs quite well for modelling as well as forecasting of the cyclical data under consideration.

Title: Determinants of adoption of poultry technology by the farmers of adopted and non-adopted villages in North Eastern states of India
Abstract :

This study to analyse the determinants of adoption of poultry farming practices in North East Region was conducted in 13 purposively selected KVK districts in the region with 130 sample size from each adopted and non-adopted villages selected through proportionate random sampling. Data collection from the selected respondents was made with the help of pre-tested structured schedule through personal interview method. The study reveals that majority of the respondents in KVKs adopted villages had medium level of adoption of improved poultry farming practices, while over half of the total respondents in non-adopted villages were found having low to medium adoption level of the same poultry practices. Respondents of non-beneficiary farmers was found with little adoption of specific recommendations of selected poultry farming practices like stocking of birds, brooding and rearing and health care as shown by their corresponding total scores compared to beneficiary farmers. The study further reveals that out of 13 independent variables under study, primary occupation, trainings received, mass media exposure and extension contact of the respondents were found having positively significant relationship with the extent of adoption of poultry farming practices. While four variables namely, primary occupation, size of operational land holding, trainings received and extension contact had emerged as the most dominant factors influencing farmers for adoption of poultry farming practices in the region.

Title: From Domestic Marketing through International Marketing to Intercultural Marketing
Abstract :

Globalisation, IT development and strengthening of WTO-GATT have resulted in equalisation and internationalisation providing a favourable environment to international businesses. At the same time, social and socio-cultural differences draw up new challenges for international marketers and businessmen. In international business, the main question of marketing is to adapt to the specialities of the desired foreign market or to follow the standardised strategy. Cultural differences, specialities, are the main barriers to globalisation tendencies. Thus, international marketing strategy - if we are sensible to differentiation - has to be adapted from culture to culture. The essence of cross-culture marketing is studying the cultural features, differences of foreign markets, fitting, adapting to them or at least taking them into consideration when making a business decision (DANKÓ, 2000). The main aim of the present paper is to overview marketing concepts and to highlight the importance of the intercultural approach to marketing.

Title: Income Inequality in Rural Economy of West Bengal, India
Abstract :
Income inequality is closely related with poverty and food security in developing as well as under developed economy. The present study has been conducted based on primary data collected from rural households in Birbhum district, West Bengal. Present status of income inequality and its ecomposition by sources of income (agricultural income and non-agricultural income) and by different categories of farms has been analysed. It has been observed that the income inequality is more prominent in marginal farms than that of small and medium farms. The contribution of non-agricultural income to the overall income inequality is 94.12 per cent. So it is evident that the overall income inequality commonly occurs due to non-agricultural income rather than agricultural income. Similarly, the income inequality within sub-groups is little bit high as compared to BETWEEN sub-groups.
Title: Dynamics of Pulse Production in North-East Region of India- A State-wise Analysis
Abstract :

Per capita consumption of pulses over the years has come down to 30g/day in 2008 from 61g/day in 1951. The same trend is followed in North Eastern part of our country. Pulses are mainly grown in uplands in North Eastern Hill Region of India. Pulses are very important for achieving nutritional security and considering its importance the 68th UN General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses (IYP). Depending on the size of the farm land and their resources, pulses are grown by the farmers. In 2013-14, NE India produced 209.3 thousand tonnes of pulses from an area of 252.8 thousand hectare with an average productivity of 828 Kg/ ha. The NE region of India is almost 82% deficit in pulse production against its requirements as per ICMR recommendation. The study revealed that during overall period (1972-73 to 2011-12), across all the states in North East Region, Manipur (28.3%) has registered the highest significant growth in production followed by Nagaland (11.9%) and Tripura (4%). From decomposition analysis of growth in North East, it was found that over the period (1972-73 to 2011-12) yield effect (48%) was more than area effect (23%) whereas in country level area effect (33.8%) was more than yield effect (28.3%). There is a need for concerted efforts from various Departments to divert the area under shifting cultivation to production of pulses and other crops following principles of conservation agriculture, which would ultimately help in conserving soil and improving health.

Title: Farmers Willingness to Pay for Public Agricultural Extension Services in Tripura State of North-East India
Abstract :
The study was conducted to know the farmers willingness to pay for public agricultural extension services. All the four districts of India’s state Tripurawas selected for the study and 80 farmers were selected randomly from two villages of each district. The results of the study revealed that 100 percent of the respondents were willing to pay for getting extension services. The average amount farmers were willing to pay was ` 34.42; whereas, the willingness to pay was according to the farm size of the farmers, farmers having more land were willing to pay more than the farmers having less cultivated area. All the farmers wanted to pay for plant protection information (100 %), followed by majority of the farmers were willing to pay for marketing information (93.33 %), credit services (86.67 %) etc. From the findings of the study of the it was recommended to introduce fee based extension services on selected topics/area based on the preferences of the farmers to provide need-based and quick services to the farmers’.
Title: Crop Production in Rainfed Agrarian Environment: A Study on Resource use, Costs and Returns and Constraints in Chilli Production in Ramanathapuram District of Tamil Nadu
Abstract :
Resource endowments specific to a given agrarian region determine pattern of input use and efficiency, thereby costs and returns involved in crop production. Scarcity of water is the foremost factor that critically limits the economic potential and restricts a farmer from maximising his output; thereby
profit, despite the role of other factors like seeds, manures, fertilizers etc. Using Cobb-Douglas production function, we examined the influence of such factors on output of chilli in two different production conditions, namely irrigated and rainfed, within a dry land agricultural system by using
primary data. Results revealed that number of irrigation significantly increased chilli output. Factors like seeds, manures, fertilizers and plant protection chemicals also had significant positive impact, with varying degrees under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Still, inefficiency was observed in
resource use, particularly in labour (in both conditions) and seed-rate (in rainfed condition). Costs and prices realised were higher in irrigation crop production, which ultimately resulted in increased returns. Shortage of agricultural labourers, high wage rates, excess rain during harvest but paucity of water at seed germination and early growth stages followed by pest and disease incidences were critical constraints in chilli production.
Title: Disparities in Infrastructural Development of Nagaland: A Case Study of Kohima and Longleng District
Abstract :

A sound infrastructural facility is the key to the overall socio-economic development of a state. Infrastructure facilities are the wheels of development without which the economy cannot function properly. This paper studies the level of physical and social infrastructural disparities in Kohima and Longleng districts using seven indicators such as education, health, banking, postal service, water supply, surface road cover and electricity. The data’s were than analyzed using Principal Components Analysis. The results shows that disparities in infrastructure facilities between rural and urban areas is high. The finding shows that 87.5 per cent of the urban areas are developed and moderately developed whereas, only 12.5 per cent of the rural areas are in developed and moderately developed. The paper concludes by suggesting that suitable policies for developing the backward areas.

Title: Pulses Production in India: Challenges and Strategies
Abstract :

This study analyses the challenges and strategies to increase pulse production with special emphasis on chickpea and pigeon pea. The study is based on secondary data collected from published sources. Compound growth rate was estimated to study the yield performance in the major states. The study revealed that there is low yield growth in chick pea and pigeon pea in the majority of the states. The yield gap analysis in chickpea also reveals high exploitable potential yield in the western zone. Totally 3.2 million tonnes of additional pulses can be produced by extending pulses area to rainfed rice fallow lands, replacing low productive crops and summer fallows. Hence, the respective state governments may take necessary action to increase pulses production by providing technological and institutional support.

Title: An Empirical Investigation of Arima and Garch Models in Agricultural Price Forecasting
Abstract :

The present study deals with time series models which are non-structural-mechanical in nature. The Box Jenkins Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH) models are studied and applied for modeling and forecasting of spot prices of Gram at Delhi market. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test is used for testing the stationarity of the series. ARCH-LM test is used for testing the volatility. It is found that ARIMA model cannot capture the volatility present in the data set whereas GARCH model has successfully captured the volatility. Root Mean square error (RMSE), Mean absolute error (MAE) and Mean absolute prediction error (MAPE) were computed. The GARCH (1,1) was found to be a better model in forecasting spot price of Gram. The values for RMSE, MAE and MAPE obtained were smaller than those in ARIMA (0,1,1) model. The AIC and SIC values from GARCH model were smaller than that from ARIMA model. Therefore, it shows that GARCH is a better model than ARIMA for estimating daily price of Gram.

Title: Empowerment of Tribal Women Through Family Planning Programme – A Micro Study of Sandeshkhali Block of Sundarban Area
Abstract :
Our present study aims to find out the impact of literacy status of tribal women on knowledge, attitude and method about family planning programme of Sandeshkhali block of Sundarban area. The effect of different age group of tribal women is also taken into consideration. The statistical analysis reflect generally, higher the literacy status higher will be the acceptance of family planning programme, age will not be a factor regarding non-acceptance of the programme.
Title: Integrated Fish Farming in Jorhat District of Assam: Problems and Policy Options
Abstract :
Assam has enormous potential for development of integrated fish farming to make the state self sufficient on table fish requirement and also for employment generation. The present study is an attempt to analyses the impediments faced by the farmers practicing integrated fish farming in Jorhat
district of Assam. The study revealed that integrated fish farming as a system generated sizeable income and employment in the area. On the whole, four major integrated fish farming systems were adopted by the sample farmers, e.g. integrated pig fish farming, integrated poultry- fish farming,
integrated horti-fish farming and integrated horti-pig-fish farming. High cost of input, lack of finance, non-availability of fish seed, inadequate training facility, poaching, lack of transportation facility were found to be the major problems faced by the sample farmers hindering the adoption of integrated fish farming in the study area.
Title: Economic analysis of marketing performances in the rythu bazars (direct marketing) in Hyderabad city
Abstract :

The present study entitled Economic Analysis of Marketing Performances in the Rythu Bazars (Direct Marketing) In Hyderabad City was conducted in the Greater Hyderabad city, capital of Andhra Pradesh. Primary data were collected from the selected sample by using pre-tested schedule of questions developed for the study. Price spread, producer’s price, producer’s share in consumer rupee, marketing margin, total marketing cost and marketing efficiencies were calculated to compare various Rythu bazars and the local market.

Title: Economic Growth and Human Development: An Empirical Analysis of Major States of India During the Period 1993-94 to 2004-05
Abstract :
The objective of this study is to inspect the two links between economic growth and human development in the Indian context during the study period 1993-94 to 2004-05 for the 15 major states. To test these links regression technique has adopted for all the three (high, low and total) group states. Further this link has explored for the starting and ending periods of the study period as it is considered “level-wise analysis” and also for the total study period as it is known as “change analysis”. To conduct level wise analysis per capita income values and human development index values for the years 1993-94 and 2004-05 are chosen as they are representing starting and ending
years of the study period. To examine the change analysis, growth rates of per capita income and human development index values of the total study period have taken. The dummy variable model results of per capita income as dummy variable points out that there are significant differences between low and high growth group states for the level-wise analysis and the absence of differences between these groups for change analysis. On the contrary, the dummy variable model results of human development index as dummy variable shows that there are no significant differences between low and high human development group states for both level-wise and change analysis.
Title: Role of ICT Institutions in Enhancing Productivity, Knowledge and Innovativeness of Farmers: A Case Study of ISRO Village Resource Centers
Abstract :
Space technology and Information communication technologies are state of the art technologies of modern civilization. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), with the intention of disseminating
knowledge of any kind to rural masses using advances of information communication technologies in space research, has envisaged the Village Resource Centre (VRC) concept in the year 2004. ISRO’s VRC conduct interactive programmes on a regular basis in the areas of, agriculture, water resources, tele - health care, awareness programmes, skill development/vocational training for livelihood support etc. , are connected to knowledge producing institutions like Universities, development institutes,
hospitals and other institutions in association with NGOs/Trusts and state/central agencies. The purpose of this study is to empirically analyze the role of VRCs in enhancing productivity, level of knowledge and innovation performances of farmer community. The specific objectives of present
study was: 1) to understand the level productivity of VRC attending farmers 2) to understand the level of knowledge of VRC attending farmers and 3) to understand the innovativeness of VRC attending farmers. The study has conducted in Meppadi Panchayath (11°33’38.24"N, 76° 8’31.32"E)
in Kerala State. Findings of the study show that the impact of new developmental intervention through Village Resource Centers are significant in the level of knowledge diffusion, innovativeness, and productivity of farming communities, and are quantitatively measured. There is a significant
reduction of information inequality among the people and noticed the emergence of a new socioeconomic relationship. It is understood from the study that the farmers are keenly interested in increasing their knowledge day by day and as a result of trying to increase their income from farming.
VRC’s plays a vital role in improving the quality of life in villages by providing new knowledge to the farmer community. The VRCs are connecting the knowledge between the experts and the village community and making it to reach the doorsteps of common man, in local language.
Title: Impact of Climate Change on Wheat and Rice Production: An Analysis
Abstract :
The impact of climate change on agriculture is being witnessed all over the world, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the huge population dependency on agriculture. Monsoons are changing more frequently. Droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, hot extremes and heat waves are making negative impact on agriculture production. Increasing glacier melt in Himalayas may affect the food production in future. Impact of climate is comparative more significant as compared to the past due to increasing global warming, natural calamities and this may result fluctuations in yield of
many crops. Climate change may alter the distribution and quality of India’s natural resources and may adversely affect the livelihood of its people. This paper is an attempt to analyze the impact of climate change on production of wheat and rice.
Title: Determinants of Capital Structure of Listed Agro Firms in Nigeria
Abstract :
This paper examines the determinants of capital structure of agro-listed firms in Nigeria, using data generated from the financial statements of twenty eight (28) agro-allied firms, which have been listed in the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) from 2005 to 2010. The major tool for data analysis was Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), which was used to analyze the identified firm-specific variables that affect short and long term debt ratios. All measured capital structure were scaled by the book value of total assets. In terms of short term debt ratio, large firms were perceived to have enough tangible
assets at their disposal to pledge as collateral and access debt capital. Highly tangible firms also use more short-term debts, as high tangible asset reduced the magnitude of debt loss incurred by debt providers if the firms default. Growing listed firms used more short term debts, presumably due to
their huge capital requirement for financing new short term investment opportunities and the need to meet current liabilities and other overhead expenses. Growing firms are presumed to lack both tangible assets and cheap long term credit sources of information and as such depends mostly on
short term debts. The result further shows agro-listed firms with high taxes use more short term debts in their finances. Highly profitable firms do not depend on short-term debts, as they are perceived to be liquid enough to finance their short term investment through retained earnings at the expense of taking short term debts.
Title: Poverty and Sustainability Implications of Groundwater Based Irrigation: Insights from Indian Experience
Abstract :
Groundwater has become the main source of irrigation occupying more than 60 % of total irrigated area in India. While the fast development of groundwater based irrigation has helped to improve the livelihood security of rural population and reduce the poverty; it was at the cost of high level of energy intensification and negative externalities. In this backdrop, this paper estimates empirically the implication of groundwater based irrigation in India on rural poverty and groundwater sustainability. The results establish that a higher share of groundwater based irrigation in total irrigation strengthen the poverty reduction effects of irrigation. However, escaping poverty through unrestricted access to groundwater is not sustainable. Since the property rights on land accords unrestricted access to groundwater, location specific regulations need to be devised for sustainable management of groundwater. Along with this, incentivising rainfed agriculture through price policies and market opportunities; and promotion of watershed based agricultural planning are critical for sustainable agricultural development.
Title: An Economic Analysis of Arrival and Turnover of Fruits and Vegetables of Narwal Mandi Jammu
Abstract :

The study was conducted in Narwal Mandi, Jammu situated in the southern area of Jammu city. This is one among the three fruit and vegetable terminal markets in Jammu and Kashmir. The other two are Parimpora of Srinagar and Nowpora of Sopore distrcts. The study based on both the primary and secondary data. In the study 26 carrying and forwarding agents were selected through purposive sampling for the collection of primary information with the help of structured and tested schedule and the secondary information was collected from Directorate of Horticulture (Planning and Marketing), Jammu and APMC Narwal, Jammu. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical tools, seasonal variations and 95% confidence interval technique. The study also revealed that the arrival (in MT) was more in vegetables as compared to fruits, whereas turnover (in `) was more for fruits than vegetables. The reason for the same was higher average rates per quintal in fruits than vegetables. The study analyzed and depicted that the decadal highest arrival 407625 MT was received in fruits and vegetables for the year 2011-12 and decadal highest turnover ` 11875 lakh was received in the year 2013-14.

Title: Farmers’ Perspective Towards Existing Poultry Contract Farming Model in Anand District of Gujarat
Abstract :

Contract farming in India can be seen in the production of various agricultural commodities. It has also been recognized in the poultry sector with Suguna Poultry pioneering in contract farming in this sector. Anand district in Gujarat has also witnessed rapid growth in contract farming in poultry. Many farmers who were earlier engaged in poultry farming as independent grower moved toward contract farming model. The paper has tried to study in detail the ‘modus operandi’ of poultry contract farming and the current scenario in Anand district of Gujarat, particularly what factors play role in entering into contract farming and the farmers’ satisfaction level towards the integrator.

Title: Impact of Soil Health Card on Determinants of Fertilizer Consumption and Fertilizer Use Efficiency in Gujarat, India
Abstract :
The present study was undertaken with a view to assess the impact of soil health card to identify the factors affect on fertilizer consumption and fertilizer use efficiency in sugarcane and kharif paddy crops in South Gujarat region of Gujarat State. The multistage random sampling technique comprised of 224 farmers was taken for the study. The production function analysis employed for determinants of fertilizer use indicated that annual total income of farmers, short term credit , one year lagged price and educational level were found the major influencing factors for determining fertilizers consumption in sugarcane and kharif paddy in general, for with and without Soil Health Card farmers. The production function analysis employed for fertilizer use efficiency indicated that there existed a variation in the production elasticities of resource inputs between the crops and groups of farmers under study. In general, area under the crop, human labours, phosphorus and other working capital were the important resource variables positively and significantly influencing the crop output in general for with and without Soil Health Card farmers. The nitrogen and manure showed
the negative and significant effect on crops output when farmers used these resources excessively. 
Title: Ecological sustainability in Rabi Sorghum cultivation: An economic analysis in Bijapur district of Karnataka
Abstract :

Sorghum cultivation is said to be ecologically sustainable as comparatively lesser magnitude purchased inputs are used in its cultivation. The present study was taken up to analyze the economics and ecological sustainability associated with rabi sorghum cultivation in comparison with bengalgram crop in Bijapur district of Karnataka, The results indicated that the production cost incurred per quintal of output was comparatively higher in bengalgram (` 2427/quintal) compared to rabi sorghum (` 1834/quintal). With respect to net returns per acre was higher in case of bengalgram (` 1930) compared to rabi sorghum (` 1252). The results clearly indicated that the bengalgram was more profitable than the rabi sorghum. Inspite of this, rabi sorghum holds a prominent position in the cropping pattern of the district as it is the staple food item in the consumption basket of the population. Along with profitability, sustainability is another important dimension which needs to be considered. The ratios indicating sustainability status of rabi sorghum like cost of commercial pesticides and chemical fertilizers to total cost of cultivation was less in rabi sorghum (4.94) compared to that in bengal gram (17.97) indicating less dependency on external inputs. Ratio of ecologically non-destructive inputs cost to total cost of cultivation of rabi sorghum was higher (48.71) when compared to that in bengal gram (39.71) indicating more use of eco-friendly inputs in rabi sorghum cultivation. Similarly, the ratio of returns from fodder to total cost of cultivation was around 16 in rabi sorghum cultivation indicating sustainability in terms of fodder security to livestock.

Title: Perceived Constraints in the Accessibility of Production, Marketing and Processing of Paddy in Mahasamund District of Chhattisgarh
Abstract :
Chhattisgarh is one of the leading Paddy producing state in India contributing 3.6 m ha area and 6.16 mt (2010-11) production. Chhattisgarh state has achieved “Krishi Karman” award from Government of India for the abundant paddy production in year 2010-11. Despite such an achievement, Paddy
Growers, Traders and Processors in various districts of the state are not free from the constraints in production, marketing and processing of it. Present study was undertaken in Mahasamund district of Chhattisgarh state during the year 2010. The objective of the study was to rank the identified
constraints in production, marketing and processing of the paddy. Data were collected from the selected farmers, trader and processors through personnel interview by using pre structured survey schedule. Results of the study revealed that the heavy infestation of insect pests, problem of high
weed occurrence and high labour cost were major constraints in paddy production perceived by the farmers. In marketing of paddy lack of transportation and road facility, lack of regulated market and unremunerative price were observed as severe problems while processing problems perceived by processors of study area as a severe constraints are related to electricity problem and efficiency problem of processing unit.
Title: Coriander the Taste of Vegetables: Present and Future Prospectus for Coriander Seed Production in Southeast Rajasthan
Abstract :

Approximately 80 % of the world total coriander seed is produced in India. This country is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of the spices. Among these coriander seed is one of the most important spices. Of which, more than 80 % is produced in southeast Rajasthan. Even after introduction of advance production technologies for coriander still it is controlled by soil factors. The study was conducted in southeast Rajasthan for evaluation of soil capability to support coriander seed. The limitations considered for assessment of soil are climatic, topographic, wetness, salinity and alkalinity, soil fertility and physical limitation. The criteria of soil slope, erosion, depth, texture, available water content and length of growing period (LGP) were used for final assessment of soil suitability. Keeping these criteria, it was recorded that agroecological environment of this region and soil system environment of Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar and Kota is most suitable for cultivation of coriander seeds. The total geographical area of above four districts of Rajasthan is 2435 thousand hectares. Out of this 49 per cent is the net sown area. Considering the soil texture as one of the limiting factors, 453 thousand hectare area is suitable for coriander cultivation whereas considering the soil slope as second limiting factor 1322 thousand hectare area is suitable for coriander cultivation in above four districts of Rajasthan. The data from year the 2006-07 to 2010-11 indicated that about 200 (+ 50) thousand hectare area is being kept under coriander seed cultivation in Rajasthan out of this 99 per cent area is situated in southeast Rajasthan i.e. Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar and Kota.

Title: Child Labour: Determinants, Dimensions and Policies in India
Abstract :
Child labour, protection of child rights and development of children has been a significant issue among the policy makers and all social scientists at national and international levels. Child labour is a socio-economic problem alive in every country of the world, but it varies in nature and scale depending on the existing socio-economic structure of society. Though, it is difficult to estimate
accurately the overall magnitude of child labour in India, it is important to study its trends, issues and policies in India. At present there are 215 million child labourers in the world, out of which 23.08 million are working in south Asian countries. India continues to host the largest number of child labour in the world but there is a large variation of child labour both state-wise and sector-wise. Agriculture and allied activities in India and the rest of the world report for largest child labour. The most child labour concentrated state in India is Uttar Pradesh. It is observed that the main reason of child labour is poverty, and the relationship between these two create a circle. This circle shows that child labour is a cause as well as result of poverty. The other reasons which give rise to child labour are unemployment, underemployment, and population explosion, lack of educational facilities, illiteracy and ignorance of parents. The government of India have been taking a variety of steps from
time to time for development of children and elimination of child labour from the country. Child education is a very effective instrument for the elimination of child labour.
Title: An Economic Analysis of Milk Production in Sultanpur District of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
In the recent past, India has made rapid strides in milk production. Milk production is increasing at 1 per cent per annum in the world. While in India, it is increasing at more than 4 per cent. Dairying is one of the fastest growing  nterprises in the country, achieving 7.4 per cent growth rate during 9th five year plan (All India Dairy Business Directory, 2001). Since demand for milk and milk product is income elastic, consumption can improve only when the income of producer increases along with increase in production.
Title: Economics of Brinjal Production in South Gujarat
Abstract :
The brinjal is the major vegetable crop of South Gujarat. The present investigation was carried out to study the growth rates, cost structure, returns and resource use efficiency. The study was conducted
in Surat, Navasari and Tapi districts selected on the basis of area under brinjal. A sample of 240 brinjal growers was selected with probability proportional. The CGR of area, production and productivity of brinjal were positive and significant in South Gujarat but these were non-significant in all the three selected districts except CGR of productivity in Surat district which was significant at 5 % level of significance. The analysis of CV in area, production and productivity indicated that variability was less in case of Tapi as compared to other districts. Hence, a Tapi district was more stable in growing brinjal.
Title: FDI inflow and Economic Growth in India An Empirical Analysis
Abstract :
This study has assessed the impact of the growth of FDI inflow along with some other potential determinants on economic growth in India. Our econometric analysis, based on a secondary time series data, demonstrates that real GDP and other selected macroeconomic aggregates have grown in
a favourable direction in the era of strong liberalization (1991-2010) in contrast to the moderate liberalization era (1980-1990). In order to estimate the economic growth measured by the rate of change of real GDP we have formulated a linear regression model following the generalized version of
the Solow-Swan growth model. Augmented Dickey Fuller test and Phillips Perron test statistics confirm that the variables included in the regression model are stationary. This study has revealed that the growth of domestic capital formation has a positive and significant contribution to economic
growth. Population growth poses the primary constraint against economic growth. However, growth of openness and growth of FDI inflow are immaterial in the determination of the economic growth in India.
Title: Socio-Economic Status and Role of Women: Indian Scenario
Abstract :
Over the past two decades, women’s empowerment has been increasingly recognized as a crucial factor for any country’s holistic and sustainable development. Policy makers have suggested that gender equity is very much interlinked with most of the development policy of a country and it is
crucial for meeting the international development standard like, Human Development Index, Gender Empowerment Index, Millennium Development Goals, etc. It has been identified that gender inequality can constrain the outcomes of macroeconomic policies. For instance, economic reforms with decreased incentives can reduce women’s output or restricted access to education or training can hamper women’s ability to develop their human resources (World Bank, 1995). It is not only costly to women, but it is also costly to children and men. Women’s empowerment can provide the possibility for all countries to have some combination of increased  productivity, improved human resources,less stress and better overall education and health.
Title: Temporal and Spatial Performance of Horticultural Crops in India
Abstract :
Horticultural sector accounts for about 30 percent of India’s agricultural GDP and 37 percent of the total exports of agricultural commodities. This sector has immense potential to promote trade and generate gainful employment during the process of value addition. This paper focused on temporal and spatial performance of horticultural crops in India. The growth in area and production of fruit crops was 1.82 percent and 1.8 percent respectively during 1996-97 to 2000- 01 regardless of the focus through golden revolution in mid-1990s. However, the actual impact was observed during 2001-02 to 2005-06 as area and production growth was 8.92 percent and 6.43 percent, respectively. Growth in area under vegetables was negative during 1991-92 to 1995-96, which was increased to 4.13 percent in 2001-02 to 2005-06. The NHM was focused on bringing less fertile land under cultivation of plantation crops and targeting the small scale farmers in area expansion programme of flower crops. Hence, the positive shift in area under plantation and flower crops was observed in last decade shows prominence given to high value, commercial and market orientated horticultural crops. The states of Maharashtra (10.7 percent) and West Bengal (10.5 percent) shared largest area and production of horticultural crops in India. The major fruits growing areas were concentrated in southern and western India, whereas vegetables
growing states concentrated in eastern India and about 80 percent of plantation crops are grown by southern states. Thus, the area specific regionally differentiated cluster approach needed for holistic development of horticultural sector. The diversification plan of the horticulture sector needs to identify area wise or region wise potential crops. Horticultural research should concentrate on technology generation appropriate to each region keeping in view of their specific agroclimatic and socio-economic condition.
Title: An Analysis of Share Cropping in Rice Cultivation- A Case Study in Karimganj District of Assam
Abstract :

Sharecropping is an important age-old agrarian phenomenon in Assam. There is still vast scope to boost rice production in the study area through increasing the productivity of crops with the adoption of improved and economic methods of crop cultivation in due space and time on a sustainable basis. Sharecropping in the study area is established as supplementary source of farm income to those farmers who undertake sharecropping by hiring lands from others. It also act as a complementary source of income and employment for both the group of farmers that is one who undertake sharecropping on others lands and others who let their land for sharecropping to other farmers. Thus, Sharecropping in the study area is found as both supplementary and complementary source of farm income. Of course, in the study area, there is still great scope to make share cropping more profitable as the productivity of rice crop is 481 kg less than the productivity of Punjab and 3202 kg less than the productivity of Egypt which is highest in the world.

Title: A Study of Agricultural Productivity and Agricultural Intensity in Kaimur District, Bihar
Abstract :
Agricultural development and agricultural productivity have been increased after the introduction of green revolution. In the present paper an attempt has been made to analyse the agricultural productivity and agricultural intensity in Kaimur district of Bihar for two time periods that is 2001 and 2011. Productivity and intensity has increased tremendously due to the use of modern equipments, application of high yielding varieties (HYV) of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc. From the foregoing results it is clear that cropping intensity has increased with the use of modern agricultural inputs. There is a wide regional disparity exists in productivity and intensity for both time periods. Blocks which have good irrigation facility, use HYV seeds in agriculture have high cropping intensity and productivity. On the other blocks having less.
Title: Evolution and Emerging Issues in Fertilizer Policies in India
Abstract :
Over the years, the policy makers in India have adopted a wide range of strategies to ensure supply of fertilizers equitably by providing it at an affordable price. The major fertilizer policies implemented, including the retention price scheme, decontrol of prices, nutrient-based pricing, nutrient based subsidy etc., could not ensure a steady increase in the crop response to the fertilizers. Hence, it is important to trace the evolution of fertilizer policies and suggest some measures to improve them. Some changes in the policy regime like subsidy intervention from the input side, making the fertilizers available in smaller quantity along with other inputs, preferential taxes and tax holidays on the selected fertilizer products and the raw materials, fertilizer mix customised to the requirements of the soil in different regions, targeted distribution of fertilizers etc. can bring about improvements. Policies like that of the proposed Direct Cash Transfer (DCT) of fertilizer subsidies should be carefully studied for the fraught involved in it before being implemented.
Title: Zero Tillage of Rapeseed and Mustard Cultivation in Thoubal District of Manipur: An Economic Analysis
Abstract :

With the ever changing climatic scenario and its impact on farming community, need is being felt to explore and develop alternative Resource Conservation Technologies (RCT’s) which will have positive impact on the environment as well as at the same time will save the critical inputs. Zero tillage is one such important RCT commonly practiced in the study area. Several research works have been reported for impact of zero tillage in wheat, rice but so far no systematic study on economics of rapeseed and mustard cultivation under zero tillage was available in the literature especially in Manipur of North Eastern Hill (NEH) Region. Keeping this in view, the study was undertaken to work out the cost and returns of the rapeseed and mustard growers under zero tillage. Economic analysis of the data presented in the paper showed that zero tillage method for rapeseed and mustard cultivation is the most economical and attractive option for the farming community in the area during rabi season.

Title: Farmers’ Suicide Deaths in India: Can it be Controlled?
Abstract :
India is agrarian country, since 72 per cent of the area is rural area and more than 60 per cent of the people depend on this sector. But, the contribution of this sector to the nation’s GDP is less than 17 per cent. Agricultural sector has had low production due to a number of factors such as illiteracy,
insufficient finance, and inadequate marketing of agricultural produces. Also the growth rate of the agricultural sector in India the GDP has declined due to the fact that the sector has not adopted modern technology and agricultural practices and insufficient irrigation facilities. The time is come to
safe guard the agricultural sector and to stop the farmers’ suicides in the country. A special package is necessary to provide input subsidy and development of animal husbandry, horticulture and poultry sector and it is more help to the agrarian economy. The government may arrange a package
of financial assistance to meet agricultural inputs and to meet expenditures of the social obligations.
Title: Technological adoption and constraint analysis of mushroom entrepreneurship in Karnataka
Abstract :

Mushroom cultivation is a remunerative agribusiness. However, consumption of mushrooms to ameliorate nutrition deficiency is often underemphasized in India. Mushroom entrepreneurship being technologically intensive agribusiness, its success in a country like India is contingent upon the technological and institutional support available to it. Present study was carried out to assess component wise technology adoption and constraint analysis of enterprises in order to suggest precise policy interventions for bringing the mushroom industry to health and vibrancy. The research was conducted among the mushroom entrepreneurs in Karnataka State. The constraint analysis reveals that, non-availability of spawn, lack of technical information and exploitation by consultants are major constraints. The increasing labour wages calls for adoption of mechanization in various activities of mushroom cultivation. The higher cost on electricity has rendered the cultivation of button mushroom less profitable in the State. For mushroom cultivation to pick up the pace, there is need for capacity building of KVK staff about improved low cost cultivation technology for disseminating the same among the farmers and supply of quality spawn by State departments.

Title: The Relationship between Inflation, Inflation Uncertainty and Output Growth in India
Abstract :

Friedman’s hypothesis regarding the relationship between inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth states that full employment policy objective of the government tends to increase the rate of inflation which increases the uncertainty about the future course of inflation. Increase in inflation uncertainty lowers economic efficiency and reduces output growth. There are very few studies for underdeveloped countries particularly for India regarding the relationship between inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth. Thornton’s (2006) study regarding the relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty in India is univariate in nature and it cannot establish the relationship between inflation uncertainty and output growth. This study intends use the bivariate GARCH model to find out the relation between inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth simultaneously. In this study we use monthly data of wholesale price index (WPI) and index of industrial production (IIP) of India as the proxies of price and output respectively from 1950:1 to 2011:12. Following Fountas, Karanasos and Kim (2002) we have used the following bivariate GARCH model to estimate simultaneously the means, variances and covariances of inflation and output growth. We use Granger- causality test to know the statistical relationship between average inflation, output growth, inflation uncertainty and output growth uncertainty. We find strong evidence that increase in average inflation raises inflation uncertainty and increase in growth rate increases the growth rate uncertainty. But we do not find any statistically significant relationship between inflation uncertainty and output growth rate.

Title: Improved Farm Plans for Marginal Farmers in Punjab State
Abstract :
Punjab is an agriculturally developed state of India. The production pattern of marginal farmers is dominated by paddy-wheat rotation. The agricultural productivity has nearly stagnated and consistent rise in cost of production is resulting in to squeeze profit margin. There is low investment and thus
low production on marginal farms. The present study showed that the marginal farmers suffered from lack of various resources in farm production. Capital was though one of the big constraints on these farms. Due to small size of holding, farmers were sharing their assets with others farmers and
supplemented their income by doing agricultural labour, rearing milch animal etc. This paper examines that income from crop production can be raised by organizing their resources optimally. Thus, there is an urgent need to introduce new high yielding crop and other alternatives on the marginal farms.
Title: Agriculturaldevelopment in Maharashtra State by Estimating Growth Rates of Area, Production and Productivity of Major Crops Grown and Fertilizer Consumption Pattern
Abstract :
Agriculture development has been analysed by studying the cropping pattern, land utilization pattern, fertilizer consumption and crop specialization in any agro-ecosystem in regional and temporal framework. Tribal regions are experiencing agricultural intensification changing cropping pattern and crop specialization as a result of ecological economic changes as well as impact of public policy of
technology transfer and resource use intensification.
Title: Socio-Economic Determinants of Consumption Pattern of Fish in Urban Area of Tripura
Abstract :

The fish is important food commodity and has an important role in nutritional security of North East region of India. The average per capita consumption of protein in India is 56 gm/day (2005-06) which is below to minimum protein requirement 70 gm/capita/day recommended by the WHO. This study looked into the consumption pattern of fish in urban households of Tripura. This study also examines the socio-economic factors affecting quantity of fish purchase and level of fish consumption by urban households. Simple random technique used to select 120 respondents from four fish markets from the Agartala City of Tripura. Primary data from 120 respondents was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. It was found that majority of fish buyers were male and out of those 70% were age below 45 years. The modle class for family size was 3-4 Members/family. The average monthly expenditure on fish purchase was ` 1312.16/household. The regression analysis revealed that fish price negatively affect to the quantity of fish purchase, whereas number adult members in a family, quantity of consumption of chicken and mutton (close substitute of fish) were found to have positively effect on quantity of fish purchase. Therefore, to increase the level of fish consumption in urban areas of Tripura, strategies towards household income, sufficient and regular supply this was needed.

Title: Women Empowerment through Self Help Groups:A Case Study
Abstract :
This research article discusses the role of Self-Help Groups in promoting women empowerment and standard of living of poor. The study revealed that SHGs play an instrumental role as financial intermediary between banks and SHG members and their economic wellbeing. SHGs functions are collection of savings and offering credit to its members to undertake economic activities thereby they become empower in all spheres. The SHGs promotes savings habits, economic independence, selfconfidence, social cohesion, asset ownership, freedom from debt, additional employment, etc. Thus, SHGs have served an effective role towards women empowerment, social solidarity and socioeconomic
betterment of the poor for their consolidation.
Title: Interdepencies Between Aviation Demand and Economic Growth in India:Cointegration Equation Estimation
Abstract :
The main purpose of the paper is to empirically examine the aviation-led growth hypothesis for India by testing causality between aviation and economic growth. We resort to econometric tests such as unit root tests and test of cointegration purposed by Johansen (1988). Fully Modified OLS,
Dynamic OLS and Conical Cointegration Regression are used to estimate the cointegration equation for time span of 1970 to 2012. Empirical results reveal the existence of relationship between aviation demand and economic growth. Graphic methods such as Cholesky Impulse Response function (both
accumulated and non-accumulated) and variance decomposition have also been applied to render the analysis rigorous. The positive contribution of aviation demand to economic growth is similar in all three estimation techniques of cointegration equation. Findings help in lime-lighting the importance of aviation industry in economic growth for a developing country like India.
Title: Impact of MGNREGA on Livelihood Security of Rural Households: A Case Study in Bankura district of West Bengal State, India
Abstract :
This paper has examined the changes in the households’ income and employment pattern and has assessed the impact of MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) -a social-security scheme for the rural poor households launched by India Government (2005). This study refers to an exhaustive survey in three villages in Bankura district, West Bengal, India covering 100 households during the year 2011-12. The impact of MGNREGA focusing employment security, income generation, and its governance and future perspectives were dealt in the study. It was found that MGNREGA covered all poor sections of the rural society irrespective of castes, genders or social orders. It was also observed that this project enhanced income as well as savings of rural households. Further, it was noticed that MGNREGA has created rural employment opportunities.
Title: Characterization of Potato Growers – A Case Study in West Bengal State of India
Abstract :
This study oversees wide variation in productivity of Potato in West Bengal, India and identifies the distinct characteristics between high yielding and low yielding Potato growers. Set objectives were studied using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).Our empirical study revealed that high yielding
group is relatively aggressive in adopting improved technologies and practices compared to low yielding groups. They are ahead of low yielding farmers in terms of land preparation and irrigation. Observed significant correlation between adoption index and realization index in case of high yielding group also indicates that high yielding farmers are good adopters of technology. The significant factors discriminating the groups have been identified. This study concludes that though Potato is a capital intensive crop, the level of adoption depends not only on the quantum of inputs but also on the appropriate know-how practices at the farm level. At the end the authors made suggestions to
improve the status of low yielding farmers.
Title: Modeling Long Memory in Volatility for Spot Price of Lentil with Multi-step Ahead Out-of-sample Forecast Using AR-FIGARCH Model
Abstract :
The potential presence of long memory (LM) properties in return and volatility of the spot price of lentil in Indore market has been investigated. Geweke and Porter-Hudak (1983) (GPH) method has been applied to test for presence of long range dependence in the volatility processes for the series. Stationarity of the series has been tested using Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Philips-Peron (PP) unit root test. It is observed that both the log returns as well as squared log returns series are stationary at level but there is a significant presence of long memory in squared log
return series. Accordingly, AR-FIGARCH model was applied for forecasting the volatility of lentil price. To this end, window based evaluation of forecasting is carried out with the help of Mean squares prediction error (MSPE), Root MSPE (RMSPE), Mean absolute prediction error (MAPE) and Relative MAPE (RMAPE). The residuals of the fitted models were used for diagnostic checking. Out-of sample forecast of volatility has been computed for 1st June-31st July, 2015 along with the percentage deviation from the actual price. The maximum deviation has been found to be 2.55%. The R
software package has been used for data analysis. 
Title: Application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for assessing the efficiency of Laser Land Leveling Technology in Punjab Agriculture
Abstract :
This study was carried out to assess technical efficiency in wheat and paddy cultivation with regard to laser land leveling technology in two regions of Central Punjab. For this purpose, the data were collected from 80 farmers, using multi-stage random sampling method. The results indicated that those sample farmers whose fields were leveled with laser leveler were better water managers. The results revealed that the reduction in the use of inputs by up to 23 % will make the sample farmers reach the optimum scale of efficiency. The adoption of laser land leveling technology resulted into water saving of 28 % and 12 % in paddy and wheat crops, respectively. Further, the incremental increase in returns over variable cost was ` 3311 per ha in paddy crop, whereas it was ` 4268 per ha
in wheat crop.
Title: Market Driven Agribusiness Education in Agricultural Institutions for Sustainability
Abstract :
Under the given circumstances the agribusiness courses offered by agricultural universities/ institutions need a market orientation for sustainability. The institutes should be sensitive to students’ and industry needs by identifying the target agro-industry, trade or services enterprises and co-coordinating
with them in course structure design. This will also make the courses commercially viable and sustainable. The industry focus can give them an edge in the market if some experimental learning is facilitated by placing them in specific industries in the last semester over and above the usual summer
training as a part of the course as is done in some leading institutions. The institutes should provide functional area managers to the concerned trade and industrial units who should also be capable to manage independently small business units and entrepreneurial ventures. On-the-job training is very
helpful for developing such skills to make the students self dependant. Since the PG students in such courses come from B. Sc. (Ag.) stream they are technically conversant with most of the agricultural specialties but lack seriously in managerial orientation and leadership qualities. They are also found to be deficient in communication and soft skills. Added emphasis should be given on these components. They have to be made better managers in addition to being good technocrats. A package with an outsourcing of such modules through collaboration with professional management institutes may do wonders for the conventional institutes. Such leading institutes may also offer teachers’ training for preparing the faculty to take the challenge themselves in future. Quantitative skills development and computer applications capability should be improved for the students as well as the teachers through a customized provision of special modules to overcome the individual weaknesses. It is expected that such a restructuring of the agribusiness courses in the agricultural institutions will upgrade them to meet the market demand in the globalized era and will also lead to modernization of
the agriculture sector in India.
Title: Trade in Health Services in the Presence of Consumption Efficiency Hypothesis
Abstract :

An attempt has been made in this paper to formulate a three-sector general equilibrium model where two sectors produce final traded goods whereas a third sector produces a non-traded final good. It has been referred to the third sector as a non-traded final good producing health sector. In such a set up it has been shown that a movement from a regime of international health capital immobility to a regime of international health capital mobility may lead to an expansion of the health sector in the presence of nutritional efficiency of workers. Apart from that it has also been shown that social welfare of our stylized small open economy will improve.

Title: Socio-economic and livelihood profile of ornamental fish producers in India - The DFID approach
Abstract :

The present study has been done in three hotspots areas of ornamental fish production and trade in India Viz. Kolkata (West Bengal), Chennai and Mumbai. The sociometric study revealed that the ornamental fishery is a male oriented activity in all the three study locations, but it holds as primary occupation only in case of Chennai. Moreover, it has been observed that the source of information was mainly from informal sources comprising of friends and relatives. Ornamental fisheries were primarily driven by own funding in all the three locations. Furthermore, the Pentagon diagram of the DFID model shows that all the five capital assets of Chennai are proportionately networked which is not such case of Kolkata (West Bengal) and Mumbai which revealed that the activity was more organized and coordinated in Chennai as compared to other two locations.

Title: Impact of New Economic Reforms on Industry
Abstract :
It is crystal clear that the development in the small scale and heavy industries after economic reforms has not been developed at a significant phase. It is much lower than before the implementation of economic reforms. Hence, it is concluded that necessary steps should be taken by the Government for effective implementation of economic reforms in the small scale and heavy industries.
Title: Stability in Economic Growth of G20 Countries
Abstract :
An attempt was made to examine the stability in growth rates of G20 countries during the period 1980 2010. The results showed that among 18 countries studied in G20 group, there are 4 fast growing countries, 8 medium growing countries and 6 slow-growing countries. Out of 4 fast growing countries, China is the fastest growing country followed by Korea, India and Indonesia. The 8 medium growing countries include China, UK, Brazil, Argentina, USA, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Turkey. Out of 6 slow growing countries, Italy is the slowest growing country during the period of study i.e. 1980 2010. The study showed that besides some exceptions, the fast, medium and slow growing countries remained in their same categories in all the periods, which shows stability in the growth rates of G20 countries. Coefficients of correlation between all the periods were high and
significant which indicates that GDP growth rates of G20 countries are stable. Similar results were shown by rank correlation analysis. This proves the stability in economic growth of G20 countries over time.
Title: Changing Cropping Pattern from Conventional to Market Oriented Value Added Crops in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India: Variations and Causes
Abstract :
The study of cropping pattern is very important because it provide evidences about the changes that are taking place in landuse related to agriculture. The vast, extensive and densely populated state of Uttar Pradesh, while generally backward and predominantly agriculture is marked by considerable
changes in cropping pattern. The study focuses on Eastern Uttar Pradesh, which is still identified as backward region in comparison to Western Uttar Pradesh. Changes in cropping patterns are examined from the pre-Green Revolution period (1950-53) to post-Green Revolution period (up to 2006-09) on the basis of data obtained from the Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Statistics and Economics, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Patterns of changes in the study area are shown by the
proportions of land occupied by the respected crop to total cropped area and their proportion of production to the total agricultural production. The data shows that, area and production of certain crops such as fine cereals (wheat and rice) increased through out the study period and on the other
extreme the area and production of our traditional crops like pulses, coarse cereals and small millets decreased. Some of the cash crops like oilseeds and sugarcane are also increasing, showing that cropping pattern is shifting from traditional to market oriented value added crops, which are more
profitable and less risky to grow. Moreover, this shift in cropping pattern also affects the food and nutritional security of the masses.
Title: The Relationship between FDI outflows, Exports and GDP in India: An Application of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model
Abstract :

This study examines the long-run relationship between foreign direct investment outflows, exports and aggregate measure of GDP in India for the time period 1980 to 2014. In order to assess the long-run relationship, ARDL/Bounds testing approach to cointegration has been applied. At the end of the analysis, VAR Granger causality/Block exogeneity Wald test has also been applied to test for the causal relationship between the variables of interest. The results indicate that all the variables are cointegrated when FDI outflows have been taken as a dependent variable. The positive and statistically significant coefficient of export suggests that FDI outflows and export complement each other, both in the long and short-run. GDP is found to have a negative but statistically insignificant impact on FDI outflows. The dummy that is used to incorporate the shift in policy after the economic reforms of 1991 is found to have a positive but insignificant impact on FDI outflows. The results of the Granger causality test indicate a unidirectional causality running from exports to FDI outflows. A similar type of causality is found between exports and GDP running from GDP to exports. The results of the Granger causality test also suggest that there exists chain relationship among the variables i.e., GDP causes exports and exports, in turn,causes FDI outflows. It can be also inferred that export is a precondition for Indian firms to conduct overseas FDI operations.

Title: Economic Assessment of Onion Dehydration in Gujarat State: Can It be a Means for Stabilizing Onion Prices?
Abstract :
Onion is extremely important vegetable for earning foreign exchange grown in an area of 1.04 million hectares with a production of 15.74 million tonnes in the country during the year 2011-12. The world’s largest exporter India exported 15.53 lakh tonnes in the year 2011-12. Dehydraion of onion has the potential to reduce the storage losses as well as in price stabilization. Gujarat state with 6 % share in area and 10 % share in production occupied third rank in area and production and first rank in productivity of the onion in 2011-12. The onion dehydration industry of the state is the biggest in the country and it comprises 80 % of the total dehydration units. This study explores processing cost, marketing cost and margin and employment generation in onion dehydration industry of Gujarat as well as growth of export of onion from India. The study based on primary data on
processing and marketing cost collected from Junagadh and bhavnagar district of Gujarat state and time series data on export of onion. It was found that the cultivation of onion is concentrated in the
Saurashtra region of Gujarat. The area, production and productivity of onion crop increased at the rate of 9.53, 8.74 and 0.52 % annum, respectively during the period from 2001-02 to 2011-12. The cost of raw material in onion processing was found to be the major cost in total cost of processing. The net profit of ` 1931.64 per tonne of onion processing was realized by the processors. The processors got `1.15 per investment of one rupee while they recovered their total investment in 5.08 years. The processors preferred round shaped white onion having average diameter of 58 mm in order to obtain better quality of processed products. The export of dried onion and fresh onion from India increased at the rate 17.46 and 6.86 % per annum during 2001-02 to 2012-13, respectively. An appropriate export policy along with policy on fixing Minimum Export Price during glut season and efforts to minimize the variation in prices of onion in order to stabilize the area of the crop are the suggestions emerges from the study.
Title: Livestock Sector in Assam: An Appraisal and Performance
Abstract :
Livestock is the integral part of the mixed-farming system that characterizes agriculture in Assam. Among all other livestock the cattle population constituted the largest group in Assam. The poultry population of the State, as revealed from the Livestock Census 2007, has registered an increase of 34.2 % over the previous census 2003. However, Per capita milk, egg and meat have been reported to very less in Assam as compared to national level and requirement as per ICMR. In Assam though livestock products are increasing year by year the demand and supply gap is still large. Besides, absence of organized marketing channels in Assam is also one of the major constraints faced by livestock sector of the state. Considering these problems and potentiality of the sector to develop in the state, GOI and GOA has been implementing lots of schemes and programmes to promote the livestock sector in Assam.
Title: Impact of Farmers’ Suicides on Social and Economic Conditions of Victim Households
Abstract :

The deplorable condition has emerged for the suicide victims’ households due to the loss of the burdened family member committed suicide by various socio-economic reasons. Size of own land holding, operational land holding dairy farming has been adversely affected; Victims family sold their lands to sustain their livelihood. Numbers of victims’ farmers’ family become landless.

Title: Issues and Challenges of the Weekly Market Street Vendors in Telangana: A Special Reference to Hyderabad
Abstract :

In developing countries, the informal sector is playing a dominating role in providing employment and income security in rural as well as urban areas. In India, Informal sector is playing a significant role because 93 per cent of employment workforce is from informal sector and only 7 per cent of employment of workforce is from formal sector or organised sector. The Hawkers and street vendors, one of the important part of the urban informal sectors, accounted for two third of the city’s employment in India. The street vendors are not recognised and regulated by state, and therefore, they do not get any support from government to operate their activity. They face several problems like harassment and pressure by police department, municipality authorities, local leaders and market contractors or rent seekers. In this circumstance, the objectives of the study is to investigate the issues and challenges of weekly market street vendors in Hyderabad. The study is based on secondary as well as primary data. The primary data have been collected from three weekly markets in Hyderabad.

Title: Cost of cultivation and returns on different cost concepts basis of onion in Rajasthan
Abstract :
India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China. The Onion is the major vegetable crop of Rajasthan. The present investigation was carried out to study the cost of cultivation and returns on different cost concepts basis of Onion. The study was conducted in Jodhpur and Nagaur which were selected on the basis of highest area and production of Onion. A sample of 50 Onion growing farmers from different land size categories was selected by probability proportion to number of farmers in each size group. Cost of cultivation of onion vegetables on the sample farms in Jodhpur and Nagaur district. Production is normally considered as the function of area and yield. The decision regarding the choice of crop enterprise to be taken on the farm and the allocation of area and resources under it depends to a great extent, on level of yield, price of output and the cost of inputs used in the production of that crop. The cost of cultivation and the returns to different factors of production help in decision making about the selection of crop and hence, these measures were worked out for onion. On an average, ` 77850 was spent on onion per hectare. Cost of cultivation of large farm category was highest, ` 91595, followed by medium farms (` 83689) and small farms (` 72258). Among the different components of cost of cultivation, human labour accounted for the largest portion (28.45 per cent) followed by seed (17.43 per cent). The other major components were rental value of land (12.85 per cent), irrigation charges (11.92 per cent), FYM (9.52 per cent), PP chemical (5.87 per cent), fertilizers (5.20 per cent) and machinery (3.22 per cent). The cultivation of onion requires more labour use for harvesting and cutting, application of irrigation and transplanting/sowing and as such the share of human labour accounted for the highest share of ` 22456 per hectare (28.85%). Large farmers spent ` 12835 on manures and fertilizers, which was higher than that of medium (` 12134) and small farmers category
(` 10853).
Title: Contents March Volume 62 Issue 1
Abstract :

Contents March Volume 62 Issue 1

Title: Sewage Fed Farming Systems and Sustainable Livelihood in Peri-urban Kolkata
Abstract :
The study is an inquiry of prevailing farming systems in peri-urban mega city Kolkata. Due to lack of fresh water farmers are dependent on the domestic sewage water for cultivation of crops and running a pisciculture unit. The study revealed the pre-dominance of small farmers with abundant supply of workforce both male and female. Around 61.67 % (74 no.) of farmers have a fishery unit (small or large) under their execution. Due to the availability of ample wastewater throughout the year, 61.67 % (74 no.) of sampled farmers practices pisciculture and 59.17 % (71no.) of sampled farmers have intensive vegetable production unit. In this context, the study focuses on optimizing production with sustainability. The normative plan suggests that incorporation of a piggery or a poultry unit sufficiently increase the net income by 47 to 58 % over existing earnings. Intensive vegetable cultivation along with a fishery unit also increase the net income significantly (47.29%).
Title: Knowledge and Attitude Towards Environmental Pollution Among Youths – A Correlative Study
Abstract :
The phrase “sustainable development” has gained momentum after the world summit in Johannesburg in autumn 2008. It designated the period 2005 to 2014 as the decade of sustainable development. Therefore the challenge before the developing countries is to integrate the concept of sustainable
development in their educative process (educational curriculum). The present paper deals to explore into the knowledge and attitude on environmental issues among youths in the rural and urban areas in the districts of North and South 24 Parganas in West Bengal. A sample of six hundred (600) youths
were taken in the age group of 14-28 years. The study was carried out with the help of a self made questionnaire. The statistical analysis (correlation studies) shows that environmental knowledge was correlative with educational hierarchy irrespective of gender with urban dwellers having an edge
over the rural counterparts. However there seems to be increased need of environmental knowledge in our rural areas.
Title: Participation of Women in Sugarcane Farming System-A Case Study of Bijnor District (Western Uttar Pradesh)
Abstract :

Sugarcane is an annual crop engaging around 50 million farmers of which approximately half are women. Even though, women form the backbone of sugarcane cultivation, they still tend to exist as “the hidden farmers” with almost negligible access on land, resources, technologies, financial services, markets and even education. Despite their exclusive inputs in sugarcane farming operations like farmyard manure application, sett planting and treatments, hand weeding and detrashing, sugarcane bundling, disposal of trash and plant protection measures, the output of the land controlled by women is drastically lesser than the male counterparts. Against this backdrop the present paper is an attempt to examine the role of women in sugarcane farming in terms of their participation level, their decision making pattern in various activities, time utilization pattern, drudgeries involved and thereby implications. Hence, this study was conducted in Nehtaur Block of Bijnor District of Western Uttar Pradesh. Six villages from Nehtaur Block were selected for the purpose of the study. From these villages, 120 women who were engaged in sugarcane farming selected randomly and each was interviewed personally for the collection of data.

Title: Optimising Land use Pattern for Sustainable Development: A Region-Wise Analysis of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
The continuous use, misuse and exploitation of land resources have resulted in its degradation and destruction. In order to sustain development process in the long- term, it is necessary to have a judicious allocation of land between various uses/ activities with regard to its sustainability and capability. The sustainable productivity of land resources happen to be the basis of all living being, therefore management , conservation and development of land resources are considered to be the most important aspects. The present paper is based on region-wise-data of Uttar Pradesh. Analysis discusses the land use patterns and trends in all the regions of Uttar Pradesh. It provides information for different years pertaining to the area under nine land use categories. The analysis of Land use pattern in different regions of Uttar Pradesh is undertaken to identify important imbalances that requires immediate attention of planners. In view of this, paper presents a plan to shift the area from undesirable land uses to desirable land uses gradually over the years in the state. This suggestive model is expected to optimize the land use under different categories in the state. Paper concludes that Land Use Policy
should aim at optimizing returns on long- term basis rather than meeting short term requirements on adhoc basis, land development/management programmes for generating higher aggregate income and critical input of water should include intensive land development and need to be reviewed so that
regional disparities are reduced to a minimum and sustainable development among the regions could be attained.
Title: Comparative Advantage in Export of Major Agricultural Commodities in India: A Post-reforms Analysis
Abstract :
With the withering away of protectionist policies, the trade pattern of India is likely to march in the direction of its comparative advantage. The paper attempts to assess India’s revealed Symmetric comparative advantage (RSCA) in export of major agricultural commodities. This study evaluates the structure of comparative advantage in India and the change in the scenario over a period of 21 years from 1991 to 2011. The present study has ascertained the changes in comparative advantage status of India’s major agricultural exports vis-a-vis global players during the post-reforms period. It has been observed in the study that in exports of certain commodities like rice, tea, tobacco, spices, groundnuts and castor oil, India has been able to maintain its comparative advantage, but several other commodities like coffee, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, cotton and sugar, etc. have been negatively affected. India has been found losing out its comparative advantage in export of some of the agricultural commodities to other global competitors during the period of post economic reforms.
Title: Gender Wage Gap among Salaried Workers in India: Results of a Principal Component Analysis of State Level Statistics
Abstract :
Gender gap in wages is a major labour market discourse in policy circles and academia in India. Despite having many Constitutional provisions calling for removal of all gender based discrimination,
wage inequality across gender and race is a reality and it varies widely in terms of its intensity across States. This paper makes an attempt to study the dynamics of gender gap in wages of salaried class
workers Indian states. The paper recognises the need to study the extent to which gender plays a role in determining wages. This is particularly necessary for evolving effective labour market policies in
the country. On the basis of principal component analysis on the reported State level aggregates of various gender specific information, the paper argues that the policies for removal of gaps in skills
and other demand influencing variables may be necessary, but not sufficient conditions for ensuring gender equality in wages. Rather, variables explaining the level of participation of women in decision
making in different walks of their social and economic life and other supply-side factors may explain the gender gap in wages among salaried class workers. 
Title: A Value Chain Analysis of Vegetables: A Case Study of Palpa District, Nepal
Abstract :
Vegetable is major source of vitamins and minerals, but the level of consumption is very low due to low production and market imperfection. Present study was an attempt to analyse the value chain of vegetables in Palpa district of Nepal. Primary data were collected from 75 vegetables growers, 17 input suppliers, 38 vegetable traders, 30 consumers of Palpa district. Seven different vegetable marketing channels were found in the district. Out of these channels, channel-VI for tomato, channel-III for green chilli and channel- VII for cauliflower were found best channels of marketing. Marketing planning committee (MPC) in local level and apex body in district level used to facilitate for linking the retailers and farmers with getting nominal weighing charge. They used to facilitate for balancing the value shared and margin added in the vegetable products. It can be predicted that, marketing
channels associated with such actors may develop more sustainable and commercially viable value chain in the vegetable marketing in the Palpa district. Constraints can be managed through the improvement of production technology, management of marketing system, extension of linkage and
network between service receiver and providers. There are some opportunities for the improvement of the marketing system which can be trapped by the policy maker or planner to develop the program strategy related to vegetable. Some recommendations are made at the end of the conclusion viz. provision of linking the local agro vets to the reliable companies to ensure quality input supply in the district; improvement in production and marketing that may increase farmers’ share, lower
production and marketing cost, improve quality; Provision of empowerment training to MPCs and leader farmers focused on advocacy and negotiation with supporting organization, basically government agencies, multiplication and capacity enhancement of local marketing bodies like different marketing
committees which have great role to increase the marketing efficiency etc.
Title: Implications of Migration: A Case Study of Industrial Migrant Labourers in Ludhiana
Abstract :
The study attempts to analysis the status of migrant labourers working in the industries of Ludhiana city with respect to exploitation and discrimination that they face. The industrial migrant labourers are abominated by the locals and even suffer differentiation at the hands of the public and private organisations. The misery of these labourers can be estimated from the fact that the employers are prejudiced against these migrants as they are exploited during the routine and overtime work, payment of wages and other benefits, allocation of job, terms of employment etc. These migrants provide an important resource base for supply of labour and hence, there is a need to ensure congenial work
environment for the comprehensive development.
Title: Repayment Performance of Institutional Agricultural Credit in Jaipur District of Rajasthan
Abstract :
The present study was conducted in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. A sample of 221 farmer borrowers was selected by using the random sampling technique. The results of repayment performance of credit indicated that only 81.27 % of short-term credit, 84.34 % of medium-term credit and 77.82 % of long-term bank credit was repaid by due date and the remaining amount was overdue as on due date. The repayment performance of co-operative credit for rabi season was 92.62 % and that for kharif season was 95.44 %. It was higher as compared to banks. The results also indicated that out of 221 farmer borrowers, 124 (56.11 %) were non-defaulters and 97 (43.89 per cent) were defaulters. The percentage defaulters among the farmer borrowers ranged from as high as 61.11 % in the large farmer borrowers to as low as 36.36 % in the marginal farmer borrowers. The regression results revealed that out of eleven explanatory variables only seven variables significantly affected the overdues of defaulters, however, their degrees and numbers varied from category to category. Out of these significant variables, four variables viz., amount borrowed, amount put to un-productive purposes, expenditures on family consumption and old debts were positively and the remaining three variables viz., gross farm income, non-farm income and cropping intensity negatively influenced the overdues.
Title: Secondary Storage Reservoir: A Potential Option for Rainwater Harvesting in Irrigated Command for Improved Irrigation and Agricultural Performance
Abstract :

Present study recommends an option to overcome the limited water availability in surface irrigation system through provision of secondary reservoirs in the command. The harvested water can be utilized for irrigation in the dry season, short duration fish culture, etc. Approximately 10% of the command area is required for the secondary reservoir with assumption of 50% capacity of the main reservoir will be available for irrigating dry season crops. The demonstration of use of water from the secondary reservoir in addition to the water from main reservoir has resulted in substantial crop and fish yield. The gross and net returns from various cropping patterns considered using irrigation water from main reservoir (MR) and from main and secondary reservoir (MR+SR). Among the cropping patterns considered, rice-tomato cropping pattern resulted in highest net return of INR 29,457/ha followed by rice-brinjal cropping pattern (INR 22,430/ha) with benefit-cost ratio of 2.07 and 1.79, respectively. Highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.09 was obtained for rice-sunflower cropping system due to relatively lower cost of cultivation of sunflower. The highest incremental value of net returns of 3710 `/ha was obtained with rice-tomato cropping system. The low input-based scientific fish culture in the secondary reservoir has enhanced the fish yield by three fold over traditional practice increasing the gross return from the system. The economic analysis also revealed that the intervention is economically viable.

Title: Economic analysis of commercial processing of fermented fish product (Matka shidal) and its marketing in North-East region of India
Abstract :

Shidal is a traditional fermented value added fish product highly demanded by the people of NE region. This study aimed to highlight commercial processing methods, cost and margin in processing of Matka shidal and constraints faced by the processors of Sidal. This study was conducted by collecting information of 28 processors of Tripura and 8 processors of Manipur through focussed Group Discussion (FGD). Commercial shidal processing includes procurement of dry fish, sorting and grading, curing of Matka, filling, sealing and marking of Matka, storage of for fermentation and trading of Shidal. The cost-benefit analysis of shidal indicated net return of ` 77065.31/t and ` 52593.8/t in case of puthi shidal in Manipur and Tripura, respectively. Whereas, the net return in Baspati in Tripura was ` 59616.17/t. The percentage shares of producer in consumer’s rupee were ranged between 55-64%. The small scale processing units of fermented value added fish product shidal in Tripura and Manipur have greater potential and employment opportunities which can be exploited through development of better financial, technical and input support system.

Title: Impact of Self-help Groups on Rural Women in Bankura District, West Bengal
Abstract :
During the last three decades rural development practitioners have been focusing on SHGs as an instrument for women empowerment in rural sector. SHGs of women in India have been identified as an effective strategy for the empowerment of tribal women in rural and urban areas. It is evident from many studies that women have developed abundant selfconfidence and self-esteem through SHG movement. Not only economic security but also inculcating savings habits is the major motivating factors for joining SHGs. SHG women are becoming an instrument in transforming so called unproductive human being into productive human resources. However, it has been observed that the growth of SHGs have not been uniform. More particularly, the growth of SHGs has been slow in relatively backward areas in West Bengal.
Title: Estimation of Resource Use Efficiency and Technical Efficiency of Small Onion Farmers in Tamil Nadu: A Cobb-Douglas and Stochastic Frontier Approach
Abstract :
This paper investigates the determinants of the resource use efficiency and technical efficiency of onion production. Farm-level data were collected using a structured questionnaire administrated to 90 randomly selected onion growers in Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu. The empirical results show that, bulbs, plant protection chemicals and human labour, machine hours, and phosphorous have a positive and significant influence on onion yield. Economic efficiencies are more than one for bulb, nitrogen, phosphorous, potash, plant protection chemicals, machine hours, land size values,
farmyard manure and human labour in onion production which meant that these resources are being used at suboptimum level and there exists the possibility of increasing the yield of onion by increasing their use. The technical efficiency for the farms was estimated to be 78%, which indicates the possibility of increasing the yield of onion by adopting better technology. This study suggested that development of awareness of modern agricultural practices through demonstration, farm visits, framers meetings etc., by the government as well as removal all inputs distributional bottlenecks would ensure increased onion production in the study area. 
Title: How socially sustainable are the rice farms in mountains? Evidence from Senapati district of Manipur
Abstract :

Sustainable agriculture is regarded as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy the changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. The present study was conducted to examine the social sustainability of rice farming at farm level. A random sample of 80 rice farmers of Senapati (hill) district of Manipur were surveyed and social sustainability index were constructed following the Human Development Index (HDI). Most of the farmers (26%) were educated up to primary level and operational land holding was small (1.08 ha) in the study area. The farms under moderately sustainable category may be improved by providing training to the farmers pertaining to rice cultivation and affiliating them to Self-help Groups (SHGs), co-operative societies. Joint decisions on domestic decisions are common and the farmers had 12 years of experience in rice farming but none of the sample farmers got training in rice cultivation. About 53.33 per cent of the farms were in sustainable category, followed by moderately sustainable category (46.67%) in the study area. The study recommends that efforts for improving social sustainability and training pertaining rice cultivation should be initiated for the farmers and application of organic nutrients, diversified cropping system and conservative tillage practices should be promoted in the study area to augment social sustainability.

Title: Trends and Determinants of Household Saving in South Africa
Abstract :
South Africa managed to have a gross saving rate of 30% to GDP before 1994 but 16% in 2009 (compared to China 52%, Russia 22%). No coincidence that China and Russia are among the economies enjoying rapid growth compared to South Africa. Could the prevalence of an ‘aspirational’ culture negatively impact the South African household savings in which consumption is encouraged by access to credit facilities- necessitated by the sophisticated financial sector? Econometric analysis found the following among others to be statistically significant determinants of household saving rate:level of income, uncertainty (expected inflation), public sector savings and financial development collaborating with many other studies. As both saving and consumer behaviour evolve slowly, the study estimated the correlations by means of an error correction model. This allowed me to estimate a long-run correlation between the variables and to model behaviour in the short run and 2SLS for robustness checks. The study results have diverse policy implications and the following proposals can be made: policy makers must consider fiscal tools e.g. tax incentives to encourage savings (this have been introduced in 2012 national Budget for SA), also consumer education on financial matters.
Title: Agro Processing Industries in Haryana: Status, Problems and Prospects
Abstract :

Agro processing assumed vital importance particularly in a state like Haryana where agriculture production has reached on plateau. Its importance became more elevated when employment opportunities in rural areas are squeezed. This paper analysed the growth of village level agro industries for different periods and also prioritized the factors hindering agro industrialization in Haryana. It is evident from the results traditional processing of village oil ghani, and jaggery and khandsari not keeping pace with time whereas cereal and pulses processing industries and fruits preservation and processing gaining movement in recent period. Nonetheless, the period of twenties indicating that village level processing is coming back on track. The situation is owing to development and adoption of suitable post-harvest machinery particularly for pulse milling, oil extraction and jaggery recovery. The growth of village level processing is constrained by factors such as procedural complexity in land acquisition and higher prices, insufficient finance for small entrepreneurs, lack of skill and awareness, higher cost of machinery and poor support on marketing and policy front. Hence, a comprehensive strategy which include development of physical, functional and market infrastructure along with provision of single window system, tax rebate and export subsidy need to develop to boost agro-processing in the state.

Title: Income Inequalities of SHG Households: An Empirical Analysis
Abstract :
The prevalence of disparities in the living standard across households is the outcome of income inequality. Inequality can be defined as a deviation from equality where any individual unit is receiving less than his proportionate share of aggregate income. This state is referred to as relative deprivation, whereas absolute deprivation is equated with poverty, wherein one is not getting sufficient enough to survive. Households are not only poor; they also suffer from vast inequality in incomes, in assets and in access to essential services as well as pervasive insecurity. Theoretically and empirically, the effectiveness of self-help groups has mentioned in earlier literature, access to economic opportunities is proxies by SHG membership. Self-help groups play today a major role in poverty alleviation in rural areas. The impact of SHGs on individual members, family, community life, changes in skills, knowledge, attitudes, successful outcomes, and the development of human and social capital. With this background this research paper examines the effectiveness of women SHGs in the promotion of the development of social and human capital through micro enterprise development to work towards reducing income variations of SHG households. The results indicate that the OSHG households make
significant improvement in their incomes and less inequality in income distribution compared to NSHG households and concludes that self-help groups have impact on income distribution 
Title: Contents
Abstract :Contents for September Issue, 2013

Title: Rice Production and Requirement Scenario in Assam- A District Level Analysis
Abstract :
Paddy area (25.45 lakh ha) occupies more than 90% of the net cropped area (28.11 lakh ha) and 61.18% of the gross cropped area (41.60 lakh ha) during 2011-12 in Assam. Production of rice in the state was 50.45 lakh MT during 2011-12. Being the single major source of agricultural GDP, rice plays a significant role in the state economy. In Assam, rice has been the major food in the consumption
basket. However, the growth scenario of rice in the state has yet to gain the required momentum. Considering the unparalleled population growth in the state, the matter requires greater attention. The population of Assam has increased at an alarming rate in the last three decades. With this trend, rice requirements for the state would be 120.0 lakh tonnes by 2020. Drought, submergence and flash flooding, low resource base of farmers, and lack of proper infrastructural facilities are varied obstacles to obtain higher rice productivity in rainfed areas. There is no other way but to increase the per capita productivity of land, as there is limited scope of increasing crop area due to rapid urbanization in the state. There is need to motivate, mobilize and activate the extension programme for adoption of modern technology in every nook and corner of the state.
Title: Perceived Constraints of Farm Scientists in State Agricultural Universities, West Bengal
Abstract :
Effort has been made to identify the perceived constraints of the farm scientist and their magnitude as well as relation with job satisfaction of the two State Agricultural Universities (SAU’s) of West Bengal. It reveals that most severe constrains faced by the farm scientists is financial and budgetary constraints followed by infrastructural constraints, situational constraints, communication constraints, administrative and managerial constraints and constraints related to extension activities. It has been also found that paucity of fund for research; lack of coordination among different departments and lack of promotional opportunities are the most crucial constraints that stand in the way of getting the desired level of job satisfaction among the farm scientists.
Title: Contents
Abstract :Contents for the September Issue,2013
Title: Comparative Economics of Contract and Non-contract Farming of Potato in Gujarat
Abstract :

To study the comparative economics of contract and non-contract farming of potato in Gujarat state, a sample of 120 potato growers comprising 60 each from contract and non-contract were selected. The Cost Concept (CACP approach) was used to work out various costs and “t” test was used for testing their statistical significance. The results revealed that the cost of cultivation (Cost C2) was higher on contract farms (` 185435 per ha) when compared to the non-contract farms, (` 154930 per ha) due to higher cost of labor, manures, seeds and chemical fertilizers. The average production of potato was higher on contract farms (399.92 q/ha) than on the non-contract farms (303.83 q/ha). This might be due to the use of better variety, proper use of inputs and better production technology as specified by the contracting firm. The average price received by the farmers was higher on the contract farms (` 830.29 per quintal) when compared to the non-contract farms (` 808.17 per quintal). The net returns received over Cost C2 was higher on contract farms (` 146615 per ha) when compared to the non-contract farms (` 90620 per ha). The yield uncertainty ratio was lower on the contract farms (0.1806) than the non-contract farms (0.4588). Similarly, the price uncertainty ratio was lower on contract farms (0.0162) than the non-contract farms (0.1358). In nutshell, these results clearly revealed that the contract farming in potato was economically more profitable and less risky when compared to traditional non-contract farming.

Title: An Economic Study of Consumer Behaviour toward Organised Food Retail in National Capital Region of India
Abstract :
The present study was carried out in National Capital Region (NCR) of India. Five zones viz. National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Faridabad were selected and 60 consumers from each zone were sampled thus, a total of 300 consumers were selected for this study. Tabular analysis, conjoint analysis and logistic regression model were employed to study socio-economic indicators of consumers, their shopping behavior, preference for organised food retail and the factors influencing consumer purchase through organised food retail. During the study, it was observed that the level of education, monthly income of household, ownership of vehicle and working women in household positively influenced consumer preference for organised food retails. Majority of consumers from all five zones viz. NCT of Delhi, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Faridabad of NCR had no specific day of shopping and they shopped at weekly basis and spent one hour for shopping at organised food retails. The quality of products and proximity of retail outlets were important attributes for consumers to visit organised food retails. They preferred even higher price for quality products. Cash payment, wide range of products and self selection are being preferred by consumers.
Title: Valuing Water Used for Food Production in India
Abstract :
With an estimated water footprint of 790 billion cubic metres for food production in India in the year 2007-08 and given the high average requirement of producing one kilogram of the major staples consumed in the country, assuring the sustainability of the national water resources is a matter of concern in the country. The present research study attempts to provide an analytical estimate of the water footprint along with the average quantity of water required for the production of major cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits and sugarcane. The economic value of the water used in their production is estimated to serve as a pointer to the optimal use of water. A value added approach has been used to do so and water requirements for different crops have been estimated using the crop water requirement model. 
Title: Economic and Financial Efficiency of Farmers’ Produce Organisation: A Case Study of FAPRO in Hosiarpur District of Punjab
Abstract :
The study was conducted in Ghugial village of Hoshiarpur district of Punjab during 2010-11 with an objective to examine the economic and financial efficiency of capital invested in Farms Produce Promotion Society (FAPRO). It was observed that the society earned augmented revenue with the grown in operational cost and the organization has increased rapidly. It played a proactive role in meeting the purpose of the society. Although B-C ratio has increased, current ratio was found moderate. Profit to asset ratio and profit to sales ratio were viable after few years with low capacity utilization. If the shortcomings can be met similar farmers’ organization can be imitated in other parts of the country especially for value addition of perishable products
Title: Pattern of Inter-State Digital Divide in India
Abstract :

ICT revolution worldwide has brought immense opportunities in all the sectors of the economy. However, optimum utilization of information and communication technologies requires infrastructure development and human capital investments, overcoming bottlenecks of which will be a challenging task. One of the main challenges is the gap between the information ‘haves’ and information ‘have-nots’ what we call the digital divide. In this context, the paper investigates the extent of ICT diffusion in India and also evaluates inter-state technology divide. ICT Diffusion indices have been constructed to measure ICT diffusion in different states of India. For this purpose, Obricom (2003) methodology has been used. The results of ICT diffusion index indicate that Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka are the top ICT performers and Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Assam are the poor performers. In order to evaluate different determinants of inter-state telecom development, pooled regression analysis was used by taking data at three points of time, i.e., 1991, 2001 and 2011. The results of regression analysis show that telecom sector growth has been positively affected by population and per capita NSDP and policy variable indicating telecom sector liberalization.

Title: Economic Benefits from Adoption of Organic Farming in India
Abstract :
Organic farming is one among the broad spectrum of production methods that support environment. Even though organic farming is gaining popularity in several states, its feasibility needs to be studied. The study was undertaken in Maharashtra to address this. Primary data was collected from farmers in Nashik district for the agricultural year 2012- 13.Tabular analysis, Logit regression, Garrett’s ranking and Farm business analysis were employed to analyze the data.Although the adoption was good in all categories of farms, it was more prominent in the large farms compared to small and medium farms in the study area. Further,education and livestock owned were the major factors affecting the adoption of organic farming. Although, the cost of tomato cultivation was higher, and the yield lower on organic farms than that of traditional farms, organic farming was found to be generating impressively higher returns in comparison to traditional farms. Non availability of labour, high transportation cost, lack of proper technical guidance, problem of certification and non-availability of quality bio-inputs were found to be the major constraints to adoption of organic farming.Organic farming can thus be considered as a suitable option for healthier soil, environment, enhancing quantity and quality of agricultural productivity and improving rural livelihoods. The efforts should be directed to enhance the adoption of organic farming by providing proper technical guidance and quality bio inputs at a nominal price, and to strengthen the forward linkages for stabilizing prices and enhancing the returns. 
Title: Magnitude of Displacement: Implications and Future Solutions
Abstract :
The magnitude of displacement in Orissa is a matter of deep concern as the benefits of development could not be attained by the poor and backward people despite our planned effort since independence.With the introduction of new economic reforms in 1990-91, the government of Orissa is inviting several companies to extract its natural resources for economic development of the state. But in the name of development the interests of the local inhabitants are neglected and they become worst sufferer of the development strategy followed by the government. Acquisition of land for these purposes poses a greater threat to the displaced community and alarming the situation day by day where the government is planned to develop large projects. The extraction of resource for economic development is leading to large scale development - induced displacement which has put up public resistance against forcible land acquisition by the government which has been totally neglected. The Draft—Orissa Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy, which came into existence in the state on May 2006, as an alternative mechanism, is relatively good in many point of view, but ignores some major issues which plays a vital role for the livelihoods of millions of people. Though the policy
promises several additional sops for project affected families, but the activists quoted it, ‘as a mere public relations exercise of the government’. Therefore, an appropriate, adequate and effective policy measures for the resettlement of displaced inhabitants in the project affected area is the need of the hour.
Title: Economic Performance of Three Different Gillnet Fishing Units Operating along Mumbai Coast
Abstract :
Economic analysis was carried out separately for Inboard Motors (IBM), Outboard Motors (OBM) and non- motorised gillnetters operated along Mumbai coast. The economic performance of fishing operation is affected by various factors including fluctuations in revenue, diminishing catch per unit effort, sudden increase in the cost of key inputs, catch and effort restrictions. Capital and labour will continue to enter the fishery until the economic rents are totally dissipated and profits to individual units are reduced to the levels of their opportunity costs. The economic performance also plays a crucial role in the investment decisions at micro level and is deciding factor for sustainable returns of any business. The paper analyses the economic viability of gillnet fishing operations of all the three sectors viz. Outboard Motors (OBM), Inboard Motors (IBM) and non-motorised operated along Mumbai coast were running in profit.
Title: Emerging Trends and Structural Transformation of Fishery Sector: The Case of Assam
Abstract :
The study was conducted for the state of Assam using secondary data for the period pertaining to 2002-03 to 2012-13 with the objectives to examine the structural transformation of economic and other activities in the fishery sector of the state. It was observed that India has shared 5.68 % of total fish production and China is the major fish producing country with low annual growth. In India, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh are the major fish producing states. Share of Assam in country’s fish production is marginal. The total fish production in the country was contributed mainly by area followed by productivity and area affect was found to be highly elastic. Area under pond fish and derelict water bodies was found to increase in the state. Nagaon district had the highest number of eco hatcheries in the state with marginal growth. Plan allocation for fishery sector in the state was found to decline with a decline of demand supply gap during the last decade. The fishery sector was found to more promising in contributing to state domestic product and the state needs comprehensive policy for increasing productivity and more area under ponds and derelict water bodies with higher plan allocation in the fishery sector. More Eco hatcheries should be developed in different districts with better extension service for increasing production of fish in the state.
Title: Growth trends in Export and Import of Horticultural Crops from India and Karnataka: An Economic analysis
Abstract :

In view of increasing demand for Indian Horticulture produce, fresh and processed products in the International market, the export of horticultural crops at all India level has picked up. As India stands second in production of both fruits and vegetables, spices and few plantation crops such as tea and coffee fetching more export value in the International market. The horticultural exports in India have increased after the implementation of NHM scheme. Horticulture production in India has crossed the production of agriculture crops and reached a highest production of 280 million tonnes during 2012. India is exporting horticultural crops mainly to U.A.E., Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Kuwait. The two major countries that import most of India’s horticultural crops are UAE and Saudi Arabia. These findings were similar with findings of the study conducted by Mittal (2007) stating that fruits and vegetables exports has expanded rapidly in the international market. The number of commodities as well as the number of varieties produced and traded have increased manifold during the past 25 years. There is an overall increase in the demand for fruits and vegetables for consumption both in fresh and processed form. In Karnataka, the growth in export of horticultural crops in quantity terms has increased from 2.03 to 31.98 per cent between pre and post NHM period. Similarly, the growth in horticultural exports in value terms also has increased from 1.92 to 30 per cent between pre and post NHM period. Karnataka state is one among the major states in involved in production and export of horticulture produce in India. The growing demand for horticultural crops such as mango, pomegranate, grapes and processed products has increased in International market. The processed products like pickles, chutney, raisin, have more demand in the international market. This trend has been increased specially after the implementation of NHM scheme.

Title: Estimating Production Efficiency in Rice Cultivation of Bihar: An Economic Approach
Abstract :

Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been widely used in measuring agricultural production efficiency. The present paper is to investigate the technical, allocative and cost or economic efficiencies of rice farms in Bihar. The farm level data used in the analysis was taken from cost of cultivation scheme, Government of India running in the state from 45 tehsils of Bihar. Rice is a staple food and consumed by large population of the state, nation and world level. The technical efficiencies, allocative efficiencies of most of the farms were found to be 62% separately for each. Accordingly the degree of cost efficiency was estimated to be only 38.8%. Although, TE and AE being only 62%, farmers are still inefficient to achieve upto the optimal level of output. Given the available technology, farmers may reduce the paddy production cost by 61.2% to produce given level of output at least cost. Tobit analysis was carried out to assess the factors influencing efficiencies revealed that lack of education, quality seeds, and irrigation machinery were found to impact the efficiencies. Government and other policy making agencies have to formulate policies favourable to transform agriculture sector profitable which can attract the educated youth towards agriculture as profession. There is ample opportunities to minimize the cost of paddy production using a given level of technology coupled with proper and timely application of inputs, right combination of inputs with input and output prices to produce a given level of output at least cost. Besides assured supply of good quality seed, irrigation facilities, dissemination of new farming technologies, better education system and financial assistance, marketing infrastructures should be arranged timely so as to enhance the income of rural masses, and to reduce the poverty from the rural areas of the state in general and nation in particular.

Title: Industrial Expansion in the Era of Post-Economic Reform: A Study on Scheduled Tribes of Jharsuguda, Odisha
Abstract :
Industrialisation after new economic reform conceded impulsive changes among people’s lives and livelihood. The rapid scale of land acquisition and displacement creating social crisis, economic crisis and environmental pollution; which is the cause of a multiplicity of diseases which people has not faced before. The rapid scale of industrial growth affecting each sectors of society and mostly tribal who are aboriginal/marginal community whose primary source of occupation is based on natural resource. The massive scale of industrial growth on tribal region smashed tribal natural resources. As a result tribal are constrained to maintaining their sustainable life. This article critically addresses the growth of industrialization and responses of people in the context of industrial impact on livelihood of scheduled tribes and various problems in Jharsuguda District of Western Odisha.
Title: Contents
Abstract :Contents for the September Issue 2013
Title: Groundnut Production Performance in Bangladesh: A District Level Analysis
Abstract :
This study analyzes the performance of groundnut production in Bangladesh in the 1990s and 2000s, both at the district and national level. Production performance was measured in terms of growth and variability. Annual compound rate of growth was estimated to know the growth performance. Cuddy-Della Valle index was used to estimate variability. Analysis showed that both area and production of groundnut at the national level declined in the 1990s but production increased afterwards. In the late 2000s, groundnut production increased by 31% although area under groundnut was same as in the late 1990s. Increase in groundnut yield (by 373 kg/ha or 32%) contributed towards increase in groundnut production in the late 2000s. In the late 2000s (TE2009/10), top five groundnut producing districts (Noakhali, Dhaka, Faridpur, Kishoreganj and Pabna) accounted for 59 percent of area and 55 percent of production. In the 2000s, Bangladesh achieved high annual growth (5.0% or more) in groundnut production at the national level and in nine districts (Faridpur, Tangail, Barisal, Jessore, Kushtia, Dinajpur, Pabna, Rangpur and Chittagong H.T.). On the other hand, variability in groundnut production in the 2000s increased insignificantly at the national level while three districts (Sylhet, Mymensingh and Tangail) experienced statistically significant increase in variability in groundnut production. Increase in variability in groundnut production was mainly due to the increased variability in area under groundnut indicating that the crop was expanded to less suitable areas. The study concludes that groundnut breeders should focus more on yield increase rather than on reduction in variability in yield. Increase in yield potential through research is expected to have higher production and profit to the farmers and thereby, encourage farmers to allocate more area under groundnut cultivation. 
Title: Economics of milk production and cost elasticity analysis in Sirsa district of Haryana
Abstract :

Haryana was purposively chosen for the study, in which Sirsa district which falls in the western zone was selected. A predetermined sample of 140 milk producers of the dairy co-operative societies was drawn randomly from all eight societies and was post stratified into three categories on the basis of total SAU’s in each household. To estimate cost and returns of milk production budgeting technique was used and it was concluded from the analysis that rearing of crossbred was most profitable one as compared to buffalo and local cows. The return per litre was found highest for crossbred cows since the productivity was more as compared to buffalo and local cows. By analysis of cost elasticity it was found that cost and yield had negative relation, since economies of scale was found and increase in yield leads to decrease in cost. It was found that in case of medium farmers the decrease in cost was the highest.

Title: Econometric Analysis of Demand and Supply of Institutional Credit to Agriculture in Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :
The study looked into the demand and supply of institutional credit to agriculture in Jammu & Kashmir. It was observed that the agricultural credit has increased in absolute terms since 1980’s but its share in total credit has gone down for 12.4 to 7.8% of total credit disbursed in the economy between 1980 and 2010. The results revealed wide disparity across regions with respect to the disbursement of direct credit to agriculture. Moreover, there is a huge gap in the financial requirement and supply of institutional credit to agriculture in the state. The estimates of regression analysis indicated that real farm prices, gross irrigated area, coverage of rural banks, loanable cash balances of commercial banks, state gross domestic product and agriculture domestic product were significant positive determinants of direct credit supply
to agricultural sector. On the other hand higher level of permanent income, rural literacy, technology level and value of farm assets have contributed in the improvement of demand for institutional credit. While temporary income and cooperative agricultural credit appeared negative indicating that it supplement farmers’ financial requirement and in turn resulted in declining demand for institutional credit. Based upon the findings, the study put forth few policy suggestions. 
Title: Trends in women employment in India during census 1981 to 2011
Abstract :

This paper analyses the trends and pattern of women’s employment in India using secondary data for the time period from Census 1981 to Census 2011. The study considers all states and union territories of India as population and seven states from high per capita income states and seven states from low per capita income states are selected as sample states for the study. Female work participation rate considering as proxy for women employment; growth rates, F-test and t-test are employed for data analysis. Our results show that percentage of female workers to total worker ratio has varied considerably across the states. Andhra Pradesh having better women employment situation among the high per capita income states, contradictory Delhi have worst situation about women employment. In low per capita income states, Nagaland having better women employment situation whereas Uttar Pradesh have poorest situation. There is significant increase in women work participation rate over a period of time in rural and urban segments of India. The growth of women work participation rate in rural higher than the urban segment and rural is confined to primary sectors while in urban is confined to service sectors in the sample states.

Title: Study on Income and Expenditure of Inland Fishermen in Theni Province, India
Abstract :
In present study attempts has been made to assess the present household income and expenses of inland fishermen in Theni province, India. In Present investigations, 140 respondents were selected and assessed their household socio economic condition, employment, income, and saving with predesigned interview schedule through simple random sampling technique. This study discovered, majority of fishers (about 80%) has having education includes primary education and fishing dominantly by middle age group fishers (60%) with work experience of 10 years, but only 24%
were participated in the training programme. The unemployment was found to lower of 31% in fishing as compared to non-fishing (41%) and fishing related activities (75%). Hence, these indicates that, there is scope for amplify the inland fishing per providing appropriate training programme to patronize the social profile. At the same time, the non-fishing activities like agriculture has inevitable role in livelihood and generating higher economic returns when it compared to fishing and fishing related activates. While presenting consumption pattern, education was accounted higher percentage
than food, social ceremonies, cloths, health, transport etc, the excess amount was saved in institutional and noninstitutional organization.
Title: Issues and Challenges of the Health Sector in India
Abstract :

Human capital is considered as one of the determinants of economic growth. The stock of human capital increases through better education, higher levels of health and new learning and training procedures. A country may not be able to maintain a state of continuous growth without having labor force with the minimum levels of education and health. Underdeveloped countries like India have lower levels of human capital and therefore face difficulties in competing with developed countries. There is a two way relationship between better health and economic growth. Better health increases workforce productivity and in this way supplements economic growth and development. On the other hand, improving the health and longevity of the poor is an important goal of economic development. Though there has been a significant improvement in health indicators in the last two centuries yet the country still lags behind on these indicators from that of developed countries. This paper shows how health plays an important role in the economic development of a country. While good health enhances productivity and hence improves earnings, higher income also exerts a positive influence on health. The paper also discusses the impact of several health programmes implemented by the policy makers on India’s health indicators. The challenges faced by this sector have also been discussed in this paper. The paper suggests that underdeveloped countries can reduce poverty and inequality by investing more in the Health sector.

Title: Spatial Price Transmission in Kinnow Markets of Rajasthan State of India
Abstract :
The study focused on assessing the spatial price transmission between kinnow markets pairs in Rajasthan state of India using weekly kinnow price series of 8 markets from 2010-2015. Coefficient of variance results indicates Jaipur market has lowest price volatility which is represented by 17.56 % compared to 41.10 % in Sri Ganganagar market, which has the highest. The co-integration tests result indicates Ganganagar” Alwar Ganganagar  Ajmer, Ludhiana  Jaipur, Ludhiana  Jodhpur, Ludhiana  Ajmer market pairs are not integrated in the long run. However, Ganganagar  Bikaner, Ganganagar  Delhi, Ganganagar  Jodhpur, Ganganagar  Ludhiana, Ganganagar  Jaipur and Ludhiana  Delhi are integrated in the long run. The results from the error correction model shows, there is short run unidirectional causality of Ganganagar  Bikaner and Ganganagar  Jodhpur. The lowest speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium was from Ganganagar to Bikaner at rate of 0.2 percent. The speeds of adjustment running Ganganagar to Ludhiana and Ganganagar to Delhi markets towards long run equilibrium were 198 percent and 184 percent respectively in a period of 1 week at most. The speed of adjustment from Ganganagar to Jodhpur is 16.4 percent whereas Ganganagar to Jaipur is 10.4 %. The results shows there is no short run causality between the market pairs of Ganganagar  Alwar and Ludhiana  Jodhpur. On the other hand, the results show a unidirectional causality of some market pairs namely Ganganagar  Ajmer, Ludhiana  Jaipur and Ludhiana  Ajmer. The impulse response function shows that an unexpected shock in the prices of kinnow in Ganganagar will have a permanent lasting effect on prices of the various markets within a period of 4 weeks except Ajmer market prices.
Title: Evaluating perceived effectiveness of specialized training on pig farming
Abstract :

To evaluate the perceived effectiveness of specialized trainings on pig farming, 120 farmers were interviewed with a pre-tested questionnaire before the start and after completion of training. The study revealed that average age of respondents was 30.06 ± 0.90 years and out of which 15% respondents were graduates. Only 3.3% of the farmers belonged to high level knowledge category before training whereas after training 76.75% (P<0.01) of farmers possessed high level knowledge. The awareness perceived by farmers about breeding, feeding and management was significantly (P<0.05) higher after training. About 6.04 ± 0.12 and 19.1 ± 0.10 responses of farmers were found correct pre training and post training, respectively. Age and education also affect knowledge level of farmers about direction and dimensions of shed, feed requirement of lactating sow, common diseases of pigs, vaccination schedule, puberty age of boar where correct responses were significantly higher (P<0.05) for graduate farmers as compared to under matric ones and breeds of pigs, age of gilt at first conception, space requirement and right time for mating a sow where correct responses were significantly higher (P<0.05) for farmers between age group 25-35 years. Therefore, from present study it may be concluded that specialized training is an effective tool to improve the knowledge and understanding of farmers about pig farming.

Title: Empirical study of onion marketing channels in Rajasthan
Abstract :

India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China. The Onion is the major vegetable crop of Rajasthan. The present investigation was carried out to study the price spread and efficiency in marketing of Onion. The study was conducted in Jodhpur and Nagaur which were selected on the basis of highest area and production of Onion. A sample of 50 Onion growing farmers from different land size categories was selected by probability proportion to number of farmers in each size group. Five intermediaries each, from the commission agents, wholesalers and retailers were selected randomly. 19585 quintal of onion was produced by the sample households, of which 19061 quintal was the marketable surplus. There was no difference in marketable and marketed surplus of onion as farmers were hard pressed by cash needs. The marketable surplus was higher on medium farms (9747 quintals) followed by small (6021 quintals) and large (3293 quintals). In channel – I producer’s share was 46.67 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 17.47 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 35.86 per cent of consumer’s rupee in Jodhpur mandi. In Nagaur, the producer’s share was 47.50 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 18.33 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 34.17 per cent of consumer’s rupee. In channel –II, producer’s share was 42.22 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 17.64 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 40.14 per cent of price paid by the consumer in Jodhpur Mandi. In Nagaur, producer’s share was 40.0 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 18.73 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 41.27 per cent of price paid by the consumer. Marketing efficiency was 0.88 and 0.73 in Jodhpur mandi and 0.90 and 0.67 in Nagaur mandi for channel –I and channel –II respectively. Hence, channel –I was more efficient for onion marketing.

Title: Patenting Trends among BRICS and Effect on GDP
Abstract :
Patenting trends of a country indicates its technological competitiveness. The present study has been conducted with the objective to analyse the patenting trends amongst BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) characterized by rapidly growing economies and increasing international influence. Number of patent applications filed, patents earned and patent-population ratio of BRICS are among the factors assessed. An effort has been made to find correlation of patenting activities of BRICS on their Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The data related to patents and GDP of BRICS was downloaded from WIPO’s website and analysed using MS-Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). A robust rise was noticed in number of patents earned and the GDP of China. India also showed a very good progress in the assessed factors. A direct relationship was observed between number of patents granted and GDP of BRICS on a whole. The study led to the conclusion that increase in patenting activities amongst BRICS play a pivotal role in the overall growth and development of these nations. 
Title: Economic Appraisal of Kharif and Zaid Paddy in Tarai Region of Uttarakhand
Abstract :
The main aim of this study is to measure the profitability of paddy crop grown in Kharif and Zaid season. To estimate the profitability, the cost of cultivation and returns has been worked out on per hectare basis for Kharif and Zaid paddy for each category of farmers and compared with the CACP concept. The study is based on the primary data collected from 100 sample farmers of tarai region of Uttarakhand. Among all the districts, Udham Singh Nagar district is selected purposively as this district has the highest production of paddy in the state. Among both the paddy crops, in general, cost of cultivation (`/ha) of Zaid paddy was higher than that of Kharif paddy. On an average, farmers in the study area experienced net profit on Kharif paddy and Zaid paddy was ` 16578.01 and ` 20043.98 per hectare, respectively. Due to availability of rain water in Kharif season, expenditure on irrigation for Kharif paddy was found to be significantly lower than the expenditure on irrigation for Zaid season paddy. It is also found that all the categories of farmers were more conscious about seed and fertilizer use in paddy. Total interest amount on fixed capital of large farmers was found to be higher than that of other categories of farmers, which reveals that farm asset position of large farmers was better than other categories of farmers in the study area. On an average, farmers of the study area had to spend ` 745.75 and ` 725.63, for producing one quintal of Kharif paddy and Zaid paddy, respectively, which was less than the average price received by the farmers for these crops. Average price received by the farmers was ` 1001.88 and ` 1006.25 per quintal for Kharif paddy and Zaid paddy, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that cultivating paddy grown in Kharif and Zaid was profitable for the farmers in the study area. This is true not only for average sample farmer but also for all categories of farmers of the study area
Title: Scenario of Pulses Production in India: An Economic Analysis
Abstract :
Pulses are very much important for Indian diet. India is at top amongst all the major pulses producing countries but it is unable to meet out the domestic demand. The production till now is not sufficient to feed the whole Indian population. The domestic yield of pulses is very low as compared to global average and the same situation prevails in case of per capita availability. Thus, the present study is an attempt to examine the growth and instability in area, production and yield and to identify the components due to which production is increasing in present scenario. The empirical results of the study reveal that the maximum growth (3.4%) in area was found in case of gram followed by tur (1.5%). There is negative growth in area in urd and moong. The production registered highest growth (5.4%) in case of gram followed by tur (2.2%). The productivity witnessed the highest growth in urd (2.5%) followed by moong (2.3%).
Title: Economic Empowerment of Scheduled Caste Landless Rural Women through Mushroom Cultivation: A Case Study
Abstract :
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Kurukshetra took up an initiative for economic empowerment of landless Scheduled Caste rural women by motivating them to adopt mushroom cultivation as an income generating activity. As part of this programme KVK has conducted three trainings for these landless Scheduled Caste rural women since 2008-09. In total 120 such ladies were trained over a period of three years. The trainees were provided practical training through method demonstrations on compost preparation, spawning and casing management practices, harvesting and packaging of button mushroom. The post- training evaluations of these 120 women from 12 villages showed that majority (>75%) of them gained low to medium level of knowledge on the vocation. These trained women had taken up white button mushroom cultivation in polythene bags during October to March every year. The economic empowerment of the landless Scheduled Caste rural women by way of mushroom production of KVK has created awareness regarding its cultivation among them .With technical back-up of the KVK, the adoption of mushroom cultivation by 25 percent of trained landless Scheduled Caste rural women has paved the way for their economic empowerment. 
Title: Cost and return analysis of different treatments of mulching and herbicide application on Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cv. Shan-e-Punjab
Abstract :

The trees of peach cv. Shan-e-Punjab were treated with different orchard floor management practices (mulching and herbicidal treatment) in the month of February 2014. In all, there were 14 treatments including mulches viz., black polythene, paddy straw, saw dust, white polythene and herbicides viz., atrazine 50 WP (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Kg a.i. per hectare), oxyflurofen 23.5 EC (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 l a.i. per ha) and pendimethalin 30 EC (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l a.i. per ha) and control which were replicated thrice. The total cost of cultivation per hectare was found to be highest (` 207480.00) in treatments T1 and T2 i.e. black polythene mulch and white polythene mulch, respectively whereas, it was found to be lowest of ` 185240.00 in the treatment (T14) i.e. control. Among all the treatments, the benefit: cost ratio was found highest with black polythene mulch (1:1.89) followed by atrazine 2.0 kg a.i/ha (1:1.86) and lowest in control (1:1.55). Thus, for improving growth, yield and fruit quality of peach cv Shan-e-Punjab, black polythene mulch and atrazine 2.0 kg a.i/ha are found to be most suitable and economically feasible under the Jammu sub- tropics.

Title: Applicability of ARIMA Models in Wholesale Wheat Market of Rajasthan: An Investigation
Abstract :
Wheat is a dominant product in the consumption basket of Indian households and can be considered as a strategic commodity. In this paper different ARIMA time series models were specified and estimated. Forecasting performance of these models were evaluated and compared by using common criteria such as: root mean square error, mean absolute deviation and mean absolute percentage error. The data used in this study include wholesale prices of wheat for year 2002 to 2012. Empirical results showed that ARIMA (1,1,1) price forecast time series model fitted the price series well and they have correctly predicted the future trend of the price series within the sample period of the study. Thus, ARIMA (1,1,1) was the most representative model for the price forecast of wheat in Sriganganagar market of Rajasthan. This model can facilitate the farmers and wholesalers in effective decision making.
Title: Supply Response of Arhar and Gram in Eastern Region of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
Agriculture is the mainstay for the economic development of the country. Pulses are one of the important food commodities in India where a large vegetarian and even non vegetarian population are highly dependent on pulses for protein source. Since pulses are cheaper than meat (animal protein) often referred to as ‘poor man’s meat’ in developing countries like India. But the area under pulses is declining at an alarming rate. The present study aimed at examining the response behavior of arhar and gram growers to the changes in price and selected non price variables in all districts of
eastern region of Uttar Pradesh. This is estimated by the application of Nerlovian price expectation adjustment model. Short and long run elasticies has also been calculated which reveals that farmers are not responding to change in prices. Demand and supply has been projected for the years 2019-20 and 2029-2030. The study revealed that there can be a huge amount of negative gap between demand and supply 
Title: Status of Women in Manipur: A Comparative look
Abstract :
The present study is intended and undertaken in Manipur, a North-Eastern state of India. The study is based on secondary data collected from Census reports. As per the Census 2011, North-Eastern States having 45.59 million population, shares about 3.77% of National figure. The region continued to share about 3.80% of country’s total female population (585.65 million) too. Decadal growth rate (SGR) of female population is slightly above (2.2% during 1991- 2001 and 1.79% during 2001-2011) that of male (2.12% during 1991-2001 and 1.72% during 2001-2011) in India. Similarly growth of female population is outpassing the growth of male population in the Manipur with a clear cut margin (2.56 against 2.34% in 1991-2001 phase, 1.95 against 1.81 during 2001-2011 phase). The state shares about 5.97% of total population and 6.06% of female population of North-East. Share of female worker to the total worker is around 39% in Manipur but in National figure is sometimes less and around 25% over the decades. The percentage of female cultivator (37.9), household industry worker (14.1) and other worker (34.5) in the state are high compare to the national figure.
Title: Solubilization of Tricalcium Phosphate and Production of IAA by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Tea Rhizosphere Soil
Abstract :
Rhizospheric soil from tea [ Camellia sinensis L.] was screened for the presence of phosphate solubilizing bacterial populationin-vitro where eight isolates were able to solubilize tri calcium phosphate in Pikovskaya’s agar. These isolates were also screened for phosphate solubilization in liquid medium. Phosphate solubilizing activities of these strains were associated with a drop in the pH of the medium. Furthermore, these 8 isolated strains were inoculated in specific media containing tryptophan to produce growth regulating substances indole acetic acid (IAA) under in-vitro conditions. Amount of phosphate solubilized ranged from 11.07±0.91-82.77±0.96mg/l and IAA production ranged from 11.23-28.78 mg/l. These bacterial strains may be further characterized and field tested for their use as effective growth promoters for hill crops.
Title: Trend and seasonal analysis of wheat in selected market of Sriganganagar district
Abstract :

In view of this the present study was undertaken by collecting monthly wholesale prices of wheat in Sriganganagar district of Rajasthan .This study was based on the secondary data on arrival and prices of wheat in A.P.M.C., Sriganganagar, Sadulsahar, Gharsana, Anupgarh, Vijaynagar, Suratgarh,Gajsinghpur,Karanpur and Raisinghnagar for the period of 10 years i.e. from 2005 upto 2014. In the analysis all the selected markets showed positive trend in prices. The seasonal price index pro ides a measure of the month to month variation in wheat prices. Price of wheat was found to be highest during off season and lowest during harvest season. Since wheat is a rabi crop, the arrivals were high during March to May. The higher seasonal indices of prices were observed during December to February during which the arrivals were found to be low.

Title: Estimations of Catch Fish Demand Function of Consumers in Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
This paper dealt with estimation of catch fish demand function in Uttar Pradesh. Demand functions desirable therelationship between the quantity demanded and the various factors affecting the demand. Demand is determined by many factors simultaneously yet in traditional demand curve, the quantity demanded of a product is assumed to depend solely on price of product. Consumer survey was conducted for estimation of demand function of fish species. The total amount of fish consumed per day in kg. price of different fish species, income of the consumer house hold were collected from the market. When the preference for fish will increase by 1 unit the quantity demanded for fish was increased by 0.16 units. The result justifies that when price of substitute good increase the demand for main commodity increases. The result was also in accordance to when price of fish will increase, the demand for fish will go down. Similarly the preference pattern for fish also follows the economic logic. The similar pattern as the linear demand function, the explanatory variable like income, price of mutton, price of fish and preference for fish were found significant. Interestingly, the estimated co-efficient of price of fish was estimated to be -0.39, indicating there by when price of fish was increased by 1% he quantity demanded for fish was decreased by 0.39 percent. For this reason the estimated co-efficient of C-D demand function with respect to prices of fish will be used in computation of economic
surplus.
Title: Analysis of cost and returns of milk production in Rajasthan
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken to find out the cost and returns of milk production. Milk production in India is mainly concentrated on small farms in rural areas as a subsidiary occupation to agriculture. In addition to this, there are a number of organized dairy farms under the cooperatives milk producers’ union. In this country, the low genetic potential of the animals results in the high cost and low milk production. The profit margin can be increased, by decreasing the cost of production. The average cost of production per litre milk was ` 14.27 and the average net return per litre of milk was ` 8.28. The input-output ratio was worked out 1.58 at overall level. The cost C was ` 1867599.61 per dairy farm and 333449.99 per milch animal and the net income was ` 1053011.60 per dairy farm and `18803.77 per animal. The average dairy milk yield of local cow was 8.20litre. It was 10.50 litres, 11.53 and 15.80 litres for buffalo, Jersey cow and Holstein-Friesian cow, respectively

Title: Growth and Popularisation of Cultivation of Watermelon in Deogarh District, Odisha
Abstract :
The present study was conducted in purposively selected Deogarh district of Odisha coming under North western plateau agro-climatic zone. A field survey was undertaken to find out the trend in area, productivity and adoption of technologies in relation to cultivation of watermelon. The experimental yield was found to be 77.25% higher than the district average and 91.4% higher than the farmer’s practice. Level of education and caste of the farmers were reported having no significant relationship with the yield of the crop. Higher return was found to be the major reason for popularisation of cultivation of watermelon. Increasing cost of inputs and instability in market prices were found to be the most important drawbacks in commercialisation of watermelon in the study area.
Title: A study on the changing population structure in Nagaland
Abstract :

This paper reviews the changing population profile of Nagaland by examining its size, growth and structure and also makes a comparative study among the districts. The study finds that the compound annual growth rate of population from 1901-2011 is 2.74%. The highest compound annual growth rate was recorded during 1951-61 with 5.66% and the lowest during 2001-2011 with -0.05%. Almost half of the population resides in three districts viz- Kohima, Dimapur and Mon constituting 46% of the total population. Nagaland recorded the highest growth rate in India during 1981-1991 and 1991-2001 with a decadal growth of 56.08% 64.53% which was not only highest in India but highest among the world and during 2001-2011 it recorded the lowest growth rate in India, in fact, it recorded a negative growth of -0.05%. During the last decade, 2001-2011 the state witnessed almost 12% increase in urban population, but the growth was mainly concentrated in Kohima and Dimapur districts. Literacy rate increased from 22 % to 80 % during 1961-2011, while sex ratio declined to 931 from 973 during 1901-2011.

Title: Agri-business Potentiality in Arecanut Processing: A Study in the North Bengal Districts of West Bengal
Abstract :
The study explore the agribusiness opportunity and employment pattern of green Arecanut processing based on primary data created from 215 processing plants from Jalpaiguri and 100 processing plants from Cooch Behar districts of West Bengal. Both Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and survey methods were adopted to elicit information. It revealed that most of the processing plants were run by the owners’ of the land either as sole processor or in partnership. In later case usually the educated rural youths took part in joint venture by providing land and sharing finance with well experienced working counterpart. About two-third of plants remain under single ownership indicating participation and predominance of marginal processor. About 23.26% of plants in Jalpaiguri stand on leased land providing commercial expansion of the business. The highest volume of business is mainly concentrated in February to March due to availability of raw materials and the demand of processed grade item like ‘Tipni’, ‘Sagar’ and ‘Rota’. Average annual employment generated from a optimum size plant operating average 625 qtls of green nut per season was found 914 mandays of which 28.80% were female. Among the different operations, highest mandays (34.54%) was required for sun drying followed by de-husking (16.79%) and preparation of Tipni grade (10.10%) and for establishing the said plant initial average fixed investment was ` 79270.00 which requires the attention to understand on scale of finance. The said agribusiness may be taken as a policy option for the generation of income and employment in particularly in group approach.
Title: Fostering Inclusiveness in Uttarakhand: A Focus on Government Schemes on Financial Inclusion
Abstract :
Financial Inclusion has been accorded high importance by RBI to aid inclusive growth of the economy. There have been formidable challenges in this area such as bringing sections of society that are financially excluded within the ambit of the formal financial system, providing financial literacy and strengthening credit delivery mechanisms. In the present study, secondary data on various government schemes on Financial Inclusion in Uttarakhand state as whole and district Udham Singh Nagar in particular were analysed. The study highlights the proportion of schemes of Udham Singh Nagar to that of Uttarakhand, wherein, figures of KCC and DRI of Udham Singh Nagar remarkably contribute in the achievement of targets of Uttarakhand. Uttarakhand has done well in regard to deepening of credit and extending other banking services since its formation. There is no end of schemes, plans, and regulations aimed at providing financial services and products to the poor people. For better penetration of banking services in the region, few schemes are running in the State and district of which PMJDY, the latest initiative by Central Government, has been executed in the Mission Mode. As the progress of PMJDY in India and Uttarakhand has shown splendid figures, District Udham Singh Nagar also moves in the similar direction of progress, covering 100 % targeted households in Uttarakhand. 
Title: An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Apple Production and Productivity in Shimla
Abstract :
The present study entitled “An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Apple Production and Productivity in Shimla” was undertaken with a vision to study the status of apple productivity in the western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh. Narkanda was selected randomly as the ultimate block of study from the Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh state. The objective was aimed at analyzing the apple cultivation and the factors affecting the apple production and productivity. The study sample was drawn using random sampling method in four stages making a total of 70 orchardist households from five altitudinal zones namely < 1500 m, 1500-2000, 2000-2500, 2500 -3000 and above 3000 m msl respectively in the study area. General mathematical and statistical methods were utilized to perform the present study. Overall multiple regression analysis was carried to know the factors influencing the apple production and for evaluating the economic efficiency of resources which has indicated that there exist a scope to increase the apple productivity in the study block, by increasing the levels of the variables like FYM, Chemical fertilizers, human labour, fixed costs and also that it should stick to optimum no. of sprays for plant protection and by maintaining the plant density. The findings of the present study strongly recommend the optimum use of the resources in order to adapt to the adverse conditions and attain desired growth in apple cultivation and ultimately the productivity. 
Title: Magnitude of sexual debut and associated factors among high school girl students in Amhara region, North Western Ethiopia
Abstract :

The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the magnitude and causes of early sexual debut among high school girl students in Gondar and Metema city administrations public schools in Amhara region, northwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study carried out among high school girl students age between 15 to 19 years. A structured questionnaire used for collection of quantitative data from randomly selected 693 girl students. Data entered into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis purpose. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression used for quantify early sexual experience and associated factors. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. All statistical tests performed with two-tailed tests significant at p  <0.05. Sexual experience among high school girls is 31.9%. Girls from the Gondar city (33.3%) had a greater number have sexual debut than girls from Meteme city (27.8 %). As far as birth place and sexual experience is concerned, urban born girls 1.8(OR=0.553, 95% CI: 0.937-1.011) times more likely have a sexual experience than rural born girls. Alcohol consumed girl students 3.64 (OR= 3.64, 95% CI: 1.596-8.311, P=0.002) times more likely to have a sexual experience than not alcohol consumed girls. Regarding chewing chat, girls who have a habit of chewing chat 2.99 (OR= 2.99, 95% CI: 1.375-6.516, P=0.006) is more likely to have a sexual experience as compared to non chat chewers. Girls who were pressured by Peer groups 2.348 (OR=2.348, 95% CI: 1.035–5.327) times more likely to have a sexual experience than others. The magnitude of sexual debut among late adolescent girl students in the study area is 31.9%. Drinking alcohols, chewing chat and peer pressure is the significant determinants of sexual debut among high school girls of Gondar and Metema towns.

Title: Effect of different establishment methods and sowing schedules on growth and yield of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa) and their after effects on succeeding wheat (Triticum aestivum) in rice –wheat cropping system
Abstract :

A field experiment was conducted at Jammu during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to evaluate the effect of two establishment methods (conventional sowing and zero tillage) in wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and four establishment methods (conventional transplanting of 25 days seedling, dry seeding @ 40 Kg/ha, wet seeding after puddling @ 40 kg/ha and SRI methods) and 4 sowing schedules (15th May, 25th May, 5th June and 15th June) in rice (Oryza sativa) under rice-wheat cropping system. Rice establishment methods and sowing schedules had significant impact on growth, yield attributes and yield of rice. Both the direct seeded methods of rice, being at par, recorded significantly higher mean grain yield and other growth parameters of rice as compared to conventional transplanting or SRI method. Similarly, 15th June rice sowing schedule resulted in marked increased in all the growth parameters, yield attributes and grain yield of rice as compared with other sowing schedules. However, both the establishment methods of wheat failed to cause any significant effect on growth and yield of succeeding wheat crop. Establishment methods of wheat and rice as well as sowing schedules of hybrid rice did not cause marked effect on soil physico-chemical parameters as well as available nutrient (N, P and K) content after completion of rice-wheat cycle. However, bulk density of soil at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths was observed considerably higher with zero tilled wheat, while the minimum in system of rice intensification (SRI) method. Higher net returns and benefit cost ratio were recorded when wheat was established through zero tillage and rice through wet seeded sown on 15th of June in rice-wheat cropping system.

Title: Estimation of Productivity and Efficiency of Rapeseed and Mustard Production in India
Abstract :
This paper analyses the total factor productivity (TFP) growth and its components “technical change and technical efficiency change in production of rapeseed and mustard (R&M) in major states of India. The productivity growth has been estimated through data envelopment analysis (DEA) based Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) for the period 1994-95 to 2011-12 for which recent data for selected states were available. Decomposition analysis of TFP change has revealed that output growth of R&M was driven by both technical change and technical efficiency change. This is further witnessed by the positive and significant growth of yield in increasing production of R&M. Regional pattern of productivity growth has revealed large interstate variations with states mean TFP change was 3.3%. Analysis of input use has shown lower growth during study period. Analysis has also shown that the share of current and capital inputs in total cost of cultivation has shrunk and input use efficiency has slowed down significantly (except Rajasthan). The study has concluded that the recent sloth in yield of R&M in study states could be due to inefficiency of input use rather than slowdown in technical change. The study calls for an increasing investments on research for development of high-yielding disease resistant and stress tolerant varieties and demonstration of location–specific good agricultural practices on farmers’ fields to encourage adoption of improved practices. A combination of research and extension will lead to increase input
use efficiency at farmers’ fields and thereby sustaining growth in TFP.
Title: Comparative economics of Banana cultivation in Anand district of Gujarat
Abstract :

The comparative economics of banana cultivation under drip and conventional irrigation methods was studied by collecting data from 60 drip farms and 60 non-drip farms of Anand district during 2009-10. Though the investment on drip irrigation system for banana crop was expensive (` 84115/ha), the total cost of cultivation in drip farms (` 150098/ha) was slightly less than that in non-drip farms (` 151735/ha). The yield (13.94 per cent) and net profit (52.76 per cent) of banana in drip farms were higher as compared to non-drip farms. Input-Output ratio over cost-c2 under drip and flood method of irrigation was 2.10 and 1.71, respectively. The Cobb-Douglas production function was employed to establish the input-output relationship. The sum of regression co-efficient (Σbi’s) was 1.072 and 1.109 for non-drip and drip banana farms, respectively indicating increasing return to scale. MVP/FC ratios were also worked out to examine the resource use efficiency more reliably. It was found that the resources viz, plantlets (tissue culture), irrigation and area were underutilized in drip farms indicating these inputs were not optimum in context to other inputs in order to get maximum profit and therefore, there is yet some scope to increase productivity in the study area of drip farms of banana.

Title: Nonfarm based Livelihood in Rural Sikkim: An Analysis
Abstract :
Contemporary literatures on rural livelihoods reveal these days rural livelihoods are highly diversified and largely dependent on nonfarm activities in most of the places. An inquiry of this problem in context of Sikkim has found a similar story. Using data obtained from 300 rural households through multistage random sampling from all four districts of Sikkim, this paper tries to see the situation of nonfarm livelihoods in rural Sikkim. It was found that casual nonfarm employment occupies the most common livelihood source, followed by regular nonfarm employment and self-employment. Nonfarm income occupies a high share in household income in most of the households. Factor causing nonfarm work participation are average education of the households, credits and finance, Household asset possession, family size and operational holdings. Despite farming activities being central to several rural households, nonfarm income occupies a higher share in most of the cases.
Title: Trend in Area, Production and Productivity of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) in Gujarat
Abstract :
Using polynomial (viz., linear, quadratic and cubic) and exponential models fluctuation in area, production and productivity of wheat crop in Gujarat state was studied. The data for the years 1960-61 to 2006-07 were used for model fitting and efficiency of the fitted model(s) was tested using data of 2007-08 to 2010-11. The models were fitted on original data as well as three, four and five year moving averages data. The most suitable model was selected on the basis of adjusted R2, significant regression coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute error, normality (Shapiro-Wilk test) and randomness of residual’s (Run test) distribution. The results showed that none of the models was suitable for area prediction whereas third degree polynomial model on original data was found suitable to fit the trend of production and productivity of wheat in Gujarat state with adjusted R2 values of 53.75 and 85.30 respectively. 
Title: Constraints in Adoption of Soybean Production Technologies in Northern Hill Region of Chhattisgarh Agro-Climatic Zone of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
A study was conducted to find out the yield gap, adoption pattern, determinants of adoption and constraints in adoption of soybean production technologies. The primary data was collected from 30 farmers selected on the basis of yield levels, as high, moderate and low in the Northern Hill Region agro-climatic zone of Madhya Pradesh. The study revealed that at overall yield level gap-I, II, and III were found to be 47.51%, 18.52 and 59.22%, respectively. More than 90% of respondents were not adopting land levelling, irrigation management, plant protection measures, seed treatment, and nutrient management due to various constraints such as lack of capital, high cost, lack of knowledge etc. Multiple regression analysis showed positive and significant impact of education on adoption of soybean production technologies. The model fitted was found to be bets fit with R2 60%.
Title: Capitalizing Gains from Dairy Trade: Excavating the Market Potential
Abstract :
After recording a huge negative trade balance of dairy products during 1980s, India has evolved as net exporter in dairy trade during the last three decades. Exports of dairy products increased almost 200 times since early 1980s to later half of new millennium whereas value of imports decreased by 7 times by this period. The export perceived vast changes in composition as well as destination over the study period. The present study analyses the temporal changes in composition and direction of Indian dairy exports at most disaggregate level in light of several policy interventions during last three decades and identify the potential sources of gains thereof. The study is based on the secondary data from various sources on several variables, the major being dairy trade statistics from DGCI&S and ministry of commerce for 1980-81 to 2009-10. Compositional analyses of export basket indicates that India has multiplied its product portfolio from traditional dairy products like concentrated and sweetened milk and cream and fat based products to value added dairy products like cheese and curds, whey based products, yogurt and other acidified dairy products. Harfindahl index of geographical concentration indicates that the country has continuously diversified trade destinations over the last three decades. New trade partners have emerged in African Countries apart from conventional partners from Asian and European countries. In light of the empirical evidences, the study concludes that generation of more exportable surplus through improved breeding and feeding programmes is the key to amplify the foreign exchange earnings from dairy sector. Policy and research emphasis should be on development of efficient milk value chain to boost trade. To improve the bargaining power of the country, on the quality front, India should improve its image as a reliable and consistent supplier of safe and quality dairy products conforming to the international standards. A comprehensive strategy for producing quality and safe dairy products should be formulated with legal backdrop. Harmonization of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) quality standards with that of international quality standards will go a long way in materializing the export potential of Indian products into foreign currency. 
Title: Factors responsible for the performance of cooperative sugar factories in North-Eastern Karnataka
Abstract :

This paper attempts to measure the factors responsible for the performance of cooperative sugar factories. In this study the three cooperative sugar factories are taken into consideration. It has been observed that in the study area, factors for becoming the member of sugar factories, are recovery percentage, remunerative price and correct weight. The study has provided enough evidence about the financial ratios which has shown the economic potentiality of the respective sugar factories. To improve cane procurement by sugar factories according to their fixed targets, the factory has to plan the programmes well before the start of the season, so that the installed capacity utilisation can be met. The government should come forward to help the farmers in making the cane bill payment at an early stage by the factories, by extending financial assistance, so that farmers can go for the purchase of inputs well in advance for sugarcane cultivation.

Title: Perception of the Tribal Farmers towards KVK Training
Abstract :
KVK as an innovative institution imparting skill training on agriculture and allied vocations for the farmers, farm women, rural youth and school drop outs for generating income and self employment. A study has been conducted with fifty tribal farmers in Dhanakauda block of sambalpur district in Odisha during 2012 to assess their perception towards KVK training programmes. It has been observed that appropriate selection of trainees, content addressing the local needs, easily understandable, immediate use and emphasis on skill up-gradation. Group discussion and exercise,
encouraging interaction, circulation of reference materials and more audio-visuals are to be used while conducting training. Long duration training programmes of one week to one month has to be organized for rural youth during lean period and duration to be fixed as per the lesson plan formulated. Clear understanding and confidence over the message, liasoning for the availability of inputs, credit and market support along with well furnished hostel with library facilities and enhancement of meals for training to motivate tribal farmers to attend KVK training. 
Title: Farm level technical efficiency for pulse production in India
Abstract :

Pulses are complementary to cereals both in production as well as in consumption. During the production process, pulses help in improving sustainability by (i) fixing the atmospheric nitrogen into the soil (ii) consuming less water and (iii) controlling diseases and pests. On consumption front, pulses reduce malnutrition and improve human health being a rich and most viable source of protein for vegetarians and poor people. Realizing the importance of pulses, the government of India announces various schemes and programs from time to time to promote the cultivation of pulses in the country. However, pulse production in India has not achieved the targeted level. The paper analyses the production trend of pulses over the last decade and identifies the gap between the targets and achievements. Plot level data from cost of cultivation scheme across major pulses growing states has been used to estimate technical efficiencies of the pulses using data envelopment analysis. The paper also highlights the yield gap of the pulses across major pulse growing states and suggests suitable measures for improving farm level profitability and sustainability by increasing technical efficiency. The study postulated the hypothesis that technical efficiency of the pulses is low and the yield potential of the pulses are not fully harnessed. The results revealed that increase of technical efficiency by 1% will reduce the yield gap by 9 kg per ha and increase total pulse production of the country by 225 thousand tons.

Title: Performance of Onion in Bihar - An economic analysis
Abstract :

Present study was conducted in Bihar state to measure the performance of onion for this purpose 40 years secondary data were collected and compiled for period from 1974 to 2014. Decade wise as well as whole period analysis was done i.e. 1975-1984, 1985-1994, 1995-2004, 2005-2014 and 1975-2014. Results of the study shows that in the first decade onion gain the area at the compound growth rate of 1.7% per annum. The production of onion registered highest growth rate during this decade that was 2.9 %, despite an increase in productivity was at slow pace. During the second decade performance of the onion in area and production was much better than first decade but onion lost the productivity at the compound growth rate of 0.3% per annum. Onion in the third decade shows very poor performance and onion lost the area and production. Performance of onion was recorded much better and onion gained recorded area, production and productivity with highest growth rate in the fourth decade. Finally during the whole study period best performance of onion was found in production followed by area and productivity. The similar trend was found in the calculated value of the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and compound growth rate during the study period.

Title: Transforming livestock economy in India with special reference to Punjab: A review
Abstract :

The present study examined livestock economy of Punjab. The growth rate was ranged between from -0.61 to 7.98 per cent per annum from the year 1997 to 2012 for different species of livestock in Punjab. The overall growth rate was found to be 3.27 per cent per annum for total livestock population in Punjab over the years. Though the decrease in livestock bovine population, the milk production in Punjab had increased from 3.22 to 9.71 million tonnes and per capita availability of milk increased from 541 to 961 gram per day with an impressive growth rate of 3.51 and 1.82% per annum from year 1980-81 to 2012-13. The milk production of India had reached up to 137.7 million tonnes during the year 2013-14. With the advancement of the livestock sector, the veterinary officers, insemination centers, and veterinary hospitals had also shown an overall growth rate of 0.65, 1.96 and 0.07 per cent per annum respectively from the year 1980-81 to 2012-13. The egg production in Punjab has also shown a positive trend over the years. The egg production in Punjab has increased from 2961.3 to 3724.6 million with an overall growth rate of 2.11 per cent per annum from the year 1980-81 to 2013-14. The % share of Punjab in the country is decreasing over the years with a negative growth rate of 3.29 per cent per annum. With increasing population and urbanization, the demand for goat and poultry meat is increasing over the years with an impressive growth rate of 1.09 per cent per annum from the year 1980-81 to 2013-14. The livestock sector has great potential for increasing income and employment and also reduces income inequality among rural farmers. The study has suggested that appropriate policy measures should be undertaken to strengthen veterinary services, marketing of livestock products and improving the breed of animals for developing a strong livestock economy of the state.

Title: Economic efficiency of improved red gram variety (BRG-2) in Karnataka: a DEA analysis
Abstract :
Red gram (Cajanus cajan) is an important pulse crop in India. Red gram is also known as Tur, Arhar and Pigeonpea. Red gram is a staple food and rich in protein. It contains about 22 per cent of protein, which is almost three times of cereals. It is resistant to drought and suitable for dry land farming and predominately grown as an intercrop with other crops. The present paper attempts to show the economic efficiency of the new variety of red gram crop BRG 2 developed and released by University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (UAS B), Karnataka compare to the check variety TTB 7. The data needed for the study collected from the farmers in southern region of Karnataka state. The cost concepts and Data envelopment analysis are used to measure the economic viability and economic efficiency of improved variety of red gram crop. The results showed that the net return (with red gram as pure crop) was the higher (` 5, 629 per acre) for BRG2 red gram farms than (` 3,936 per acre) for check variety farms, with a difference of
` 1,692, by 30 per cent. DEA analysis shows that farmers of BRG 2 have greater economic efficiency, allocative efficiency than check variety farmers using inputs such as seed, farm yard manure, chemical fertilisers, human labour, bullock labour, machine labour and plant protection chemicals. The BRG 2 red gram variety is economically performing well in field conditions and offering higher returns to farmers compared to the check varieties. Hence the Department of Agriculture, GOK can popularise and encourage the widespread adoption of red gram BRG variety for improving the nutritive capacity of farmers and consumers.
Title: Prospects of Women Cut Flower Enterprise for Sustainability Approach: A Case Study
Abstract :

Floriculture in Nagaland has taken a big leap in the state’s economy helping the growers, who for the love of flowers can now meet their daily expenditures and other needs through this venture. The demand of fresh cut flowers has brought a huge impact in the Floriculture sector providing income as well as employment especially among the home makers and unemployed youths. The present study being undertaken during the agricultural year 2014-2015 in Dimapur and Kohima districts of Nagaland for the assessment of production and marketing of cut flowers as the study comprises of 75 numbers of sample respondents by following a multi-stage stratified simple random sampling method based on the flower growers. The sample population was categorized under alstroemeria, lilium, anthurium, gerbera and orchid group of growers. The average family size were 5.56, out of which 100.00 per cent were literate, as the worker constitutes 46.66 per cent of total population, the overall total cost of cut flower growers were ` 46,600.00/- per acre, as the gross income were ` 2,32,520.00/- per acre, the net return were ` 1, 82,782.00/- per acre and overall benefit-cost ratio were 4.97: 1. There were three (3) marketing channels are identified for the marketing of cut flowers in both the districts, as the Producer’s share in consumer’s rupees were found highest on channel-I, regarding impact has enhanced by ` 1,20,131.80/- per acre to their annual income, while ` 23,101.52/- was increase in their annual expenditure on food items as well as on their annual savings, also an attempt has been made to study the constraints faced by the cut flower growers during the production viz; requirement of more care was foremost followed by lack of timely availability of planting materials, while the marketing constraints include the lack of knowledge on post harvest techniques as the foremost followed by lack of storage facilities and it was least on lack of transportation facilities etc;

Title: Climate change and investment in agricultural research: Policy challenges in India
Abstract :

Agriculture will continue to be the major sector supporting the Indian economy. On the other hand, the reported and projected impact of climate change raises question against its sustainability and stability. The present paper through reviewing of the relevant literature therefore aims to address three interrelated issues. The first issue on climate change reflected that the annual temperature increase by 0.5˚C during the period 1901-2003 and to counteract the negative impact of climate change, the farming community resorted to adaptation strategies, mainly adoption of resistant cultivars. Concerning this need, the Central Government initiated the mega project National Initiatives on Climate Research Agriculture (NICRA) with a budget of ` 200 crores during the year 2010-11 and the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) scheme with a budget support of ` 1,08,000 crores in order to provide resilient to agriculture with one of the main components on the development of crop cultivars. Emphasizing the need for research in agriculture particularly under the climate change scenario the third issue on the status of Agricultural R&D investment in India was discussed and revealed that the level of Agricultural Research Indicator (ARI) is below the recommended level of 2% being only 0.43% during the year 2012-13. Meeting the need of the farming community coupled with the objectives of the mentioned Government initiatives and the target set to attain 2% of ARI during the twelve plan the study recommended that Agricultural R&D investment needs to be strengthened to maintain the viability of Indian agriculture.

Title: Growth performance and trade direction of Indian fish products
Abstract :

The present study analyses the growth performance of production and export of fish products and its trade direction. The results of the study revealed that fish production of India has registered a annual growth rate of 3.8 per cent. Among the major fish producing states, Chhattisgarh has witnessed highest compound growth rate of 15 per cent per annum. The vast production base offers India has tremendous opportunities for enhancing surplus exportable quality fish products. During 2014, India exported about 983.756 million tonnes of fish products to South East Asian countries. Frozen shrimp is the major export value item accounting to the value of 19368.3 crore rupees. It can be observed that among the fish products, dried fish has registered a highest growth rate of 21 and 26 per cent per annum in terms of quantity and value respectively. It can be further noticed that South East Asia has been the most stable market among the major importers of Indian fish products as reflected by the higher probability of retention of 0.85 whereas Japan has shown the least retention probability of 0.36 which has only retained 36 per cent of its share in export.

Title: Analysis of Local Market Institutions in West Bengal and Bihar
Abstract :
The analysis of local market institutions in West Bengal and Bihar reveals that the market for agricultural produce is overwhelmingly dominated by private trade at the village levels. Though there has been modest public sector effort to support agricultural markets through building up of public sector marketing agencies, promoting cooperatives, etc., the fact remains that the market is dominated by private trade in agricultural produce in a largely unorganized manner.
There have been numerous village-level market institutions at work for the marketing of specific commodities, through even greater numbers of trade channels in the marketing chain. Owing to higher number of trade channels in prolonged marketing chains, the producers’ shares in cases of all crops turn out to be quite low, especially for fruits and vegetables. 
Title: National Horticulture Mission (NHM): A Game Changer for Horticultural Economy of Karnataka
Abstract :
An economic study, intended to know the impact of NHM on temporal changes in area, production of horticultural crops, performances of different components under NHM and constraints faced by sample beneficiaries, study was conducted in Karnataka state using primary and secondary data during the year 2013-14. Major findings of the study reveals that, significant increase in area, production and yield of horticultural crops achieved after implementation of the NHM, components such as area coverage and IPM have incurred highest expenditure over the years, but full potential could not be tapped due to severe constraints in infrastructural bottlenecks, marketing facilities and post-harvest management etc. So efforts are needed to improve the conditions of infrastructural facilities by spending higher expenditure on those items.
Title: Production behaviour of potato in Assam- A critical analysis across zones and size groups of farms
Abstract :

Potato is one of the most important and widely cultivated vegetable crops of Assam and ranks fourth in terms of acreage under individual crop in the state. A study on Production behaviour of potato across size groups, districts and zones of Assam was conducted using data pertaining to Agricultural year 2013-14. The result of the study revealed that per hectare potato cultivation cost was found to be highest in LBVZ (Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone) ` 70362.08 followed by CBVZ (Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone) ` 70357.07, UBVZ (Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone) ` 70238.78 and NBPZ (North Bank Plain Zone) of Assam ` 69755.20 respectively. It was also observed that with increase in size group of farms area allocation under the crop also increased as a result cost of production of potato also recorded an increasing trend in all the zones of the state. This trend of increased area allocation across size groups the degree of commercialization of potato had also increased and productivity of the crop was found increasing gradually from size group I farmers to size group III farmers. Potato production in all the zones reflected that in LBVZ of Assam, from 1987 to 1997 witnessed sharp decrease in potato production. After 1994 till 2004 potato production was moving in upward direction due to incorporation of latest production technologies in the farmers field. Potato production in the CBVZ of Assam was found to be more or less unchanged during the whole period. In UBVZ it was reflected that from 1993 till 2003 potato production was found to be stagnant. After that it was showing upward movement. Similarly, in NBPZ also the potato production was found to be more or less stationary during the whole period.

Title: Instability in groundnut production in eastern regions - a relook
Abstract :

A decreasing trend in groundnut acreage in India and major groundnut growing states has been observed which is more pronounced during the period 1990-91 to 1999-2000. The overall acreage and yield trend during the period 2000-01 to 2008-09 for the country is positive but marked with wide fluctuations. Comparing Eastern Indian states, West Bengal has shown brilliant performance in terms of area, production and yield growths though this state was witnessed of high level of instability during 1979 to 1990. It is revealed from the study that area change is the major component of change in groundnut production in Eastern Indian states.

Title: Training Needs of Farmers about World Trade Organization Issues
Abstract :

In the present study, efforts were made to assess the awareness level and its correlate with the selected variables among the farmers on World Trade Organization (WTO) issues with special reference to agriculture and also to ascertain the training needs. The study was carried out in the state of Maharashtra and multistage random sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondent farmers. The results revealed that the overall awareness level of farmers on WTO issues related to agriculture was very low. Farmers’ education, mass media exposure, social participation and extension contact were found to have positive and significant correlation with their awareness about WTO. Farmers were found to be unaware not only about the structure and functions of WTO, its origin and purpose etc. but also about the provisions under the Agreement on Agriculture and other Intellectual Property Related issues such as the system of plant variety protection in India in general and the Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers Rights Act, 2001 in particular. The present investigation concluded that farmers must be given training on every basic aspects of WTO.

Title: Bt Cotton seed production: Inter-company economic analysis in Karnataka
Abstract :

The present study was an attempt to estimate the profitability of Bt cotton seed production by farmers of Karnataka under contract farming. The total cost of Bt cotton seed production varied from one company contract farmers to other. The per acre total cost of seed production was higher (`96829) in case of contract farmers with JK Seeds Company followed by Monsanto seeds company farmers (`95797). The net returns received from Bt cotton seed production were higher in case of Monsanto seeds company contract farmers (`46387/acre) followed by Kaveri Seeds company (`33076/acre). While returns to per rupee of investment was highest (1.48) in the case of Monsanto Seed Company followed by JK Seeds Company (1.36). The Garret ranking test indicated that major constraint in seed production was non-availability of trained labour with a mean score of 72.24 followed by high wage rate (67.76). As contractual problems were concerned, poor technical assistance was the major constraint with a mean score of 69.44 closely followed by low contract price (67.34).

Title: A case study on resource-use efficiency in Onion cultivation in West Bengal, India
Abstract :

This study focuses on the aspects of resource use efficiency of onion growers in the Indo-Gangetic Region of West Bengal, India. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been used in measuring efficiency level of stakeholders followed by K-means clustering for grouping them into homogeneous strata. The prime objective of this study is to explore the scope of increasing onion-yield as well as production using current resource base at the disposal of farmers. Additionally, characterization of growers in terms of several socio-economic indicators was made and studied. Finally, the study ends with advocating policy intervention measures in the gray fields. The study observed much potential for augmenting onion-yield with existing resource base of farmers with careful interventions.

Title: Progress and Performance of Kisan Credit Card Scheme in Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract :
Institutional credit has played a very important role in the development of the agricultural sector. In fact, credit acted as a means to provide control over resources to enable the farmers to acquire the required capital for increasing agricultural production. The major success of green revolution in Indian agriculture to a large extent is the impact of institutional credit support to the agricultural sector in terms of expansion in inputs like fertilizers, irrigation, private capital formation, etc. The introduction of a new credit product called ‘Kisan Credit Card’ (KCC) in 1998-99 with three different sub-limits viz. production, asset maintenance and consumption needs are a step in this direction. Since inception of the scheme up to March 2012, banking system has issued 124365 numbers of KCCs in the Jammu and Kashmir state. The corresponding number of cards issued at all India level as on October, 2011 has been 1078.36 lakh. In the number of KCCs the share of commercial banks is maximum i.e. 51.32%, this is followed by 45.97% share of RRBs and only 2.71% is contributed by the co-operative banks. The total bank branches in financial year 2010-2011 were 1302 whereas it was 1449 in the financial year 1011-12. Progress in issuance of KCCs by banks in J&K for the financial year 2010-2011 the target was ` 27466.36 lakh and achievement was only 14.23%. In Jammu region total coverage was 37.53% in different districts whereas in Jammu district the coverage was 39.75%. Highest number of farmer’s coverage under KCC in Jammu region made in Samba district (85.22%).
Title: Financial Inclusion and Actual Use of Financial Services by the Poor in India
Abstract :
The Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (Prime Minister People Money Scheme) created a record opening up of bank accounts in India in a very short span. The utility of the bank accounts is great for the financial inclusion and which was demonstrated across India in various ways. However, there are some concerns on the utilisation of the bank accounts, as some studies pointing out the dormant bank accounts and overburden on the banking system with large number of accounts with little or no transaction for a longer period. There is also a case of using the wide post office network for the financial inclusion, which are reachable to every villager without any cost to government as well as the beneficiaries. This study focuses on the utilisation pattern of the post office and bank accounts in India by using the Global Findex data collected by the World Bank in year 2011 and draw some lessons on how to increase utility of the bank accounts to general public without excessively burdening the banking system. The sample drawn is nationally representative with
the sample size of 3518 adult members 1837 male and 1679 female. We find that post offices are relatively more likely than traditional banks to provide accounts to individuals who are most likely to be financially excluded such as the poor, less educated and those out of the labour force. Even though over all use of the bank accounts is low, they play a greater role in increasing savings habits and likely to play a greater role in direct cash transfer under different government welfare programmes.
Title: Impact of ASEAN-India free trade agreement on Indian dairy trade: A simulation analysis
Abstract :

The study attempts a quantitative assessment of the impact of recently signed ASEAN-India FTA (AIFTA) for dairy commodities in India. ASEAN is strategically a potential market in dairy for India and our country already stands as net exporter of dairy products in this region. Partial equilibrium model (SMART model) has been used to simulate the likely impact of dairy exports to and imports from ASEAN countries under the proposed tariff reduction schedule of the AIFTA. The SMART model simulations suggest that AIFTA has generated an additional scope for India to increase its dairy exports to ASEAN countries. On the other hand, tariff elimination from India’s side creates little scope for ASEAN nations to expand their shares. The threat of cheap imports competing with the domestic products in the Indian markets is therefore not alarming. However necessary adjustment assistance may be provided to the dairy product manufacturers to counter the competition in the relevant product lines.

Title: Contents Volume 62 Issue 2
Abstract :

Contents

Title: Empowerment of rural women through agriculture and dairy sectors in India
Abstract :

Efforts have been made in this paper to critically review the women’s empowerment endeavours in India. Empowerment is midway in the change processes that benefit women at individual, household, community and broader levels. At the most basic level, innovations can benefit women simply by improving their well-being in terms of health, nutrition, income, life span etc. There is a bidirectional relationship between economic development and women’s empowerment defined as improving the ability of women to access the constituents of development in particular to health, education, earning opportunities, rights, and political participation. The rural women are having basic indigenous knowledge, skill, potential and resources to establish and manage enterprise. Women entrepreneur networks are major sources of knowledge about women’s entrepreneurship and they are increasingly recognized as a valuable tool for its development and promotion. Therefore, formation and strengthening of rural women entrepreneur network must be encouraged.

Title: Farmers response on agricultural marketing information system in Meghalaya
Abstract :

Reducing knowledge gaps and sharing agricultural marketing information to farmer is an essential input for increasing productivity and boosting agricultural growth in rural areas. An attempt has been made to identify the various pattern of awareness, sources, utilization and its benefits, constraint and expectations of agricultural marketing information (AMI) among different categories of farmers in the study area of two regulated markets namely, Mawiong Regulated Market in Mylliem Block of East Khasi Hills and Garobadha Regulated Market in Selsella Block of West Garo Hills district. The sample size consisted of 120 farmers from both selected regulated market areas were selected for the study based on purposive and random sampling technique. From the findings of the research study, it was revealed that that in case of large category of sample farmers, the extent of awareness on arrivals, prices in local markets and other markets, quality / grade of produce required, post harvest handling of agricultural produce was found to be higher than small and medium size farmers. The extent of utilization of agricultural market information by different categories of sample farmers were in decision making on production, selling and post harvest handling. It was observed that the sources of agricultural market information at household level were radio, newspaper and television for small farmers. At the market level, commission agents were most predominant sources of AMI for all categories of farmers. It revealed that the market information on prices prevailed in other nearby market placed high expectations among all the categories of farmers followed by future price projections and quality wise price information. Proper integration of various agencies for adequate and efficient dissemination of vital agricultural marketing information, so that it will act as an ‘one stop solution’ for the needs of the farming community in hilly regions of Meghalaya. There is need of proper dissemination of market intelligence and information through all possible means of communication for improving the marketing efficiency.

Title: Regulated Agricultural Marketing Infrastructural Development in Punjab
Abstract :
Agricultural regulated markets have been playing a pivotal role in the procurement of farm produce. Punjab stateaccounts for about six per cent of the total regulated markets in the country. With the rising agricultural production andgrowth of regulated marketing facilities, Punjab has become one of the leading states in development of marketing infrastructure and facilities for orderly marketing of agricultural produce. in the best interests of both producers and
consumers. Basic infrastructural facilities like pucca auction platforms, parking, drinking water, electricity, mandi lights, internal roads, rest houses, toilets, bank and post office etc. were present in almost all the markets. Market information system was quite efficient in all the sampled markets. Thus all the markets are performing well on physical as well as financial front and the number, capacity and existing infrastructure of the regulated agricultural markets in the state comfortably meets the requirements of the increasing farm produce in the state. Nearly half of the total expenditure incurred by the Punjab State Agricultural Marketing Board during 2011-12 was for the infrastructural development in the agricultural markets. The study concluded that n efficient agricultural marketing system can be evolved by improving, strengthening and optimally utilising the existing market infrastructure in the state.
Title: Non-economic Indirect Benefits of Road on Rural Households in West Bengal
Abstract :
It is a well known fact that majority of poor people in the world live in rural areas where the level of public infrastructure especially roads is low. Provision of good road network is essential for the development of any country. Inadequate roads and poor road access results in high transportation cost, limits the uses of local markets, limits the purchase of consumer goods and opportunities for non-farm employments, reduces opportunities for new business and entrepreneurship, hinders social mobility and interaction, political participation, reduces access to credit, high quality inputs and constraints access to other social infrastructures such as education, health facilities etc. which are important for socio-economic development of the rural mass. In this view, an attempt has been made in this study to consider the benefits of rural roads apart from income and employment pattern of the households of West Bengal. It has been found that rural infrastructure like roads and railways significantly affect the socioeconomic aspects of rural people. The study also reveals that high road density and population density positively influences the educational level; proximity of main road and rail station improves the standard of living by increasing the access to health, education, market facilities, social mobility, affecting land holding pattern, political participation and other indirect benefits apart from change in income, employment, consumption pattern. When the above parameters are considered separately, group mean statistical analysis shows a statistically significant result for the group of rural households living in the vicinity of roads and rail stations with relatively better connectivity.
Title: Accelerated Retting of Jute for Economic Fibre Yield
Abstract :
Jute fibres are separated from non-fibrous tissues and woody part of the stem by dissolution and decomposition of pectins and gums by a process called retting. Retting employs the joint action of microbes and moisture to dissolve the cellular tissues and pectin surrounding the bast fibre bundle. The huge amount of clear water requirement and environmental hazards caused by chemicals and microbes presents the major disadvantage of retting. Moreover retting is time consuming and costly.
Title: Production and Growth of Pulses in Telangana State: An Economic Analysis
Abstract :

Pulses are the most important for Indian diet and the principal source of protein for the poor people and the vegetarians. India is at the high among all the major pulse producing nations in the world. The present investigation is an attempt to examine the pattern of growth and instability in the cropped area, production and productivity of major pulse crops in Telangana state. The annual time series of data form the period 1980 to 2015 relating to the area, production and productivity of major pulse crops have been used to compute growth rates, standard deviation and coefficient of variation to realize the objectives. The results of the study reveal that there have been positive changes in the area of pulse crops. The annual average growth rate in the area was estimated to be 0.05%, 0.01%, -0.03% and 0.02% in Bengal gram, black gram, green gram and red gram respectively. The production growth rate in the same pulse crops was presented to be 0.83%, 0.20%, 0.13% and 0.17% as the average annual growth rate in the State. The productivity growth rate for these crops was further assessed to be 0.18%, 0.13%, 0.10% and 0.15%, respectively. The instability in the area was observed to be high in green gram followed by red gram and bengal gram and minimum in black gram. Similarly, instability in productivity was also found to be high in bengal gram and minimum in green gram. Further, variability in production was also observed to be maximum in bengal gram followed by the red gram, and green gram and minimum in black gram, respectively.

Title: Market Integration and Causality in Pear in India
Abstract :
The current study focuses to explore the degree of market integration in William Bartlett variety of pear grown in Kashmir, commonly known as Bagughosha, through co-integration analysis on the wholesale weekly prices of its two commercial grades Bagughosha Super and Bagughosha Special, collected from two national fruit markets of India (Delhi and Mumbai), from August, 2005 to October, 2013. The results reveal that Pear markets were co integrated and competitive. A disequilibrium ranging from 16.47 to 50.33% among the selected grades of the fruit was observed.VAR and VECM models were used to study the behaviour of market prices, which revealed that Delhi market turned most dominating market for higher prices of the selected variety and grades.
Title: Commercialization of small holder farming in Assam
Abstract :

Commercialization of agriculture is an activity where farmers produce principally for sale in far off markets, rather than to fulfil their demand for food or to sell in local or nearby markets. Number of different stimuli at different times is responsible for agricultural commercialisation. In Assam about 86 % farmers belong to the small and marginal category. These groups should be oriented towards commercialization of their farms for improving their standard of living. The present study attempted to measure the level of commercialization among the small farmers in Nagaon district of Assam. Multistage random sampling method was used to select the respondents. Household commercialization index was used to measure the level of commercialization. The study revealed that the level of commercialization ranged from 63.3% to 74 %. It was reported that the higher farm size and access to market encouraged the farmers to go for higher level of commercialization.

Title: Household drivers of forest dependence for employment support among tribes of Jharkhand, India
Abstract :

This study investigated the household drivers of forest dependence for employment support among tribes of Bundu block in Ranchi, Jharkhand (India). Data were collected through structured interviews and non-participant observations administered to 164 households sampled using multi-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the data. Results indicated that fodder (34.04%) was the major forest-based employment source followed by fuel wood (24.38%), paid employment (18.31%), cottage industry (16.49%), tooth brush (3.00%), fruit (1.63%), mahua (Madhuca latifolia) flower (0.75%), vegetables (0.57%), oilseeds (0.47%), ethno-medicines (0.20%) and timber (0.17%). Average forest-based employment accrued to the tribal household was 108.23 man-days annum-1. Regression analysis revealed that education, land holding, gross annual income, proximity to the forest, forest visit and forestry resources possession significantly influenced forest dependence for employment support and the R2 (0.786) indicated that 78.60% of the variation in the forest-based employment was explained by the household drivers. The findings and perspective of the study could be crucial bases in planning and administration of strategies for sustainable management of the forest resources and improvement in forest-based employment opportunities for livelihood security and socio-economic development of the tribal people in the locality.

Title: Review on Access of Small and Marginal Farmers to Improved Seeds in India
Abstract :
An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the role of small and marginal farmers in crop production and seed utilisation mechanism. The study also tries to highlight the availability of the existing institutional arrangement and policy supports towards improved seed production and distribution in India. The study has been undertaken based on the secondary data of diverse years starting from 2001 to 2011. It has been observed that small and marginal farmers still largely depend on public sources for seeds apart from their retention and local seeds. It has been also found that seed replacement rates are low and only 24% of the sub-marginal and 29% of the marginal farmers replace seed every year
against 40% in case of large farmers. In spite of different policies like National Seed Policy, National Seed Project, National Seed Bill etc., the study has found that it is necessary to invest more in research and development for seed especially in the era of trade liberalization to make agriculture more remunerative and competitive. 
Title: Performance of Phosphobacteria on Phosphorus Economy and Net Return in Different Potato Growing Region of India
Abstract :
Field experiments were conducted at eleven centers of All India Coordinated Research Project on Potato located in different agro-climatic zones to investigate the role of phosphobacteria in P economy in potato crop during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Six treatments consisting of combinations of different levels of P as well as phosphobacteria (PSB) used in the study showed significant effect on yield of potato. At Kalyani, Chhindwara, Kota, Patna, Hassan and Ooty, recommended dose of NK + 75% P + PSB was statistically at par with recommended dose of NPK in term of total yield. At Bhubaneshwar, Dholi, Hisar, Deesa and Modipuram, 75% of fertilizer P + PSB either had no significant effect on potato tuber yield or reduced the yield marginally in two years of experimentations. Net returns with recommended NPK or 75% P + PSB showed the best results at most of the centers. The per cent saving of fertilizer P, calculated using quadratic model, was maximum for Hassan (43%). In general, use of PSB saved around 20 to 25% P, depending upon agro-ecological situations and soil conditions. However, at Bhubaneshwar, Kota and Dholi the saving being very meager was not economical. The results clearly indicate the role of PSB in saving fertilizer P across different agro-climatic zones, However, it also came out very clearly that effectiveness of the PSB depends on agro-ecological situations and soil conditions.
Title: Defect detection of jute fabric using image processing
Abstract :

Fabric inspection is important for maintaining the quality of jute fabric. Traditional inspection process for jute fabric defects is human visual inspection which is insufficient and costly. The quality of inspection process for jute fabrics is mainly performed manually. Mostly defects could be detected by the most highly trained inspectors. Manual defect detection is labour intensive, cumbersome, prone to errors and expensive. At present, the fabric defect detection in the jute industry is performed manually. In jute industry improved performance in the inspection of fabrics leads to good product quality and contributes to increased profitability and customer satisfaction. Hence the automatic fabric defect inspection is required to reduce the cost and time waste caused by defects. Automated defect detection is less labour intensive, more accurate, efficient and less costly. The detection of defects of moving jute fabric on inspection table can be identified using Image processing techniques. These image processing techniques are applied and for the input image of a defective fabric frame by frame, conversion into grey scale image, noise filtering, binary image conversion, thresholding are applied on each image of video and the output is obtained in real time. In real time, output will be display the marks on defect area, defect percentage and defect concentration graph of capture length of fabric on inspection table

Title: Economic importance and consumer preferences for neglected and underutilized crop species in Karnataka
Abstract :

Food and nutritional security has been increasingly narrowing down to a few crops. More than 50 per cent of the Global requirement of proteins and calories are being met by just three crops namely, maize, wheat and rice. Only 150 crops are being commercially cultivated at the Global level, while mankind had used more than 7000 edible plant species over time. The narrowing base of Global food security crops and also the climate change is limiting livelihood options for the rural poor particularly those dwelling in the marginal areas. There is an urgent need to shift the focus of agricultural research and development to include a wider range of crop species by including the neglected crops as one of the options. Neglected and Underutilized crop Species (NUS) are emerging as one such option as they have higher nutrition content and also climate resilient.

Title: Economic Feasibility of Jatropha Oil as Biodiesel
Abstract :

We studied economic feasibility of biodiesel production from jatropha in current research work. We prepared the biodiesel by process of transesterification of the unfiltered jatropha oil in presence of three percent of KOH catalyst. We added ethanol to oil by 30% volume basis. We kept as reaction temperature at 60 ± 5°C for one hour. The developed batch production unit of 5 litres capacity at Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal was used for biodiesel production from jatropha oil. We obtained 90.20% biodiesel recovery. We calculated the economic feasibility of prepared biodiesel by analysis of economics of jatropha plantation, jatropha oil extraction, jatropha ethyl ester production. We found the cost of oil per kg and JEE production per litre to be ` 25.34 and 28.64, respectively.

Title: A Study on Farmers’ Perceptions and Constraints of Sugarcane Production: Evidence from village level study in Orissa
Abstract :
Sugarcane is a major cash crop of India, particularly in UP, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujurat, and Foot hils of Uttarakhand. Sugarcane crop has a productivity of 70 tonnes/ha and an area of 4.2 mha. It plays a pivotal role in the national economy. Sugarcane is considered as one of the best cash crops in Orissa. It is grown in all the 30 districts of Orissa. The selected district Dhenkanal occupied 4th position in area (1.49 thousand ha) and in production (99.06 thousand MTs) and 5th position in yield (668.50 qtls/ha) in 2005-06. This study was carried out in Dhenkanal district, Orissa. A sample of 160 farmers was randomly selected from two blocks i.e. Dhenkanal and Kankadahad.The climatic constraints for sugarcane cultivation in Orissa will continue to account for disparity in cane productivity and sugar recovery in this area. Farmers perception based on their experience indicates a good rating for quality of soil, but poor rating for water quality. But a gap was found to be existing between potential and realized yield. The constraints regarding the sugarcane cultivation were mainly related to the payment problems, there is no alternative sugar mill other than Shakti sugar mill, the long waiting period for the disposal of cane besides harassment of the farmers by the staff of sugar mill. The long distance between sugarcane growers of the study area and sugar mill has added to difficulties of sugarcane growers, which has led to decline in area under sugarcane. 
Title: Marketing Channel vis-a-vis Economic Viability of Ornamental Fish Cum Aquarium Business in Agartala, Tripura
Abstract :

Economic viability of ornamental fish business is utmost important as this sector has been identified as a powerful tool for rural income & employment generation. The study was conducted in Agartala, Tripura in the year 2015-2016 among 14 traders actively involved in ornamental fish business in Agartala. The data collected through observation, personal interviews with designed interview schedule as well as focus group discussion with the respondents revealed that majority of the respondents (78.57%) were young aged, all are literate and 28.57 % of them were graduates. Around 42.86% of the traders considered aquarium business as their main occupation. Around 71.43% were doing retail business and 28.57% were performing as wholesaler-cum- retailer. Majority of traders (28.57%) earned between ` 3,60,000-4,32,000 per annum. Among the identified six different channels in ornamental fish marketing in Tripura, majority of the traders (64.29%) used to take benefit of marketing channel V due to the higher profit margin i.e., purchased ornamental fishes from the producers of outside state and used to sell directly to the consumers and/or to the retailers. Profitability analysis of the ornamental fish trading indicated that all the cases studied generated positive net returns. Payback period were very short i.e., 0.14 years and 0.29 years for wholesaler cum retailers and retailers respectively which reflects that the investment in the business of ornamental fisheries and aquarium is less risky as well as repaid in the shorter time period and is considered the better choice as investment or action costs are recovered sooner and are available again for further use.

Title: Economic return from the land Race vegetables and their importance in sustainable production systems in the hot arid region
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in hot arid region of the Western Rajasthan during 2012 – 2014. Three districts of hot arid region namely; Naguar, Bikaner, Churu district were selected randomly for the study. During the study, there were found several potential landrace vegetables in the hot arid region which play significant role as the leading component crops of the sustainable production system and source of income generation in the study areas/district. Among the evergreen bush/tree type landrace vegetables were khejri, ker, Khimp, moringa, phog, lasoda (Cordia myxa Roxb.), Indian aloe, and cactus (Opuntia ficus indica). Under the group of the seasonal leafy vegetable, fenugreek, amaranth, chinopodium (bathua), mustard (leaves), green onion, were found the major landrace leafy vegetables contributing in sustainable production system and income generation in hot arid region (study areas). In case of cucurbitaceous vegetable group, the kachri, snapmelon, mateera, roundmelon , bottlegourd and kakoda were found the most important landrace cucurbitaceous vegetables which play leading role in sustenance and sustainable production system of the crops in hot arid region (study areas). They are the backbone of the world famous mixed cropping system of the hot arid region which makes the existing cropping system most suitable and sustainable with high economic viability. Other important landrace vegetables were cluster bean, moth bean, cowpea, green gram, brinjal, chilli and local mushroom which play vital roles in sustainable crop production system and generating substantial amount of income in the study areas/districts .Further, it was found that the majority (86.8%) of the farmers of the study areas of the hot arid region mainly follow mixed cropping system and some of them follow intercropping and sole cropping system also. With respect to economic gain from the landrace vegetables, it was found they have high economic value and marketing viability. They are very good source of income and trade specific activities for the farmers/dwellers in the study areas of the hot arid region. The ker (Capparis deciduas Edgew), khejri (Prosopis cineraria L.) Druce and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.)Taub was found the most economic landrace vegetable among all in the hot arid region/ study areas.

Title: Comparative Study of Marginal Farms in India vis-a-vis West Bengal; Evidences from Last Decade
Abstract :

Agriculture is the backbone of overall growth for the majority of the countries where the primary occupation of rural population is predominantly agriculture. The growth of agriculture is essential for poverty reduction and food security for these countries. The present study deals with the current situation of holdings, operated area and average size of land holding by marginal farms at the national level as well as West Bengal. The data has been collected from Agricultural Census, Government of India and West Bengal. It is found that 67.10% marginal farms cultivate only 22.50% of area in 2010-11 which has increased from 62.88% and 18.70% respectively from 2000-01 at national level. In case of West Bengal, 82.16% of marginal farms operate 52.47% of land which has increased from 80.44% and 49.74% from 2000-01 respectively. On the other hand, the average size of land holding has been decreased during this time frame both at national level and in case of West Bengal. Thus, the concentration of marginal farms is much more significant in the context of West Bengal for sustainable agriculture and maintain food security and to reduce poverty.

Title: Policy impacts on fruit and vegetable processing sector in West Bengal
Abstract :

Fruit and vegetable processing sector is one of the core segments under food processing in West Bengal. Development of this sector is critically important to the expansion and diversification of state’s agricultural sector. It provides vital linkages and harnesses synergies between the two pillars of our economy, industry and agriculture. Several policies have been undertaken over time by union and state government to promote the activities of food processing in general and fruit and vegetable processing in particular in the state. In this paper we have made a brief review on the nature of the policy changes towards this sector and also analyze its impacts. And, it has been observed that the policy interventions at various levels, especially in late 90’s, have created number of positive impacts on its performance at varying levels like investment, income, employment generation, level of processing etc. The government policies in a new liberal regime have primarily benefited the large scale units which have emerged as the group of new dominant players in the state’s processing sector. This sector would gain further strength as the state government very recently has introduced a specific policy package towards this particular sector. Despite of significant growth in this sector in the state, the proportion of production processed commercially has not increased adequately. The main constraint lies behind this with infrastructure, technology, quality measurement and lack of farm-firm linkages. Hence, the government should come forward to look after such problems and take appropriate policies according to the needs.

Title: Technical, economic and allocative efficiencies of rice farms in Nalgonda district of Telangana state
Abstract :

Increasing the efficiency in production assumes greater significance in attaining potential output at the farm level. An attempt has been made in this study to estimate the technical, economic and allocative efficiencies of rice farms using stochastic frontier approach. The influence of socio-economic factors on the technical efficiency was measured using regression analysis. The mean technical, economic and allocative efficiencies were found to be 92.44, 81.68 and 88.36 per cent respectively. The results revealed that 63 and 76 per cent of technical and economic inefficiencies respectively were largely within the control of individual farmers. Human labour was found to be the major determinant of rice productivity in the region. One per cent increase in the prices of human labour, machine labour and fertilizers was found to reduce the profits by 0.25, 0.46 and 0.18 per cent respectively at their mean levels. Education level of a farmer, experience in rice cultivation, membership in cooperative society and access to institutional credit were the most influential determinants of technical efficiency. The mean technical efficiency values of greater than 90 per cent for majority (55.83%) of the rice farmers indicated that there was little scope for improving the efficiencies of these farmers with the existing technology as the farmers were already operating near the frontier. Hence new location-specific technologies should be developed and transferred to farmers. However, for farms operating at lower levels of efficiency, sufficient potential also exists for improving the productivity of rice by proper management and allocation of the existing resources and technology.

Title: An analysis of regional disparity in Nagaland, India
Abstract :

One of the crucial issues in the development of an economy is to see that all the regions are equally developed but it so happens that due to natural and man-made factors not all regions can be equally developed. Regions endowed with rich natural resources generally progress faster than those with little or no natural resources and at the same time man too has contributed a lot in creating inequalities or disparities among the regions. Nagaland, even after 52 years of statehood, continues to lack behind other states in all development front and worst of all the economic disparity among the districts has been vividly growing over the years. This paper examines the level of development in Nagaland and the regional disparity among the districts using seven variables. The variables were analysed using principal component analysis for regional identification according to their level of development and examine the disparities among them. The combined component score which shows the overall development index indicates that the district of Dimapur, Kohima, Zunheboto and Mokokchung are placed under developed districts while the less developed districts are Longleng, Mon, Kiphire and Tuensang. The districts of Wokha, Phek and Peren fall under the moderately developed districts.

Title: An Assessment of Economic Inequality in the District of Purulia, West Bengal, India
Abstract :

Unequal access to resources, employment and income along with its trend of steady magnification results into multiple social and economic depreciations. The issue of income inequality at macro level, i.e. national and state level has been well focused whereas analysis of micro-level disparities in this aspect has yet to be explored significantly. The development plans, at presents, rely on decentralized planning processes where the micro level sectoral and spatial variation of income should be given importance. Purulia district is one of the most backward districts in West Bengal in perspective of all the dimensions of human development accompanied with the income inequality at a considerable magnitude. The present study attempts to assess the intra-district income inequalities between different social, ethnic and religious classes. The study analyses the profiles of income distributions of different competitive classes carefully. It also plotted the relative deprivation curve. The result of the analyses has been critically discussed for an amicable conclusion.

Title: Structural performance of fish market and socio-economic status of market functionaries of Naveen Machhali Mandi Mahanva of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

The fish marketing is crucial for achieving the target efficient production system and consumer satisfaction. Further an ideal market situation also requires to satisfy all group of players who are involved in flow of the goods and services from the producers to consumer. Keeping this in view this study carried out with specific objective to analyse market behavior for fish wholesale fish market Naveen Machhali Mandi Mahanva of Gorakhpur district in Uttar Pradesh and also the socio-economic status of fish marketers. A random sampling technique was used to select 90 market functionaries for personal interview and primary data collection. The primary data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The result of this study showed and suggests that fish trade is carried out only by men. The family size of the majority respondents was found to large (>7 members) and their education level was low. Three marketing channels were identify in study area and marketing channel III was found to be have highest Marketing efficiency (59.17%). Whereas marketing channel I had lowest marketing efficiency. The markets infrastructure facility observed to be poor in terms of fish handling, icing, packaging, and cold storage and transportation facilities. The study also identified the constraints being faced by the fish farmers.

Title: Participation and role of rural women in decision-making related to farm activities: A study in Burdwan district of West Bengal
Abstract :

This study analysed women’s participation and decision making process in farming activities in Katwa Block- I of Burdwan district, India. Most rural women farmers sampled in this study were young in the age group between 20-35 years; predominantly on nuclear families; and from Hindu SC & ST and Hindu OBC households. WPR in farming activities decreased with the increase of education levels. Large number of women respondents was engaged in agricultural labours. It was observed that decision-making power was positively correlated with the age of the women. Education of farm women was found effective in the participation of farm women in agricultural decision-making process. Respondents of forward castes participated in farming decisions with greater frequencies than SC and ST. Although, the decision-making score was higher among the male farmers, most decisions were taken jointly by both female and male participants indicating the development of social status of the farming women.

Title: Income and employment generation under existing farming systems in tribal dominated Banswara district of Southern Rajasthan
Abstract :

Rajasthan is the largest state of India constituting 10.4 per cent of total geographical area and 5.67 per cent of total population of India. The present investigation was under taken to work out the income and employment under existing farming systems in tribal dominant Banswara district of Southern Rajasthan during 2012-13. A sample of 60 households consisting of 30 each under rainfed and irrigated situation was selected for the study. Four farming systems were existed in both the rainfed and irrigated situations of Banswara district viz. FS-I: Crop+ Vegetables (C+V), FS-II: Crop + Dairy (C+D), FS-III: Crop + Dairy +Goat (C+D+G) and FS-IV: Crop + Goat +Poultry +Orchard (C+G +Po+O). The total cost in rainfed farming system was the lowest in FS-I (` 59707.15) and the highest in FS-III (` 166716.75). The total costs in irrigated farming system were the lowest in FS-I (` 232289.97) and highest in FS-III (` 292409.27). On the basis of net return per household, the most profitable farming system adopted under the rainfed situation was FS-III (Crop+Goat+Dairy) with ` 57600.95 per farm while on the basis of returns per rupee investment; it was FS-IV (Crop+Goat+Poultry) i.e. ` 1.57. While under irrigated situation, FS-I (Crop+Vegetable) was the most profitable farming system on net return basis (` 147287) and returns per rupee investment i.e. ` 1.63. On per farm basis employment generated in rainfed and irrigated conditions were found maximum in FS-II (197.76 man days) and FS-IV (626.60 man days) in the district, respectively. In irrigated condition the employment generation was more in the district as crop,poultry and orchard activities were included in FS-IV which utilized more of family labour resulted to maximum employment.

Title: How profitable is rice cultivation in hills of North Eastern region of India? A case study of Manipur
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in Senapati Hill district of Manipur to work out the costs and returns in paddy cultivation and to determine the factors affecting the adoption of HYVs of rice. A sample of 60 farmers was randomly drawn from three villages of Kangpokpi block of the selected district. The costs and returns per hectare were calculated based on variable costs and fixed costs, and probit model was applied to determine the factors affecting adoption of HYVs.The state has registered negative annual growth (-0.48%) in the case of the area under rice during 2000-01 to 2011-12. Per hectare cost of cultivation for HYVs (` 51260.92/ha) was calculated to be higher as compared to local paddy (` 47093.22/ha) as the cultivation of HYVs of paddy involved higher amount of fertilizer and labours in weeding, harvesting and threshing activities than local paddy. Farmers who have mass media exposure, who are young and who get desired fertilizer in time have a higher probability of adoption of HYVs of rice. The net returns were negative for both, HYVs of paddy (- ` 629.09/ha) or local paddy (-` 9393.00/ha) which may be the reason for declined in rice area. Cultivation of HYVs of rice is more beneficial compared to local rice. So, the government should take proper initiative for adoption of HYVs of rice to make the state self-sufficient in rice production.

Title: Diagnostic Analysis of Technology Adoption and Factors Influencing Adoption Level of Tribal Farmers of Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
The agricultural technologies developed in the country have generated more income and employment to the cultivators. However, tribal dominated regions of Madhya Pradesh falling under such conditions of agricultural backwardness have not yet been able to benefit from the fruits of technological innovation fully or even partly. Keeping this in view a study on technology adoption and its determinants has been conducted in Santna districts of M.P. Using multistage stratified random sampling techniques total 120 tribal farmers were selected from 10 villages of two block such as majhgawan and shohawal RD block of Stana district of Madya Pradesh. The examination of technology adoption revealed that the area under study was characterized by preponderance of low level of technology adoption and smaller sized farms, the position of which in respect of adoption of new technology was quite disheartening. The increase in the level of adoption was accompanied by increase in the size of holding, use of family workers and maintenance of bullock pairs/ machinery. The increase in investment on fixed capital, particularly farm implements and machinery was associated with increase in the technology adoption. Wheat and Soyabean were the predominant crops of the area under study with the highest percentage of area under HYVs compared to other crops. The intensity of cropping, use of bullock labour and hired human labour were found to increase with the increase in the level of adoption. The scores of social determinant particularly literacy index exhibited positive influence on the level of technology adoption. Similarly, the scores of psychological determinants, viz., attitude towards HYVs, risk orientation and credit orientation were observed to increase with the increase in Further, it was observed that increase in the level of adoption was associated with increase in the level of income from the crops grown on sample farms.
Title: Price formation and supply response of natural rubber
Abstract :

Natural rubber is a major economic plant in the plantation sector in terms of providing income to the growers for a long-time and also it serves as raw materials for various industrial products. Over 20 million families are dependent on rubber cultivation for their livelihood in the world natural rubber market. Natural rubber price is influenced by many factors such as weather, currency exchange rates, oil prices, policy changes in major rubber producing and consuming countries. The specific objective of the study was to identify the factor responsible for price formation and supply response of natural rubber. The result shows that the price formation of natural rubber revealed that the futures price, international price, and synthetic rubber price were statistically significant where as crude oil price and exchange rate were non-significant. From supply response analysis, it was inferred that price was a significant factor explaining output growth. The analysis confirmed that lagged price exerted a positive influence on natural rubber area.

Title: Augmenting seed supply system in groundnut through Community seed bank in Raichur district, Karnataka
Abstract :

Efforts has been made in this paper to examine the impact of community seed bank on production and improving the livelihood of groundnut growers in Raichur district of Karnataka. The primary data was elicited from the members of GSGA established for introducing few interventions in groundnut production. The time series data on area, production and productivity of groundnut for the period from 1970-71 to 2011-12 was analysed. Similarly, the data pertaining to demand for and supply of seeds for the period 2001-02 to 2011-12 was analysed. Considering the actual SRR, there is no much gap between demand for and supply of seeds but the existing cultivars must be replaced with quality seeds of improved varieties for enhancing productivity followed by production. The interventions in terms of quality seed ICGV-00350, seed treatment with Rhizobium and Trichoderma, maintenance of seed purity and buyback arrangement extended to the members of GSGA enhanced the yield and income of groundnut growers. The enrolling of GSGA members to a website helped the groundnut growers in taking right decision on marketing. Some policy implications have been suggested for enhancing the productivity followed by overall production in groundnut.

Title: Economic evaluation of pineapple cultivation in Manipur
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in Thoubal, Bishnupur, Senapati and Churchandpur districts of Manipur. Pineapple cultivation was found to be economically feasible in the state. . In these districts area under pineapple happened to be the major fruit crop having more than 70 per cent of the total pineapple area of the state during 2013-14 (GoM, 2014). The investment in pineapple orchard has been found a profitable business. In overall category, the internal rate of return (IRR) has been found 32.53 and 67.33 per cent during summer and winter season. The net present value, Internal rate of return and Benefit-cost ratio at 8 per cent discount rate have been reported as `24857.80, 32.53 and 1.23, respectively for overall category of orchard during summer season and `10454.44, 67.33 and 1.24, respectively for overall category of orchard during winter season. The economic productive life of pineapple orchard in Manipur has been calculated upto 3 years.

Title: Profitability, Potential and Progress of Organic Onion Production: Evidences from Nalanda District of Bihar
Abstract :

Organic  farming  is  growing at a faster rate. To undertake the challenges of food grain production and food security, conventional agriculture advocates call for the continuing or higher use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides. However, the continuous use and higher reliance on these inputs has led to declining Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and unsustainable agriculture. Organic farming offers a solution for sustainable agricultural as well as the reduction in the cost of production during long run. Growing Per Capita Income and health consciousness has provided a new market for differentiated products viz. organic products. The present study was conducted to examine the economics, progress of adoption of organic onion production and potential of organic onion production in increasing income and employment in comparison to conventional farming. Study is based on 60 organic onion producers and 60 non-organic onion producers from Nalanda District of Bihar. The total cost of cultivation of organic and conventional onion per hectare was worked out to be ` 86868 and ` 83516, respectively. The net income per hectare was ` 175392 and ` 156484 respectively. It was found that organic farmers are earning a gross income of 9.2 percent more compared to the conventional farmers of onion. Organic farming is generally more profitable in terms of gross returns than conventional farming, irrespective of the more cost of cultivation of crop. Area under organic onion production is growing at the rate 10 percent on year to year basis and at a compound growth rate of 10 percent. Findings revealed that organic onion production has potential to increase income by 9 percent and employment by 18 percent.

Title: Effect of Price of Other Seasonal Fruits on Mango Price in Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :

The study analyzed the effect of prices of seasonal fruits available as substitutes of mango in highest producing state of India. Market infrastructures being internal factor, prices of other fruits too affects externally to the major fruit of the state. It depends on the transaction behavior of buyers in the existing market conditions. Lucknow and Varanasi markets in Uttar Pradesh were selected purposively on the basis of maximum arrivals of mango. Monthly time series data for 22 years from 1993-94 to 2014-15 was collected of major arriving fruits from both the selected markets. Data was analysed using Multiple Regression technique for the available dataset. Study revealed that in both markets pomegranate price and sweet orange price found to be significant and affected positively to mango price. But the price of apple in Lucknow market and prices of banana in Varanasi market was found non-significant. It was also confirmed from the correction coefficients of corresponding fruit in a particular market was found to be non significant. Study suggested that efforts should be made to make available theses substitutes in order to check the volatility of mango prices in the market, which will benefit producers and consumers both.

Title: Factors Affecting Repayment Capacity of Borrower Farmers: An Analysis
Abstract :
It is well known that institutional agencies have made significant progress in meeting the credit needs of the farmers. However, non-repayment of bank loans is causing a serious threat to the successful development of banking system. Non-repayment of bank loans not only limits the recycling of the funds but also adversely affects the profitability and viability of banks. The present study is confined to hundred borrowers farmers comprises of 25 each for marginal, small, medium, and large farmers respectively, selected from five villages of the Ravtipur Block of Ghazipur district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The study has measured the influence of different factors responsible for over dues of the borrowers. The results show that different factors like caste, educational status, per capita farm and non-farm income, operational size of holding significantly influence the repayment capacity of the farmers.
Title: Performance of the Public Agricultural Extension System in Disadvantageous Settings: Evidences from Krishi Vigyan Kendras in North Eastern Region of India
Abstract :

Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs), the pivotal component of the Public Agricultural Extension System of the country has so far played a vital role in sustaining the largely agrarian based economy of North Eastern region. The present study aimed at assessing functioning of the North Eastern KVKs measured through individual performance of the Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) working under different KVKs in the region. The sample of the study comprised of 231 SMSs (n=231) from 59 KVKs in the region. A composite job performance index (CJPI) was developed following principal component analysis approach to measure overall job performance of individual SMSs. The findings of the study suggest that there is ample scope of improving job performance of individual SMSs, as a large majority (81.81%) of them had only poor to medium level of performance as indicated by the CJPI scores. Job performance of SMSs was comparatively poorer in areas and activities requiring larger mass participation and production of scientific literatures. A multiple regression analysis revealed that socio-personal characteristics of the SMSs had only little (13%) influence on their job performance; participation in training and workshop contributed high. The supervising institutes of KVKs in partnership mode may undertake special programmes including workshops and trainings in a focused manner, especially in job areas where performance of the SMSs can be improved. It will add to the overall functioning of KVK system in North East region.

Title: Econometric modeling for optimal hedging in commodity futures: An empirical study of soybean trading
Abstract :

The optimal hedge ratio (OHR) is basically based on the coefficient of the regression between the change in the spot prices and the change in price of the hedging instrument. The traditional constant hedge ratio based on the ordinary least square (OLS) technique has been avoided by the researchers being an inappropriate; it ignores the heteroscedasticity which often exists in price series. In other words, the hedge ratios will certainly vary over time as the conditional distribution between cash and futures prices changes. It has been recognized that time varying coefficient (TVC) model outperforms the static coefficient (SC). As an illustration, the future and spot price of Soybean have been considered for the contracts maturing in December, 2011; June, 2012; December, 2013; April, 2013. The hedge ratio has been estimated for all the contracts by using OLS method, GARCH-BEKK, GARCH-VECH and Kalman filter methodology.

Title: Constraint Analysis of Fish Processing in Peri-Urban Areas of National Capital Region
Abstract :

Reducing wastage of produces and increasing income of farmers are two important areas which invited more emphasis by any agrarian economy for its sustainability and development. In the changing scenario of life pattern and food habits people generally prefer, ready to take or ready to cook type of food products like milk, processed vegetables, fish and meat. In order to address these, value addition and processing plays a key role. Fish processing sector in India, especially fresh water aquaculture is an emerging area in this. In this study an attempt was done to know about the various constraints faced by the fish processors and their level of severity. Reliability and validity tested Likert-like scale was used for this purpose. Significant differences of different dimensions of constraints were compared using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA (Chi-Square = 19.450, df = 3, p < 0.05). Each set of constraints contains subcategories and they were tested by using Friedman’s two-way ANOVA. Multiple pair wise comparisons using Nemenyi’s procedure / Two-tailed test was also conducted to place them in homogenous groups. Infrastructure related constraints due to lack cold chain management, storage facility etc. with mean rank 33.80 were identified as the major constraint to existing post-harvest management mechanism in fishery.

Title: Pulses Production in India: Trend and Decomposition Analysis
Abstract :

Pulses is a major source of protein for a huge section of India particularly vegetarian population. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the trend in production of total pulses crop in India for the period 1950-51 to 2014-15, i.e. past six decades in India. The gross area under total pulses in India was in the range of 19-25 million ha per year over these six decades. The average production of total pulses was in the range of 8 million tonnes to 15 million tonnes per annum over the 6 decades. However, the yield of total pulses was increase over the year. The yield of total pulses was 400 kg/ha during 1950’s which increase to above 700 kg/ha during 2014-15. The compound growth rate of yield over six decades was positive and significant while area and production are non-significant. The decomposition analysis shows that increase in production of pulses during the period 1995-2014 was mainly due to yield effect. Since the supply of resources especially land is limited in nature, productivity of pulses should be boosted up by adoption of improved technologies like hybrid pulses cultivation and various technique of production to meet the future increased demand.

Title: Countries Military Expenditures: Definitions and Determinants
Abstract :
Since the beginning of civilization, every country has always been interested to know the defence system of the other countries and are making constant efforts to make a well-built and efficient defence system than the other nations. Thus, the size and the pattern of military expenditure of a country does not depend only on its GDP or financial capability; in addition it depends on various other factors. All these factors may be identified as economic, non-economic, internal, external, political, geographical, geopolitics and geostrategic factors among others. All these factors are playing a vital role in determining the size and the composition of the military expenditure of a country. Military Expenditure is the amount of financial resources allocated by a nation to maintain armed forces and other essential services for defence purpose. Military expenditures are one of the most critically observed components of public expenditure. The standard definitions of military expenditure have been proposed by some international organizations and research institutes that are involved in the study of the defence sector. In this issue, one of the vital problems is how to define military expenditure or which public expenditure should be a part of military expenditure, further what are the main determinants of the military expenditure of a country.
Title: Market Arrival and Price Behaviour of Potato in Agra District of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
Potato is the major vegetable of India. Variation in output of potato over the years leads to wide fluctuation in its price exposing the growers to a high risk situation. To cope with this, information on potential market and quantum of arrivals and prices of potato in different months of year is necessary for farmers. The current study attempted to analyze the variation in arrivals and prices of potato in highest potato producing district of Uttar Pradesh i.e. Agra. Time series data for last 10 years on area and production as well as market arrivals and prices of potato was collected from various government organizations. The findings indicated that the annual growth rates in area and production of potato during last ten years were significant and positive. However in case of productivity, it was insignificant and negative. The annual compound growth rates of arrivals were comparatively higher than that of market price. Interyear variations in market arrivals and prices of potato were observed. The monthly arrival of potato was highest in the month of January and lowest in the month of October. Accordingly, the market price was highest during October-November and lowest in the month of February. The seasonal index of arrival showed that the arrivals were low during June to November and higher during December to May. The results confirmed that there were both negative and positive relationships across months between market arrivals and prices in terms of correlation coefficients.
Title: Agricultural Development in West Bengal: An Inter–temporal Analysis
Abstract :

Indian economy since ancient time’s agriculture has been backbone of occupation for Indian people. Near about 70% of population in India is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood and despite concerted industrialization in the last six decades, agriculture still occupies a place of pride. It contributes a sizable percentage to the domestic product as also to exports. More than two-thirds of the work-force is engaged in agriculture and large many depend upon it being engaged in trade in agricultural products, agro-based industries etc. Being the largest industry in the country, agriculture provides employment to around 60% of the total work-force in the country. The present paper deals with inter-district disparities in rural agricultural sector in West Bengal and its impact on agricultural development through a (cross- sectional study) inter-temporal analysis of 18 districts. Cluster of districts of rural economic have been prepared for selected 10 indicators, in the period of time 1990-91, 2000-01 and 2010-11. The analysis reveals that extreme disparities continue to persist with respect to the availability of economic indicators in rural areas at the district level. The pattern of districts in terms of development of rural infrastructure has also remained broadly unchanged. West Bengal agriculture should promote diversified and export oriented agriculture. Particular attention needs to be paid to the backward districts for more balanced regional development. This calls for increased investment in rural infrastructure by both the public and private sectors.

Title: Forecasting of Pearl millet productivity in Gujarat under time series framework
Abstract :

Pearl millet (Pennisetumglaucum) is one of the most extensively cultivated cereals in the world, ranking fourth after rice, wheat and sorghum. In Gujarat, for last 20 years, it has been noticed that the area under pearl millet production has been decreased gradually although productivity increase. The importance of pearl millet productivity forecasting is more relevant in semi-arid state like Gujarat where the precipitation is confirmed to short period of four months. In this paper, we have applied ARIMA model for forecasting of productivity of pearl millet of Gujarat. In the present study, time series data of pearl millet productivity (Kg./ha)of Gujarat for 52 years from 1960-61 to 2011-12 were collected from Directorate of Agriculture, Gandhinagar, Gujarat and partially from Directorate of Economics and Statistics. The ARIMA model is validated on the basis of relative mean absolute prediction error (RMAPE), Mean absolute deviation (MAD) and root mean square error(RMSE) values. It may be noted that ARIMA (0, 1, 1) model performs quite satisfactorily as the RMAPE value is less than 6 percent.

Title: Input use Pattern in different Soybean Based Cropping System in Karnataka
Abstract :

The research study was conducted in Bidar and Kalaburagi Districts of Karnataka to assess the input use pattern in soybean based cropping systems. A sample size of 160 farmers was selected using multistage random sampling method. Field level data were elicited for the Agricultural year 2013-14 through personal interview method. The data collected were using tabular analysis. The major soybean based cropping systems followed were soybean + redgram, soybean + jowar, soybean +bajra and soybean sole crop in the study area. The input utilization pattern under soybean based cropping systems was more or less equal to the recommended level. The fertilizer utilized was more in cropping system-II. Whereas, it was bullock labour which was found to be highest in CS-III followed by cropping system-II. The machine labour in cropping system-IV was found to be highest. In all the cropping systems it was observed that the utilization of human labour was more when compared to bullock labour and machine labour.

Title: Performance of Self-help Groups in Micro Finance
Abstract :

Self-Help Groups (SHGs) emerge as an important strategy for empowering women and to alleviate poverty. India’s SHG movement has emerged as the world’s largest and most successful network. The main objective of this paper is to assess the study is conducted by using multi-stage random sampling method to collect primary data from the Akola District. The study revealed that Self-help group has earning on an average ` 14528/year to each member through dairy enterprise and ` 19600 thorough goats rearing. The study also concluded that on the extent of various levels of empowerment achieved by the members through their participation in SHGs. Personal, social, economic and financial empowerment were attempted which was possible due to microfinance.

Title: Effect of inputs integration on yield, uptake and economics of Kodo Millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.)
Abstract :

Kodo millet provides staple food with cheap protein, minerals and vitamins to poor, marginal, tribal and backward people of Madhya Pradesh. This crop is responsive to the adverse climatic and poor soil conditions. The present investigation was carried out to improve kodo yield through different inputs and their integration to reduce the input cost. Due to very poor soil nature, a single source of any input was not found encouraging. Inorganic fertilizers (T2-100% NPK) gave promise grain yield (1435 kg/ha) over control (620 kg/ha) but it is realized that they are beyond the purchasing power of these resource poor farmers. Azotobacter + PSB (T4) was better in grain yield (695 kg/ha) as compared to Azospirillum +PSB (T7-665 kg/ha). While FYM alone (T12) gave grain yield 815 kg/ha. Integration of all the inputs 50% NP +100% K+ Azotobacter + PSB+ FYM proved best and increased the kodo yield (T10-1585 kg/ha) significantly. All treated plots had higher indices of profitability than control. The profitability was maximum 1.90 under T10 (50%NP +100% K+ Azotobacter + PSB+ FYM).

Title: Women Participation in Panchayat Raj in West Bengal: An Appraisal
Abstract :
In Indian democracy there is a need to have a federation with substantial degree of decentralization of powers, functions and finances to the local units of governance. Article 40 of the Indian constitution directed the states to “take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them function as of self government.” There seems to have remained a perceptible reluctance on part of the state governments to set up panchayats on regular basis,
give them legitimacy and due power. The credit goes to 73rd Constitution Amendment Act in 1992 as Panchayati Raj Act, which not only provided autonomy to the grassroots but it also provided reservation of one-third of seats for women in every s for women in Panchayati Raj Institutions. Though the debate for women’s reservation in parliament still continues, a major milestone was achieved in 1992 when parliament passed the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Bill, which sought to bring about and institutional
change that mandated reserving 33 per cent of seat. The women representation has been very encouraging in states like West Bengal, Haryana, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
Title: Country of Origin Labelling: A Consumer Preference Analysis for Ethnic Greens and Herbs in the East Coast USA
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to predict the willingness to buy (WTB) Country of Origin Labelling (COOL) ethnic greens and herbs in the east-coast region of U.S. The estimated logit model results indicate that, the sample respondents are more likely to buy COOL if they consider food safety, and products sold in packages instead of loose. Sample respondents who consume ethnic greens and herbs for health motives have a higher probability of buying COOL ethnic produce. Reading food label and frequency of purchase have a significant positive effect to buy COOL ethnic greens and herbs. Moreover, the distance to closest ethnic store and price have a negative effect on consumers’ WTB ethnic greens and herbs with COOL. Income still plays an important role to buy COOL ethnic greens and herbs. Compared with other respondents, those who earn annual household income from $40,000 to $59,999 are less likely to buy COOL ethnic greens and herbs. Respondents aged 21 to 50 have a higher likelihood of buying COOL ethnic greens and herbs compared with a cohort older than 65. Based on the results in this study, producers can have a pricing strategy to set an appropriate price. Although there are important variables which may be beneficial in targeting ethnic consumers and executing marketing strategies, further research is needed to explore why these variables have varying effects on influencing ethnic consumers’ attitudes towards WTB ethnic greens and herbs.

Title: Military Expenditure and Economic Growth Nexus in the Postreform Era of India
Abstract :
The effect of military expenditure on the economy is a controversial area of research among economists. Particularly, in the last four decades, there has been a growing interest in the role of military spending in developing countries. The issue that has received the most attention has been whether military expenditure helps or hinders economic growth. A possible beneficial effect of defense expenditure lies in its role in creating effective demand when there is slack in the economy. Within the Keynesian framework of macroeconomic analysis, government expenditure on goods and services including defense is an important force in the determination of output and employment. On the other hand, military spending cannot contribute to a nation’s ability to produce more economic goods and services in the
future. More public expenditure in the military sector leads to crowding out of private investment and less investment on public goods like health, education, infrastructure and research and development. Under these circumstances this paper tries to reinvestigate this relationship in India specially in the post reform era. This study finds defense spending is not significantly helping economic growth of India within the time horizon of the study. On the other hand, capital formation is playing a significant role
for economic growth of India.
Title: Analysis of the Effects of Microfinance Banks Loans on the Livelihood of Small-Holder Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria
Abstract :

The paper assessed farmer’s perception of the effects of microfinance banks loans on their livelihood using both primary and secondary data. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in drawing a sample size of 750 respondent farmers and 15 microfinance banks. Data were analyzed using tables, frequencies, percentages, means, financial ratio and chi-square. The results show that microfinance banks have distributed different sizes of loans to farmers irrespective of their socio-economic characteristics and those farmers’ beneficiaries have been positively influenced by microfinance banks loans thereby improving their living standards. The repayment rate of 79% was relatively good. The major problem of loan administration includes high interest rate, collateral requirement, difficulty in accessing credit, distance, transportation cost and late granting of loans among others. For optimum benefit it is suggested that micro-finance banks should work with other integrated rural development agencies that are geared towards improving the wellbeing of the rural small-holder farmers.

Title: Effect of Endowments on Gender Wage Differentials: A Decomposition Analysis for Indian Labour Market
Abstract :
The earning function clearly supports the existing evidence of the significant positive coefficients for education and the marginal wage effects are increasing with the level of education for both the genders. There are clear evidence of caste bias for males, location and regional bias for both the genders in earning. Our decomposition results show that endowment component which shows the existence of pre-market discrimination is smaller than the discrimination component. Discrimination explains 66.1 per cent of the lower wages of female individuals when compared to males. Discrimination component is the highest for the production workers (81.3 per cent) followed by professionals (77.6 per cent), agriculture/allied workers (77.4 per cent), clerical workers (65.9 per cent) and is least for sales/services workers (61.4 per cent). Gender wage discrimination is very high for the urban areas (86.3 per cent) than the rural settings (71.3 per cent). Large discrimination differences are a matter of concern for thepolicy makers. JEL Classifications: I21, J30, J31.
Title: Changing Pattern in India’s Agricultural Exports under WTO
Abstract :
Agriculture came under the WTO regime in 1995 when Agreement on Agriculture was negotiated. In India, agriculture accounts for about 12% of total exports earnings which implies that uncertainty in the world agriculture market will have a great impact on the whole economy. Several studies have compared the trend of India’s agricultural export in the pre and post WTO period but this paper goes a step ahead and apart from comparing the trend, it also brings the commodity wise analysis of agricultural trade in order to have an idea of the changing pattern of trade and most importantly the paper measures the convergence or divergence of agricultural exports over the years through Simpson Index. The study found that in pre WTO period, an attempt was made to achieve specialisation in agricultural exports whereas no such attempt was made in post WTO period. The study concludes that WTO has mixed impact on India’s agricultural exports. It has helped India to improve its position in global agricultural exports but it did not allow her to gain expertise in the exports of agricultural products and specialise in the commodity of its comparative advantage.
Title: Baseline assessment of special education schools in public sector, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan
Abstract :

Education is a basic human right. Children with disabilities (CWDs) need the most and get the least of Education.Quality data about the special education facilities in developing countries like Pakistan can guide reforms.This study undertook the task to evaluate the situation of special needs education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). This study will serve as a bench mark for future actions.A Questionnaire based survey was conducted across the public sector special education schools in KP between August and October 2013. Data was analyzed with SPSS V.16.0. The questionnaire includedsections about infrastructure, number of students,

co-curricular activities and provision of personal assistive devices.Out of 28 responding schools, 2 (7%) are metric, 5 (18 %) are middle and 21 (75%) are primary level. Out of 27, Schools for hearing impaired were 10 (37%), MR & PH are 6 (22%), for visually impaired are 7 (26%) and special education complexes for cross disabilities are 4 (15%). Parent teachers association (PTA) is part of 80% schools.19(70%) schools are in rented buildings. 9 (36 %) have hostels while average distance of schools (all situated in Urban areas) from main bus stand is 4.16 Kilometers. 12 (46%) schools (n=26) participate in sports with 12 schools (57%: n=21) have a play ground.3 (27 %, n=11) institutions have audiologist, 4 (40%) schools having physiotherapist(s) and only 3 (11%) schools are having psychologist(s) at service where needed.No eye care exists at Blind schools (n=7) or complexes (n=4). Majority of Hearing aidsare self-purchased and most of tricycles are provided by government.Situation of special education in KP is worrisome. Deficient and inaccessible infrastructure is catering negligible number of potential beneficiaries/ children with disabilities. Previous polices and National Action Plans special education isshelved awaiting implementation.
Title: An Analysis on Problems of Vegetables Marketing in Farmers’ Market of Jharkhand: A Case Study in Ranchi District
Abstract :

The green revolution is one of the greatest successes that the country has observed and resultantly achieved self-sufficiency and a good degree of stability in food grain production. However, the country still faces the challenges of comprehensive food security and malnutrition, Thus, vegetables will play an important role by contributing adequate vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals, fibres etc. but it is a known fact that horticulture sector in India is constrained by low crop productivity, limited irrigation facilities and underdeveloped infrastructure support like cold storages, markets, roads, transportation facilities etc. There are heavy post-harvest and handling losses, resulting in low productivity per unit area and the high cost of production. Analysis shows, there is an inverse relation between the farm size of the respondents and their overall problems of marketing vegetables in farmers’ market. It could be noted that higher their farm size, lower their overall problems of marketing vegetables in farmers’ market and the vice versa. It is noted that there is an inverse relationship between the caste status of the respondents and their overall problems of marketing vegetables in farmers’ market.

Title: Identification of Research & Development Prospects in Small-Scale Food Processing Industries
Abstract :

The core objective of this research article is to investigate the different areas of R&D anticipated significant by the entrepreneurs associated with small scale food processing units particularly in terms of their prospect and start-ups motivator of small food processing business in Haryana. The added advantage of Haryana is its close vicinity to National Capital region, state applying contineous efforts to explore the benefit of this sector. Ministry of Food processing Industries visioned various policies and acting as driving force to bring R&D’s benefit for food processing sector but, small scale units probing their turn. The study present was conducted on 160 entrepreneurs engaged in food processing industries in Karnal, Sonipat, and Gurugram and Yamunanagar districts of Haryana state to understand their anticipation towards R&D sector and revealed various aspects which could benefit the small sector. Survey was done with the help of interview schedule. Aquaintness to R&D and availability of institute’s anticiapated most prosperous for food processing with weighted mean score of 2.10 and 2.02 respectively. Economic utilization of biomass, waste utilization and quality testing were other areas of prospects. Socio-economic characterstics of entrepreneurs was also studied. Along with, about one third of entrepreneurs felt that self motivation was one of the important reasons for them to enter into food processing business.

Title: Hayride Participation in the Mid-Atlantic States: A Logistic Approach
Abstract :
The primary objective of this study was to develop and econometric model to identify a prospective participant who is likely to participate in the hayride agritourism activity. An Internet survey was conducted in the mid-Atlantic United States to collect information from those who participated in direct marketing, visits to agritourism operations and farm events. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics on the likelihood of participants to engage in a hayride event during an agritourism visit. A total of 1,134 respondents from New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania completed the survey. A logit model developed to predict demographic characteristics of participants who are likely to participate in the hayride agritourism activity. Approximately 67% of respondents participated in hayrides during agritourism visits, and based on model results, respondents were more likely to participate if they lived in suburban areas, were male, between age 21 and 50, had a two-year college degree, and had an annual household income between $40,000 and $59,999. However, those who lived in urban areas, have lived at their current residence for more than 20 years, were under age 20, and who have a graduate degree were less likely to participate in a hayride agritourism activity. Hence, famers may be able to target these subgroups of general population to improve participation in hayride agritourism activity at their farm.
Title: Review on Decision-making under Risk and Uncertainty in Agriculture
Abstract :

One of the most celebrated and feared concepts in the world today are risk which is the product of uncertainty. Many studies said, risk and uncertainty are often used interchangeably as they are the same thing, but it is not true. While risk can be measured and estimated but uncertainty cannot. Uncertainty regarding complete unawareness of the future and there is no amount of technical adjustment or mathematically delicacy that can change our basic ignorance of the future. However, risk and uncertainty cannot be separated because where there is uncertainty, there is risk. The probability of risk can be measured precisely, while that of the uncertainty can only be measured through the subjective likelihood depending on the marginal utility of an individual. Probably, no single model is the best at farm level, but the use of, MOTAD with compromise programming, marginal utility of money and Linear programming (LP) technique seems to offer a more powerful analytical instrument for agricultural systems modeling with respect to risk, uncertainty and decision-making, respectively.

Title: Trade liberalisation and domestic reforms in Indian oilseeds sector
Abstract :

Present study has tried to capture the changes took place in oilseed economy of the country during pre- (1970-71 to 1994-95) and post-WTO (1995-96 to 2012-13) periods. The expansion of acreage under oilseeds ( from 16.6 in 1970-71 to 26.7 Mha in 2012-13), coupled with yield improvement from 519 to 1164 kg/ha, resulted in increased production by more than three and half times from 8.6 to 31.1 Mt in respective periods. The share of area and production of different oilseeds have changed in study period. The groundnut and other oilseeds viz.; safflower, sesamum, niger, castor, and linseed were the major oilseed crops in 1970’s, have been displaced by soyabean and rapeseed & mustard in the recent period. TMOP in 1986 results in higher growth in area and production in pre-WTO than that of post-WTO period in all the oilseeds. Higher instability in production than area and yield was observed in all the oilseeds, except sunflower because more than 70 per cent of oilseeds in the country are grown under rain fed and resource-poor situations. In case of edible oils, production, availability and per capita consumption increased in study period. But the consumption pattern has drastically changed from domestically produced groundnut, rapeseed & mustard oils in pre-WTO period to mostly imported palm, sunflower and soya oils in post-WTO period. India attained almost self sufficiency in edible oils during early 90’s, but import dependence has increased then after which may further like to increase in future. Hence study suggests the need of policy reforms for development of oilseeds sector and to became self-sufficient in edible oils.

Title: Effect of Inorganic and Organic Sources of Nutrients on Physico-chemical Composition of Mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Amrapali
Abstract :

A field investigation was conducted to study the Effect of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients on physico-chemical composition of mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Amrapali under high density orchard at Horticulture Complex, Maharajpur, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. A total of twenty four treatment combinations of inorganic and organic sources on nutrient were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The fruit weight (177.5 g), length (9.67 cm) and width (7.68 cm) was recorded with the application of 125% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer and the higher TSS (22.600B), total sugar (18.87%), non-reducing sugar (13.94%), reducing sugar (4.94%), ascorbic acid (60.08mg 100g pulp-1) and TSS: Acid ratio (66.86) was recorded with recommended dose of chemical fertilizer applied in combination of Vermicompost (25 kg plant-1) + Oil cake (2.5 kg plant-1) + Azotobacter + VAM + Trichoderma viridi + PSB (100g plant-1 of each inoculants).

Title: Cotton Price Forecasting in Major Producing States
Abstract :

India is the largest cotton producing and second largest cotton exporting country. India accounting about 26% of the world cotton production. It has the distinction of having the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world with about 11-12 million hectares and constituting about 40% of the world area under cotton cultivation. Cotton is a global crop with high price fluctuation, which depends on the global business cycles. It is a mostly used as raw material for apparel and cloth industry. In addition to production risk cotton farmers encounter high price risk. Thus, it is important to forecast the cotton prices for the benefit of farmers as well as millers who purchase the cotton. The present study is aimed to forecast the prices of cotton of major producing states of India. The time series data on monthly price of cotton required for the study was collected from the AGMARKNET website from January, 2006 to December, 2016 to forecast prices for kharif 2017-18 year harvest months. ARIMA model was employed to predict the future prices of cotton. Model parameters were estimated using the R programming software. The performance of fitted model was examined by computing various measures of goodness of fit viz., AIC, SBC and MAPE. In Kharif season the cotton crop is harvested during December to January. Forecast shows that market prices of cotton, would be ruling in the range of ` 4,600 – 4,900 per quintal (medium staple cotton) in kharif harvesting season, 2017-18.

Title: Market Integration and Price Transmission in Major Onion Markets of India
Abstract :

Market integration and prices in horticultural crops such as onion play an important role in determining the production decisions of the farmers and diversification to high value crops. In this context, the study explores market integration and price transmission in selected onion markets using Johansen cointegration, Granger causality and impulse response function. The outcomes of the study strongly buttressed to the co-integration and interdependence of onion markets in India. The impulse response function supported that except Mumbai and Kozhikode, all other selected markets are responded well to standard deviation shock given to any of the markets. One of the possible reasons might be that Mumbai is the largest supplier of onion and Kozhikode is geographically dispersed and is a sea port, where foreign produce may be arriving in a larger quantity. The overall regional markets of onion are strongly cointegrated that allows the private traders and restricts the role of government intervention.

Title: Impact of Climate Change on Pigeon Pea
Abstract :

Climate change and global warming poses threat to the living beings. The developing countries like India, are facing the problem of producing sufficient food for the ever increasing population. Apart from cereals, pulses are the main constituent of the Indian food platter. The present study was undertaken to find out the impact of change in climatic variables, viz. temperature and rainfall on yield of Pigeon Pea by using district-level panel data for Gujarat from 1980-2011. An increase in temperature was found to have a negative impact on the yield of crop whereas rainfall had a favourable impact.

Title: An empirical analysis on resource use efficiency and constraints in adoption of precision farming in banana in Theni district, Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Banana is the second most important fruit crop in India, and India ranks first in banana production in the world. Tamil Nadu leads in both area and production of banana in India. Precision farming technique is getting wide acceptance in banana cultivation owing to its higher yield and profitability. This paper attempts to study resource use efficiency of different farm inputs used in precision farming and conventional farming as well as constraints in adoption of precision farming in banana. It was found in the result that regression coefficients for human labour, tissue culture (TC) plants/suckers, manures and fertilizers, and plant protection chemicals in precision farming as well as in conventional farming were positive and significant. Thus, On the basis of above, it is concluded that input use could be increased in order to get maximum return in both the cases. Percentage increase in return was found to be comparatively higher in precision farming for percentage increase in human labour and plant protection chemicals. The results also revealed that the problems in power supply, lack of marketing facilities were major infrastructural constraints. The high cost of drip and fertigation system, high input cost and price instability were the major economic constraints. The lack of technical expertise and resource persons were the extension constraints in adoption of precision farming. Improper price policies and lack of support from agriculture department were the major administrative constraints. Policy measures are required to overcome these constraints.

Title: An Economics Analysis of Production and Marketing of Groundnut in Porbandar District of Gujarat
Abstract :
The study was conducted in Porbandar districts of Gujarat. The objective of study also examines trends, costs and returns structure, resource use efficiency in Porbandar district of Gujarat. The study was based on the primary data of 45 groundnut cultivators for the year 2014-15 The secondary data on area, production and productivity for period 1991-92 to 2013-14. The functional analysis was also carried out by using Cobb-Douglas type of production function. Further the study revealed that area, production and
productivity in case of kharif groundnut decline. The per hectare cost of cultivation for kharif groundnut was ` 50,434.33. Total benefit cost ratio of kharif groundnut was 1.12. The results of production function analysis indicated that the selected seven variables jointly explained 0.78% variation in production under kharif groundnut. The human labour(X1), manures(X4) and phosphorus (X6) fertilizer in kharif groundnut are significant variables. This indicates that there is scope to increase the use of these resources to increase the production. The results of resource use efficiencies indicated that the MVPs of human labour, manures and phosphorus in kharif  roundnut were more than unity. It indicates that, there is scope to increase
input level of these resource variables to maximize the output. Per quintal marketing cost of groundnut was ` 389.22 and the major items marketing cost of packaging charges and transport charges. The study revealed that the farmers were not fully aware of some of the components of groundnut production improved technology. To increase their yield levels, there is a need to increase adoption of recommended technologies like use of HYV and hybrid varieties, fertilizers, plant protection and other technologies
given by the Universities for increasing the groundnut productivity. There was a scope for extension agencies to educate the farmers for adopting recommended technologies.
Title: Improvement in productivities and profitability in high density orchard of mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Amrapali through integrated nutrient
Abstract :

A field investigation was conducted to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on productivity and profitability in high density orchard of mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Amrapali through integrated nutrient at Horticulture Complex, Maharajpur, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. A total of twenty four treatment combinations of inorganic and organic sources on nutrient were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results of study revealed that higher level of nutrient either in the form of chemical fertilizer or organic sources enhanced the plant growth. Application 520: 160: 450 NPK g plant-1 alongwith vermicompost (25 kg) + Oil cake (2.5 kg) + Azotobacter + VAM + TV + PSB (100g each) registered maximum crown height (78.3cm), crown length (197.4cm), crown width E-W (248.4cm), crown width N-S ( 251.7cm), shoot length (16.1cm), number of panicle (40.0) and length of panicle (39.7cm). Whereas, higher fruit set pea stage (24.7), fruit retention (17.8%), number of fruit plant-1 (75.5), gross return (` 4.14 plant-1) with B: C ratio (1.94) was noted when plant nourished with 100% RDF of chemical fertilizer (415: 130: 360 NPK g plant-1) incombination with organic sources of nutrient viz. vermicompost (25 kg) + Oil cake (2.5 kg) + Azotobacter + VAM + TV + PSB (100g each).

Title: Is MGNREGA a myth for Arunachal Pradesh? Field Evidence
Abstract :
A study on the impact of MGNREGA in the north-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh was conducted during October, 2014 to March, 2015. The focus was on assessment of the performance of the scheme in terms of job creation, efficiency in creation of durable social assets vis-a-vis work completion rate; efficiency in fund utilization to examine as to which extent this massive flagship programme could attain its promised deliverables during the periods in between 2008-09 to 2013-14. Though an impressive quantum of 240.21 lakh person days could be generated in the state and 10.26 lakh job cards were distributed during the entire span of study period. The work completion rate in the state was found to be very low i.e. 8.05%
as large volume of funds remained being unspent. So the implementing authority in the state, perhaps, cannot avoid the blame for its apathy and non-responsiveness towards its poor people. The revelations made through the study had altogether put a serious question mark on the performance of MGNREGA in the state of Arunachal Pradesh as it grossly failed to guarantee 100 days jobs to the poor people as per promise.
Title: Ease of Doing Business in India: A Vision of Make in India
Abstract :
India has always been viewed as an economic power house and now it is among the top five fastest improving economies in the world which clearly is the result of various reforms launched under the Make in India campaign. There has been a paradigm shift in the approach towards governance as the government has unveiled multitude of reforms aimed towards improving the business climate in India. In the recent Ease of Doing business ranking released by the Worldank India is at 100th spot which indicates that all the efforts made to make India a manufacturing hub is bearing fruits still there are few challenges which needs to be dealt in order to help India to continue its glorious run. The present paper tries to analyze the indicators of ease of doing business ranking and the major improvements done to make them of international level, it also tries to thrive on the key issues which dampens the trust of investors, various suggestions are offered which when implemented will be helpful in rebuilding the confidence of investors to invest in India and make it a preferred business destination. Overall, the study indicates that Make in India campaign will be able to achieve its objective of transforming India into a manufacturing hub.
Title: Sustainable Groundwater Management through Energy Pricing: Evidences from North Gujarat Region of Gujarat, India
Abstract :

Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater and it is projected that by 2030, there will be overall gap of 40% between water supply and demand. The irrigation wells are energised by the electric as well as diesel operated pumps. In India, total electricity consumption to farm sector was 159144 Gwh during 2013-14, which account for about 18.03% of the total electricity consumption in the country and it is growing with a compound growth rate of 6.50% per annum during 2005-06 to 2013-14. Due to unsustainable use of groundwater for irrigated crop production leads many negative consequences including groundwater depletion. Overall objective of the present study was to assess the impact of energy pricing on sustainable use of groundwater without negative impact on farm level farmers’ income. The study was conducted in north Gujarat region of Gujarat State. The study suggests that the under the flat rate electricity pricing regime, farmers were getting lower net economic water productivity i.e. ` 4.15 m3 as compared to unit pricing of electricity (` 9.06/m3) at farm level. Therefore, government should make possible arrangement to charge electricity tariff on the basis of actual energy consumption at farm sector in water scare regions of the country to sustainable and efficient use of groundwater for irrigation.

Title: Area, Production, Yield Trends and Pattern of Oilseeds Growth in India
Abstract :
India is the fourth largest producer of oilseeds accounting for about 19% of the global area, 2.7% of global production in the world. The oilseeds crops have registered the significant growth in area and production in last 30 years. However, compare to cereals like paddy and wheat, the growth rate of area
and production of oilseeds is insignificant and there exists wide variability in their yield in different states of the country. The study has explored the growth performance, and dynamics of major oilseeds in different states of the country. Oilseeds exhibited a dismal picture in their production performance both spatially and temporally.
Title: Harnessing India’s Demographic Dividend through Skilling: Challenges and Way Forward
Abstract :
The ‘demographic dividend’ provides India with strong advantages for achieving high rates of growth powered by an enlarging working age population. This represents a huge opportunity for the country to increase productivity by investing in the skills of the working age population. A vast majority of who have limited access to education and training; are either inactive or engaged in low-skilled work in the informal economy. India’s demography therefore, presents a potential danger also; if the labour market is not made more inclusive through a balanced approach to human capital development, the consequences of demographic failure could be grave. To capitalize on the demographic bulge, the Government has undertaken a number of policy initiatives, programmatic and systemic interventions. Efforts are being made to equip youth with the skills required by today’s industries and address the demand & supply gaps, but this is turning out to be a daunting task. In this context, the present article analyses the current state of education, skills development and employment for Indian youth and discusses some major challenges India faces while implementing different initiatives and strategies for developing a robust skilling ecosystem. The article also highlights certain emerging issues which merit immediate policy
attention if skill development is to be a means for achieving inclusive development.
Title: A Statistical Study on Educational Development Index for Literacy Parameters of India
Abstract :
India faces the big problem of unemployment, improper trainer and worker, underemployment and unequal distribution of wealth today. These entire problems occur because of low literacy and illiteracy in India. Education is important factor in social economic development to maintain the economic inequality and low income disparity. Effort has been made in this paper to consider six literacy parameters i.e., castewise (General, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe) male and female and analyzed literacy variations among different location, region, sex and castes. Educational Development Index (EDI) has been compared using statistical techniques viz. principle component analysis, composite variable rank and growth index.
Title: Dynamics of Production and Export in Transformation of Tea Plantation Sector in India
Abstract :

The study was based on secondary published data with effect from 1971 to 2011 with an objective to examine the trends of production and export of tea and growth in India. It was observed that tea sector plays an important role contributing more than 200 crores to the GNP of the country. The major three producing regions are Darjeeling, Assam and Nilgiri. In the recent years, the sector has witnessed a stiff competition in the international export market affecting domestic production. It was observed that China produces 39.00% of world tea followed by India sharing 24.55% with an annual change of 2.87% during 1971-81 to 3.06% during 2001-11. Production of tea in the country was mainly due to increase of area and productivity. Replanted and replacement area could not influence the production of tea significantly. Number of tea estates was found to increase in between 1991-01 at the rate of 74.09% due to inclusion of small tea gardens and it declined from 5.29% to 3.64% during 1961 to 2011. Productivity change was higher in Assam, Tripura, Tamil Nadu and Kerala with high production change during the decades. The area growth during the decades was low. Production share of tea grades like CTC, Darjeeling and Green tea declined over years while share of Orthodox tea increased over years. The country witnessed high annual change of area of tea bushes under the age group of 5 to 10 years followed by below 5 years due to more area put under the small tea estates in the recent years. The export of tea bags as value added tea grew faster from 1971-72 to 2011-12 in terms of quantity and value followed by packet tea. Auction sale in the country declined. Employment generated per estate varied from 191 in Karnataka to 1011 in West Bengal in 2011. The emerging small tea sector has contributed from 5% in early 90’s to 31% during current year and is expected to touch 50% within next few years. It can be concluded that area could influence the production and it needs to be increased under replanting and replacement planting. Steps should also be taken to increase the export of value added tea in the country. The small tea sector should be organised and regulated to make it more productive.

Title: Agripreneurial Attitude among the Farmers of National Capital Region of Delhi
Abstract :

Agriculture is still the mainstay of livelihood for millions of farmers in India. However, farmers are getting disenchantment with the agriculture due to climatic and production risks and more importantly due to the poor returns and high cost of cultivation. As entrepreneurship has assumed greater significance in economic development across the world, it is essential to set an entrepreneurial culture in farming and the farmers need to be motivated to shift from subsistence cultivation to commercial cultivation. Various agripreneurs in the country have proved that agriculture can be economically viable if various agricultural enterprises are followed up with post-harvest processing, value addition and marketing. However, favorable attitudinal orientation is an important prerequisite before taking up agripreneurial venture. Hence, understanding agripreneurial attitude has been a subject of interest for many researchers as agripreneurs exhibit varied types of characteristics that constitute agripreneurial attitude. The study was conducted in selected villages of National Capital Region of Delhi. Total 110 farmers, consisting of eighty agripreneurs selected purposively based on predetermined criteria (e.g. self-starter of agribusiness, extent of commercialization, recognition and awards secured, adoption of innovation in production system), and 30 non-agripreneurs selected randomly comprised the sample size of the study. The agripreneurial attitude was measured using the modified version of the entrepreneurial attitude scale of Robinson et al. (1991). About 53 and 22% of agri-preneurs were found to possess high and very high level of agripreneurial attitude respectively. Mann Whitney U-test revealed that agripreneurs and non-agripreneurs differed highly significantly (P<0.01) with respect to all the four variables namely achievement motivation, innovativeness, personal control and self-esteem.

Title: Change in Land Use and Cropping Pattern in Assam: An Economic Analysis
Abstract :

The economy of Assam is predominantly agrarian in nature having 28.11 lakh hectares of net cultivated area. In the study, Location coefficient (L), Simpson Diversity Index and CGR were used as analytical tools. In the state, net area sown, total cropped area and area sown more than once had increased. On the other hand, significant negative growth was recorded for forest area, barren and unculturable land, permanent pastures and other grazing land, land under miscellaneous trees, groves and fellow land. Higher concentrations of forest area, area sown more than once and lands put to non-agricultural purposes were reported in the state. Rice is the major crop in Assam accounting 60.87 per cent of the total cropped area during 2015-16. North Bank Plain Zone, Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone and Hill Zone were reported to have higher crop diversification whereas, Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone, Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone and Barak Valley Zone showed lower crop diversification.

Title: A Comparative Analysis of DSR Technology Vs. Transplanted Method in Haryana
Abstract :

The present study was conducted during 2015-16 in two districts namely, Kaithal and Karnal in Haryana with the objective to analyse the economic impact of direct-seeded rice (DSR) technology over the traditional method of sowing in rice. The study was conducted with the help of a questionnaire, interviewed over 240 farmers (120 farmers per district). The cost of preparatory tillage was reduced by 57.45 percent in direct seeded rice over traditional method of sowing. The various costs like pre-sowing irrigation, sowing, fertilizer cost, fertilizer application, irrigation, plant protection, miscellaneous, total working capital and total cost were reduced by 22.71, 158.64, 15.87, 7.38, 64.47, 4.84, 8.59, 25.08 and 11.27 per cent in direct seeded rice over traditional method of sowing, respectively. However, DSR technology resulted in a reduction in yield by 9.40 per cent per hectare (38.3 q/ha) as compared to transplanted rice (41.9 q/ha). In DSR technology, the cost of seed and weed management were increased by 89.48 and 95.83 percent, respectively, as compared to traditional method of sowing. A net return of ` 87.28 per hectare was estimated in transplanted rice. A net return of ` 1803.27 per hectare was estimated in DSR. The cost of production per quintal of paddy was found ` 2557.45 and ` 2515.38 in transplanted and DSR technology, respectively. The BC ratio in DSR was 1.02. The benefit-cost ratio of TPR was 1.00, resulting in no profit any loss.

Title: Production and Productivity of Pulses in India: Role of Combined Quality Inputs Usage
Abstract :

Pulses are the predominant and cheaper source of protein to the majority of people in India especially who are poor and unable to access high priced animal protein. Though our country is the largest producer and importer of pulses, the economy has failed to meet the rising domestic demand recently. Price of pulses has increased enormously in recent years and it has become beyond the reach of the poor. In this context interest grows to explore the supply side of pulses in India after economic reforms. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the changing pattern of production and yield of pulses across Indian states. Contributions of different states to the production of different types of pulses are examined. Eventually factors affecting pulse production in India and their relative roles are examined. Composite quality Input Index (CII), net availability of under-ground water, and proportion of indebted farmers are some of the factors that significantly affect per hectare pulse production in India.

Title: Present Scenario of Agricultural Sector of Manipur
Abstract :
The present study based on secondary data reveals that the net sown area, gross cropped area and cropping intensity have increased over the period of T.E. 1986-87 to T.E. 2012-13, despite of deceleration in gross irrigated area. Land holding pattern have remained more or less unchanged over the entire period and characterised by the domination of marginal and small farmers. Food grains continue to dominate the cropping pattern, but its share has declined by 15.56% and the high valued fruits, vegetables and spices
have consolidated position by increasing share to the tune of 14.78% of the gross cropped area. Per ha Consumption of nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers has reduced and the use of potassic fertilizers has been more than doubled during this period. All the major crops have registered significantly positive growth rates with varying magnitudes in area,
production and productivity, but associated with moderate to high instability. Area effect is the primary source of output growth for food grains crops and total vegetables except rice whereas yield is the major contributor to the production increase of total fruits and total spices. Development of region specific crop varieties and production techniques and extensive training programmes along with improvement in irrigation, communication and marketing facilities are urgently needed to accelerate the growth with more stability in agricultural sector of the state.
Title: Economic Evaluation of Farming Systems for Agricultural Production in Southern Rajasthan
Abstract :

The present investigation was under taken to work out internal cost adjustments in existing farming systems of Southern Rajasthan. A total sample of 120 households consisting of 60 under rainfed and 60 under irrigated situation was selected from two districts- one representing tribal area and the other non-tribal area for the study. Four farming systems (FS) existed in both the rainfed and irrigated areas of Chittorgarh and Banswara districts viz. FS-I: Crop+ Vegetables (C+V), FS-II: Crop + Dairy (C+D), FS-III: Crop + Dairy +Goat (C+D+G) and FS-IV: Crop + Poultry (C+PO). The cost involved in different farming systems were divided into two parts i.e. cost incurred within the farming system and cost incurred from outside the farming system. Internal cost adjustments were more in FS –III in both the districts i.e. 70.21 and 64.35 per cent in Chittorgarh district and 69.83 and 63.38 per cent in Banswara district in rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively. In Chittorgarh district on per rupee investment basis FS-IV (1.55) in rainfed and FS-I (1.69) in irrigated area were more profitable than other systems. In Banswara district on return per rupee investment basis, FS-IV ((1.57) in rainfed area and FS-I (1.63) in irrigated area were found more profitable than other farming systems. Return per rupee investment (return cost ratio) was more in FS-IV in rainfed condition while FS-I in irrigated condition among the other farming systems in both the districts.

Title: Impact of Market Reforms on Price Integration: A Study of Wholesale Spice Markets in India
Abstract :
Integration of market prices of commodities across various markets is one of the stated objectives of many agricultural marketing reforms undertaken in the country. Well integrated and efficient agricultural markets can allocate resources optimally and remove inefficiencies along the product value chain, thereby directly affect farmer producer welfare. This study takes an analytical look at the impact of a slew of agricultural market reforms policies focusing on Agricultural Produce Market Committee acts starting from 2002-03. The study analyses the marketing of spices, one of the most tradable commodities with a market oriented production system. The effect of major market reforms in improving the efficiency of wholesale spice markets through reduction in market segmentation is examined using data on monthly price dispersion of major spices across wholesale markets in the country. The study finds that the magnitude of reduction in market segmentation in response to the market reforms is low and varies across domestically traded spice commodities. The persistence of high degree of price dispersion in spice markets creates a significant price wedge between producer prices and consumer prices resulting in higher cost for both farmers and consumers alike. The study highlights the need for strengthening and pursuing the reform agenda for agricultural markets to create a unified market for agricultural commodities in the country.
Title: Access and Participation of Rural Households to the Credit Markets in Meghalaya
Abstract :

Low credit participation rate and inadequate access to credit facilities is a common  occurrence in  developing economies. The study examines participation and access to credit in the rural households of Meghalaya using primary data collected in 2016. A total of 401 households were selected from two districts through multistage sampling technique. The paper explores the subject from two perspectives: one relating to factors associated with credit participation and the other relating to factors associated with access to credit. Participation in the rural credit markets is found to be associated with level of education of the spouse, main occupation of the household and income level of households. The study finds that credit is mostly demanded from banks with no evidence of money lenders operating in the surveyed areas. The average amount of loans borrowed from formal sources is found to be significantly larger than loans from informal sources. Although bank loans are of shorter duration, the processing time is actually longer than loans borrowed from informal sources. Uses of loans are found to be associated with sources of loans and loan size.

Title: The changing scenario of technical efficiency in West Bengal agriculture: A district-wise analysis
Abstract :

The present paper attempts to estimate average Technical Efficiency (TE) of major crops produced in districts of West Bengal. The TE measures are compared at three points of time―viz. 1990-91, 2000-01 and 2009-10. The methodology is to find an optimum solution to the Linear programming problem of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Most of the districts of the state are found to be efficient in agricultural production. The situation has gradually improved in 2009-10 compared to 2000-01. However, the improvement in TE for most of the districts has not been uniform at selected points of time. While the district of South 24-parganas recorded a continuous increase in average TE, Jalpaiguri lagged far behind in terms of efficiency improvement compared to other districts. Average production can be augmented in Jalpaiguri by almost 50% through efficient use of inputs.

Title: Gender Differences in the Level of Economic Empowerment of Farm-Households of Manipur
Abstract :

The present study attempts to capture differences in the level of economic empowerment between male and female members of the same household. The study was conducted in Imphal West district of Manipur taking a random sample of 69 farm-households. The primary male and female members of each household were personally interviewed. A gender neutral economic empowerment index comprising of six indicators was developed for the study. It was found that male respondents had significantly higher empowerment level in four indicators of empowerment viz.; access and control over productive assets; access and control over economic resources; autonomy & mobility and time. If the overall empowerment level was considered, the index for male respondents (0.71) was found to be significantly higher than that of female respondents (0.57). It was also revealed that land holding had a significant association with the empowerment of the female respondents whereas cosmopoliteness had significant association with the empowerment level of the male respondents.

Title: Accessibility of Rural Credit among Weaker Section of the Society: A Case Study of South Tripura District of Tripura
Abstract :
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the majority of the people of India despite rigorous industrialization in the last six decades. Agriculture and allied sector is the major contributor to the India’s national income, therefore, it s said that agriculture is the backbone of the Nation. Although
great development took place in the field of agriculture in the form of green revolution during the last few decades in India but, it was limited to few areas and to a few crops. In fact, Indian agriculture is associated with lots of limitations and problems and lack of access to credit facility is one of the most important. Lacks of access to the credit facilities hamper rural population, especially the weaker section, from growth and prosperity. To overcome with the problem associated with the accessibility of rural credit, organized segment constituted by cooperative banks, regional rural banks, commercial banks, and non-banking financial companies need to establish appropriate procedures and processes. Rural credit is not only the critical input in agriculture but also an effective means for overall development of rural economy. It serves as a tool f
Title: Identifying the Determinants and Extent of Crop Diversification at Household Level: An Evidence from Ukhrul District, Manipur
Abstract :

Crop diversification is a risk management strategy for the farming community and an important step for poverty alleviation and transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture. The paper aims to recognize those factors which influence household decision to crop diversification and further attempts to identify what factors influence the degree to which this diversification takes place. The study adopts, Heckman’s Two Stage Model to estimate separately the determinants of household diversification decision and intensity of diversification by the households’. The results of the study found that education of the household head is found to have a positive association with the level of crop diversification. The farming experience of the farmer is found to have positive influence only while taking the decision to diversify crops. Access to plough has positively affected both the household’s decision to diversify crop as well as the level of crop diversification. Access to fertilizer and availability of irrigation has an effect on propensity to diversify crops. Exposure to farming information by the households significantly affected level of diversification. Farmers who attend farming training regularly are more likely to diversify crop. The distance to the nearest market from homestead also positively affected crop diversification level.

Title: Institutional innovations in technology transfer- Mobile agro advisory services and its impact in adopting improved cultivation practices
Abstract :

The rising spread of mobile phone shows it’s potential as a source of information for providing farmers the timely and right information which enable him to respond to different types of risk, market incentives and competition more efficiently. The hypothesis of this study is that providing information about improved cultivation practices through mobile phones may accelerate the process of adoption of new technologies by the farmers. In order to provide agro advisory services through mobile phones, fifty five farmers from two villages under the project “Cyber Extension Model for Agricultural Development: An Action Research” i.e. Sidhauli and Kasmanda blocks of Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh was selected purposively. In selecting the sample for this research, mobile phone ownership was kept in mind. To strengthen the information base of the farmers, Short Message Service (SMS) regarding improved cultivation practices of wheat and mustard crops were sent to the farmers. This study shows that majority of the farmers agreed that mobile phone is the best instrument to get timely information (87.0%); to increase the access of information (87.0%); to overcome physical barriers (82.0%). Although, mobile phones play an important role in accessing the information about improved cultivation practices, the farm resources such as inputs, labour, machinery, seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, energy, storage facilities, irrigation and affordability by the farmers may become a serious constraint in adopting any particular technology. This study also reveals that permanency of the information and overcoming the illiteracy by SMS and voice calls respectively is equally preferred by the farmers. Both technologies has to be used depending upon the nature of information and literacy level of the farmers.

Title: Rating Micro Finance institutions operating in India: an application of fuzzy analytical hierarchical process (FAHP)
Abstract :

The theory of microcredit is not new a concept, but its applicability in the field of poverty alleviation was made publicly acceptable by the renowned professor Mohammed Yunus whose noble effort has given micro credit its due recognition. The noble prize to Professor Yunus along with the UN recognition of the year 2005 as the year of micro credit bears testimony of the fact that micro credit has taken the centre stage. The evolution of microcredit to microfinance was due to the need of the market. The quantum of money following into the sector and the significant business opportunity has motivated many business models to step in into the sector. The advent of Micro Finance Institutions (MFI) in this regard under various legal entities as Non Banking Finance Corporation (NBFC), Societies, Trust, Cooperatives, and Section 25 companies ushered in a new era into the microfinance sector. Investors as well as the common people are provided with choices. All MFI claims to be the best. The availability of more choices makes the process of selection even complicated. Thus it becomes very arduous task to select from the array of choices. Decision making process thus becomes a complicated phenomenon. The people are uncertain about their choices. Many factors are involved in choosing a MFI thus selection of best MFI falls into the category of Multi-criteria Analysis (MA) problem. It is difficult to map human perception to particular number or a ratio due to vagueness in the decision making process. To solve such problems, the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) was developed. Moreover, if an individual is supposed to take any decision, he specifies his preferences using linguistic variables instead of assigning any crisp score to the preference. These linguistic terms are nothing but imprecise and dubious values. To deal with such fuzziness, several researchers extended AHP by incorporating fuzzy characteristics into it and developed a new process known as Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP). FAHP thus helps the decision makers to deal with imprecision and subjective-ness in pair-wise comparison process. The reason to include fuzzy is to reflect the pessimistic, more likely and optimistic decision making environment. This paper has been developed based upon the views of various experts in the field of banking and microfinance along with real time data gathered from MIX Market. The various criteria for selection process are based on the criteria as used in SIDBI’s SMERA rating methodology. Then the generation of criteria weight using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP) is done. Finally the alternative MFIs are prioritized taking all the criteria into account.

Title: Study on Access to Farm Credit by the Small and Marginal Farmers in India under the Policy on Priority Sector Lending (PSL)
Abstract :

This study attempts to review quantitatively on the present scenario of access to farm credit by small and marginal farmers and its performances under the policy of priority sectors lending (PSL) in India from different secondary sources of information w.e.f. 2001. The aim of PSL program is to ensure adequate credit to vulnerable sectors of the economy like agriculture. Farm credit, in India, has increased by 15.78 per cent from FY10 to FY15. Despite various policy attempts at priority lending to poor farmers, very little progress has been made. Nearly, 51.9 per cent of Indian farmers and 85 per cent of marginal and small farmers are under debt but formal credit facilities extended to them is very poor (30%). Only 40 per cent of the total farmers have received Kishan Credit Card. Most of the PSL programmes are related to interest rate subvention. As per RBI policy, 40 per cent of loans should go to PSL sector of which 18 per cent were to go to agriculture. But, it was just 13 per cent in 2015. Due to changes in norms and regulations, scope of PSL has been. The share of direct agricultural loans to marginal farmers has fallen sharply from almost 23 per cent in 2005 to just 4.3 per cent in 2013. They are 85.03 per cent in no. of holdings and 44.5 per cent in area operated. But, the present shares are only 7 per cent and 8 per cent respectively. India’s agricultural production and extent of credit have shown a positive growth rate. But loans to farmers are not driving the rise in agricultural credit but are agri-businesses and corporate sectors involved in agriculture. So, delivery and access of farm credit to poor farmers under PSL is not yet satisfactory. Various experts emphasized Govt.’s proactive role and suggested for appropriate design and innovation in implementation of PSL policy effectively. It is, thus, suggested that more effort can be inter alia alternative livelihood, poverty alleviation, mainstreaming marginalized groups and promotion for appropriate technologies/inputs for higher production, income and quality of lives of small and marginal farmers.

Title: Flood persuade livelihood: evidences based on selected districts in West Bengal
Abstract :

Preparing a inclusive policy to begin suitable changes in the working silhouette of the flood affected people in a vulnerable area seems to represent the major challenges of flood risk management. An effort has been made in this paper to examine the earnings under different livelihoods patterns of the flood prone area over three divergent sub-periods of floods. The study points out to the urgent need for livelihood enhancement in the study area. This is because of the fact that the overall current endowment of the factors of productions, distribution of productive assets and productive abilities are grossly out of alignment with what is needed in a flood prone area. The local rural economy is not in a position to automatically generate livelihoods for all those who seek it. Thus it is reasonable to infer that there exists a vast pool of surplus labour within the study area. The problem therefore is to mobilize sufficient investable capital through third party intervention to utilize the available surplus labour force in productive ventures.

Title: Stakeholder Analysis in Paddy Processing Chain of Southern Tamil Nadu
Abstract :

Stakeholder mapping is a collaborative process of research, debate, and discussion that is drawn from multiple perspectives to determine a key list of stakeholders across the entire spectrum. The first step in the mapping process is to identify the stakeholders. After the identification of the stakeholders, further analysis was made to understand their relevance and the perspective they offered to the paddy processing chain. The stakeholders were prioritised based on list of criteria developed by Business for Social Responsibility (BSR). The paddy processing chain comprised of different stages and the stakeholders of the chain were identified from sourcing of paddy to delivery of end product (rice). The stakeholder analysis revealed the importance of various stakeholders in the paddy processing chain in Southern Tamil Nadu with respect to their expertise and value contribution. The analysis also captured the nature and degree of relationship among the identified stakeholders.

Title: Impact of Soil Health Card on Fertilizer Consumption and Yield of Sugarcane and Kharif Paddy in Gujarat State
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken with a view to assessing the impact of soil health card on fertiliser consumption and yield of sugarcane and kharif paddy in South Gujarat region of Gujarat State. The multistage random sampling technique comprised of 224 farmers was taken for the study. The extent of over utilization of nitrogenous fertiliser was less for farmers having soil health card as compare to without soil health card for sugarcane and kharif paddy crops. The extent of under utilisation of phosphatic and potasic fertilizers were less for farmers having soil health card as compared to without soil health card for sugarcane and kharif paddy crops. The paired ‘t’ test analysis showed the positive and significant impact of Soil Health Card on per hectare yield of sugarcane and kharif paddy crops. Generally, with Soil Health Card farmers utilised the fertilisers judiciously as per the recommendation of Soil Health Card.

Title: Hierarchical Time-series Models for Forecasting Oilseeds and Pulses Production in India
Abstract :

Hierarchical time-series, which are multiple time-series that are hierarchically organised and can be aggregated at several different levels in groups based on geographical locations or some other features, has much practical importance. There are certain specialised strategies, viz. top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and optimal approaches which take care of predicting future values for such multi-level data. The top-down approach at first provides forecasting for the aggregated series at the topmost level of the hierarchy, then disaggregating the forecasts in the lower levels based on historical and forecasted proportions. The bottom-up method provides forecasting for the most disaggregated series at the bottom level of the hierarchy and then aggregates these forecasts to obtain the forecasts at the top level of the hierarchy. The middle-out approach is a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches. The optimal combination approach involves forecasting all series at all levels in the hierarchy, and then using a regression model to obtain the optimally combined forecasts. As an example, forecasting of oilseeds, as well as pulses production in India, is attempted using hierarchical time-series models.

Title: Role of Socio-economic Variables in Adoption of Crop Insurance: A Discriminant Function Approach
Abstract :

This study examined the influence of the respondents’ socio-economic characteristics on their adoption of crop insurance schemes. Discriminant analysis based on the criteria values of standardized canonical coefficient and correlation matrix identified that educational level, farm size, satisfaction level, awareness and access to source of credit were positive discriminators while negative coefficients were obtained for age, income level and number of earning members. Awareness about crop insurance scheme, satisfaction level of farmer respondent with respect to the insurance scheme and access to source of credit were the highest discriminant variables. The study made it amply clear that socio-economic characteristics of farmers exert a significant influence on their adoption of crop insurance schemes. Taking into cognizance the findings of the discriminant analysis it can be inferred that awareness about the schemes and their benefits have to be created among the farmers in order to motivate them to go for insurance of their crops.

Title: A Study on Price Behaviour of Soybean in Southern Rajasthan
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted on price behaviour of soybean in selected district of Southern Rajasthan. For workout the trend, secondary data was collected from 2000 to 2014 from publish government sources. Four markets were selected from four selected district namely Pratapgarh, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara and Banswara. Exponential trend for annual wholesale prices was found to be best fit for all the markets. The time element alone explained 89.3% to 93.0% variations in annual wholesale prices in the selected markets. The result of compound growth rates revealed that wholesale prices of soybean recorded significant growth rates in selected markets of Southern Rajasthan. The compound growth rates ranged from 9.91% per annum in Banswara to 10.08% annum in Pratapgarh market. The extent of intra year price rise varied from 15.62% in Banswara to 17.52% in Nimbahera market. In majority of the markets, the extent of intra year price rice was from 15 to 18%. The smaller magnitude of coefficient of variations (4.57% to 5.61%) indicated that there was greater consistency and smaller variability in the monthly prices of soybean in the selected markets of Southern Rajasthan.

Title: Strategies for Optimisation of Fruit Quality in Temperate Fruits with Special Reference to Pome Fruits
Abstract :

Fruit quality is the major determinant of grower returns without bringing additional land under cultivation and consequently has been studied widely. There are many components of fruit quality such as size, colour, firmness, soluble solids and acidity. In addition there are many factors which may influence fruit quality, some of which are outside of control such as weather, site suitability and varietal genetic potential. But now a days we can improve the fruit quality through modern management practices such as use of dwarf rootstocks, site specific nutrient management, drip irrigation etc. The use of clonal rootstocks regulate the tree size, induce early bearing and high cropping, and helps in adaptation of root system to existing soil and climatic conditions. Fruit Calcium is important in apple fruit quality by delaying cell wall breakdown, maintain firmness, retarding ethylene production and alleviates internal break down. Boron is important in pollen germination and pollen tube growth resulting in successful fruit setting. Bioregulators can have impact on apple fruit quality regardless of the cultivar. Foliar application of gibbberllins have been reported to reduce russeting on Golden Delicious apple and Bartlett pear. The saving of soil water content and improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. Deficit irrigation minimizes water use, decreases vegetative growth and pruning cost may improve fruit quality. The application of different types of mulches conserve the soil moisture during the peak period of plant growth and development and improve quality.

Title: A Comparative Study of Borrowing and Non-Borrowing Agricultural Households in Marginal Size Class in Nadia District of West Bengal
Abstract :

For conducting this study two villages from Haringhata and Chakdah blocks in Nadia district of West Bengal were selected purposively. Out of 122 marginal agricultural households 50 (fifty) were selected by the technique of Simple Random Sampling Without Replacement. Data were collected from sample agricultural households by survey method on size of operational holding, size of family, area of land under various crops, amount of credit taken from various sources and its uses, source wise income earned, etc. Objectives of the study were to find allocation of land to various crops by borrowing and non-borrowing agricultural households, to compare costs and returns in crop production, income earned from various sources in these two categories of agricultural households. The results of the study revealed that the agricultural households in borrowing category recorded higher percentages of land allocation than those in non-borrowing category for oilseeds, vegetables and fruits. On the other hand percentage areas under cereals, pulses, fibre crops, potato and spices were found to be higher in non-borrowing category than in borrowing category. Level of input use, gross return and net return were noted to be higher in non borrowing category than in borrowing category. Average annual level of income earned from various sources was higher in agricultural households in non-borrowing category than that of agricultural households in borrowing category. In spite of use of a portion of credit in crop production, level of input use was recorded to be lower in the category of borrowing households than in the category of non-borrowing households. Availability of higher amount of credit to the borrowing agricultural households could enable them in using inputs in larger quantity.

Title: Analysis of Modernized Value Chain of Walnut in Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract :

This study intends to investigate the modernized supply chain of walnut in Jammu & Kashmir. The study reported that modernized supply chain involves huge investment and that the value addition of walnut in their processing units are exclusively earmarked for export markets. It was observed that setting up of a processing unit for value addition of walnut is a capital intensive activity. Moreover, in modernized channels, processors were found to pay better to the functionaries from whom they purchase walnut. Results revealed that the marketing efficiency was more in channel where they purchase directly from farmers and also their net price is more in this channel. Based upon the findings, the study emphasized upon linking walnut production with marketing through value addition. In addition, this paper concluded with few pragmatic policy options for the promotion of exports, reduction of losses and sustainable growth of this fruit in Jammu & Kashmir.

Title: Cost and Income Structure of Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) Cultivation as Influenced by Different Agronomic Inputs
Abstract :

Globally, maize occupies a prominent place among cereals and ranks first in terms of productivity and third in total area and production after rice and wheat, respectively. But there is hardly any work which has analysed its costs and returns. In order to evaluate the most profitable treatment, economic analysis of treatments was worked out in terms of net returns and benefit cost (B:C) ratio. The cost and analysis structure of production of green cobs and green fodder ha-1 on hectare bases worked out for three fertility levels F1, F2 and F3 in combination with three plant population P1, P2 and P3 along with three sulphur levels S0, S1 and S2. the cost incurred on field preparation (` 2000), lay-out (` 1040), sowing (` 1040), irrigation charges (` 2032), thinning and earthing up (` 832), insecticide application (` 568), watching and scaring of birds (` 2080), land revenue (` 60), weeding (` 4680) and harvesting (` 2080) was found to be same in all the treatments. The variability in cost of cultivation arised due to different seed rates and application of secondary nutrient i.e. sulphur. It was found that economic returns of the crop are directly related to its yield also, inadequate supply of nutrients and without proper plant geometry, sweet corn plants are undernourished and give poor yield. Thus, for obtaining a higher yield and economically sustained sweet corn should be supplied with sufficient amount of nutrients, while, maintaining proper plant geometry.

Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: Integrated Farming Systems and Income Security: The Case of Arecanut Farmers in Karnataka, India
Abstract :
Surplus farm income and its stability are two important measures of income security of the farmers. These two parameters will have a profound influence on the economic welfare too. This study is an attempt to at evaluate the income security of farmers in areca based integrated farming systems in the state of Karnataka, India. The results revealed no significant difference in profitability among different arecanut based farming systems. The income generated from different areca based farming systems helped the majority of the farmers to cross the poverty line, indicating the role of such farming systems in ensuring income security in the region. Regression analysis of variability in farmers’ income indicated negative association between diversification in income sources and income variability. Hence, it is beneficial for the farmers if they diversify their sources of income.
Title: Agricultural Labour Shortage: An Abysmal to Agriculture in North Eastern Karnataka
Abstract :

Over the years, there has been an arising worry about the farm labour accessibility which has been diminishing as a result of occupational changes, peoples attitude, Government policies and reforms, making it crucial to explore into the dynamics of the scarcity of agricultural labour and the reasons contributing to this. A study was undertaken considering the status of labour scarcity in agricultural economy with special reference to North Eastern Karnataka. A stratified sampling procedure was adopted to select the sample respondents. A total of 180 farmers were interviewed for the study. It was found that the labour demand exceeded supply for almost seven months and reached its peak during the sowing and weeding operations in both rabi and kharif seasons. According to the sample respondents, migration of labourers to the nearby villages for higher wages was the most serious problem leading to labour scarcity.

Title: Socio-economic factors effect on gross income of orchard farm in Goa state
Abstract :

Investigation was carried out during the year 2013-14. In all 48 orchard farms were randomly selected from sixteen villages of two tehsils in South-Goa district of Goa State. Data  were  related  to cropping pattern and livestock pattern as well as socio-economic determinants.   The results revealed that land holding showed highly significant on orchard farm with regression  coefficient  of  20182.43. It means that addition of one hectare could cause to increase gross income of ` 20182.43. Regression  coefficient of livestock was 5841.99. It means that addition of one livestock could cause to increase gross income of ` 5841.99. On the contrary, family size showed regression  coefficient  of -1170.62 which was negatively significant. There could be reduction of gross income by ` 1170.62 if addition of one member in family. In next order, distance of farm from village showed negative regression coefficient of -2519.15, it could adversely affect gross income of ` 2519.15. Thus, the farmers have to give more importance to land holding, livestock, family size and distance of farm from village in order to increase gross income on orchard farm

Title: Sustainable Financial Inclusion to the Marginalized through an Analysis of Marketed Surplus and Price Spread of Cauliflower in S. Chotanagpur
Abstract :

The study was undertaken to analyse marketed surplus and price spread for Cauliflower in S. Chotanagpur of Jharkhand. Cluster sampling techniques were used to select the sample villages and respondents. Primary data were collected by personal interview of respondents. Simple statistical tools were employed to accomplish different objectives of the study. The marketed surplus of the medium category of farms have slightly higher surplus than marginal, large and small categories of farms. Their relative proportion was 94.84 per cent, 94.51 per cent, 94.49 per cent and 94.48 per cent respectively of the total production. The share of the producer in consumer rupee is high in the channel were there are less number of intermediaries. The marketing cost incurred by the wholesaler in different channels were estimated 5.01 per cent, 6.39 per cent and 7.88 per cent of the consumer price respectively and their corresponding net margins were 9.68 per cent, 9.61 per cent and 10.23 per cent of the price paid by the consumer.

Title: Strategy for Optimisation of Higher Productivity and Quality in Field Crops through Micronutrients: A Review
Abstract :

The importance of micronutrients has been realized widespread. Micronutrient deficiencies were observed in most of the Indian soils, where intensive agriculture is practiced. Micronutrients may be minor in terms of the amounts needed by the crop, but they can be major in terms of their impact on crop growth. Micronutrients often act as co-factors in enzyme systems and participate in vital functions in plants. Studies of the roles of nutrients in plants have involved several diagnostic criteria that address the accumulation of nutrients and their roles in plants. These criteria include visual diagnosis, plant analysis, biochemical tests, and soil tests. Factors such as soil pH, organic matter, temperature, moisture & texture are important in determining the availability of micronutrient. Scientific methods involving for correcting micronutrient deficiencies and toxicity in soils and in field crops. Foliar application combined with nano-biotechnology are efficient methods applying nutrients directly to the plants without farming any intermediate complexes and may result in rapid and significant progress in the areas of fertilizer micronutrient development for their efficient delivery and production of abundant nutritious food

Title: Effectiveness of public agricultural extension services in Tripura state of North-East India
Abstract :

This paper analyses the effectiveness of the public agricultural extension services of the department of agriculture in Tripura state. Extension effectiveness was measured in three levels (input, process and outcome) by using 20 indicators. Information on organizational variables was collected from all the four District Head Offices (Office of the Deputy Director of Agriculture) of the Department of Agriculture in Tripura state. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data from the randomly selected 80 clienteles (farmers) and 80 extension personnel. The result shows that the total expenditure intensity was ` 3831.13(USD 68.11)/ha/year and expenditure intensity on extension activity was ` 2260.46 (USD 40.18)/ha/year, the technical manpower: cultivator ratio was very high i.e. 1: 1218 and clientele contact intensity was only 1 hr. 45 min./clientele/year. Whereas, extension service commitment and client accountability of the extension personnel was also higher but organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job performance, job competence index of the extension personnel was low. All the clientele were willing to pay nominally for extension services and the overall clientele satisfaction was 72.45. Based on the results of the study it is recommended to increase the technical manpower in the department and also increase collaboration with Non-Government Organizations NGOs), Self Help Groups (SHGs) and private organizations for extension programme implementation.

Title: An Economic Appraisal of Strawberry Orchard in Meghalaya
Abstract :

The present study was undertaken with a view to study the costs and returns of strawberry orchard in Meghalaya state. Three categories of strawberry orchard was selected for the investigation. The costs of cultivation of strawberry revealed to be higher with the size of the orchard, i.e., the total cost of cultivation in large category was found to be higher as compared to both of the small and medium category of strawberry cultivation. Similarly, the returns from the strawberry orchard was also revealed to be higher with higher of the strawberry orchard. Further, the benefit cost ratio of the categories proven that large categories are more beneficial irrespective to its investment. The pay-back period of strawberry cultivation indicate that large category takes minimum time to meet their expenditure as compared to the other categories of strawberry orchard. However, the constraints regarding the adaptation of strawberry cultivation shows that the unavailability of runners was the major problem for the farmers to adopt the crop. Whereas, the economics study of the crop indicated that strawberry fruit is very much profitable for the farmers and it is suggested that initiative through various channels from the line of government or organisation to encourage the farmers for strawberry cultivation which ultimate help to improve the economic condition of the state as a whole.

Title: Efficacy of Rhizobium inoculation on graded N levels and net return from cluster bean seed production under hot arid regions
Abstract :

Effectiveness of seed inoculation with Rhizobium on cluster bean grain yield was assessed in field experiments under graded doses of nitrogen application viz., 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg N/ha. The data revealed that inoculation significantly increased the cluster bean seed grain yield at all levels of nitrogen application including control. Application of 60 kg N/ha along with Rhizobium inoculation maximized cluster bean seed yield (13.28 q/ha) which was 152.47% higher and significantly better than the yield obtained at same level of N application without Rhizobium inoculation. However, it was statistically at par with 60 kg N application and 45 kg N/ha + Rhizobium (12.26 q/ha). Higher value yield, nitrogen use efficiency and apparent nutrient recovery were optimized under seed inoculation with Rhizobium as compared to non inoculated seeds. The results depicts the beneficial effects of Rhizobium inoculation on cluster bean grain yield resulting in saving of 13.37 to 21.73 kg/ha nitrogen and an enhanced seed yield ranging from 2.34 to 8.05 q/ha along with nitrogen application compared to control.

Title: Socio-Economic Status of Livestock Farmers of Ibrahimpur Village, North Goa District: A Benchmark Analysis
Abstract :
A vigilant study of the socio-economic conditions of livestock farmers is a precondition for the appropriate design and successful implementation of Governments’ developmental programmes. The study was conducted in North Goa district of Goa during 2015-16 to investigate the socioeconomic profiles of livestock farmers. For this, primary data was collected through structured questionnaire using a sample size of fifty respondents from Pernem block of North Goa district. Thus study was designed to appraise
the socio-economic profile of livestock farmers in North Goa district. Results of the study revealed that majority of the farmers are maintaining nuclear family with less than five members. Most of the farmers belonged to marginal farmers’ categories who are involved in livestock activities. Majority of the farmers had low level of income, less access to institutional source of finance agricultural extension service and livestock possession. It is observed that more than half of the (69%) of the population are cattle in total
livestock population. Livestock farmers have secondary and intermediate school level and more than half of the farmers involved in livestock farming belonged to middle age group. Due to low agricultural profitability, young people are not interested in agriculture and shift towards tourism and tourism related services. Agriculture profitability should be increased to retain the people in farming by providing access to credit, markets, extension service.
Title: Impact of Market-Based Financial Structure on the Growth of Nigerian Economy: An Econometric Analysis
Abstract :
Market-based financial structure plays a key role in the growth and development of all the leading economies in the Western World. The dismal performance of the market-based financial structure calls for concern in Nigeria. The objective of this paper is the examination of the impact of market-based financial structure on the growth of Nigerian economy, with emphasis on market capitalization, total value of transactions, total listed equities and government stocks and total new issues. The paper employs time series data from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin from 1980-2014. Econometric techniques are used to test the time series properties of the data and error correction mechanism is used for the estimation of the variables. The findings of this paper reveal that market-based financial structure significantly impacted on the growth of Nigerian economy. The joint performances of the variables in the model hold positive value for economic growth in Nigeria. The policy recommendation of this paper is that the government should make policy that will encourage firms listing in the capital market so as to improve on market capitalization and value of transactions in the market.
Title: Contents
Abstract :

Contents

Title: Supply-Demand Gap Analysis and Projection for Major Pulses in India
Abstract :

India is the global leader in terms of production, consumption and import of pulses. The pulses production has been stagnating over the years leading to widening gap between demand and supply. About 20 percent of the total pulses demand is met through imports. The present study is an attempt to analyze the production growth, supply-demand gap and projection of availability of major pulses viz., gram (Chickpea) and tur (Pigeon pea), in India. The highest growth rates in total pulses production was recorded between 1966-67 to 1975-76 period and from 2006-07 to 2015-16 exhibiting 2.05 per cent and 2.62 per cent increase. Gram (Chickpea) recorded the highest production growth between the period from1989-87 to 1995-96 and 2006-07 to 2015-16 and respective figure were 2.78 percent and 2.79 percent. Whereas, tur (Pigeonpea) showed accelerated growth rate of 2.72 per cent in area, 4.30 per cent growth in production during 1976-77 to 1985-86 period. The study found that there is a big gap in supply and demand of major pulses in India, suggesting a shortage of pulse for domestic consumption to the tune of 114.50 lakh tonnes of Gram (Chickpea) and 365.60 lakh tonnes of Tur (Pigeon pea) during 2030.

Title: Recent Trend of Tribal Migration in Meghalaya Plateau
Abstract :

Meghalaya has the one of the largest concentration of scheduled tribe population in India. For absence of data it is not easy to get a precise estimate of scheduled tribe out-migration in the state. Fortunately census of India provides scheduled tribe out-migration data available at district level first time in 2001 census. The pattern of their out-migration however is not spatially uniform. The state has experienced significant rate of total and male tribal out-migration from the central part of the state whereas in term of intra-district it shows just opposite pattern. Large proportions of migrants are migrated in other north-eastern states from Meghalaya whereas Assam has observed about half of the total in and out-migrants from Meghalaya.

Title: Economic Evaluation and Mechanization Index of Selected Cropping Pattern in Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
Data collected from 280 farmers spread over seven districts (i.e. Raisen Dewas, Khandwa, Chhindwara, Seoni, Mandla & Ashok Nagar) of Madhya Pradesh. Average power availability was found 1.80 kW/ha which ranged 1.63 to 2.05 kW/ha across the selected villages. Mechanical power contribution was in the range of 80 to 88%. Input-output data were converted into monetary terms & calculated cost of cultivation for the crops grown in the each district. Farmers are getting better net return from wheat
(` 19,591/ha) followed by gram (` 18,695/ha) production with a BCR of 1.71 & 1.86 respectively. The BCR from soybean, paddy and maize was found 1.31, 1.41 and 1.15 respectively. Production function fitted well with a value of the coefficient of multiple determinations (R2) ranged 0.80 to 0.97 across the crops and statistically significant. Contribution of human labor in the yield was found significant for soybean and gram production while machinery and miscellaneous ((Seed, fertilizer, manure, agro-chemical) were contributed significantly in the wheat and gram productivity. Size of land holding and machinery contributed significantly in cultivation of wheat & gram. Thus, use of machinery showed a positive response with size of holding. Ratio of MVP/MFC (marginal value product/marginal factor cost) for human labour, machinery & miscellaneous were highly sensitive and contributed more than one while animal labour showed a marginal contribution. The level of mechanization index was found higher in crops like wheat (57.61%) and gram (44%) while it was comparatively low in paddy (40%), soybean (40.4%) and maize (43.5%). Mechanization level may increase with adoption of power operated machines for transplanting, weeding/inter-culture and spraying/dusting.
Title: Poverty Alleviation through Wage Employment: Synergies and Trade-off with Agricultural Productivity
Abstract :

Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity (according to World Bank). But according to a recent survey by an Indian government committee constituted to estimate poverty, nearly 38% of India’s population (380 million) is poor. This report is based on new methodology and the figure is 10% higher than the present poverty estimate of 28.5%. The committee headed by S.D. Tendulkar has used a different methodology to reach at the current figure. Such a high incidence of poverty is a matter of concern in view of the fact that poverty eradication has been one of the major objectives of the development planning process. The MNREGA is undoubtedly an innovative piece of legislation that has no parallel programme anywhere in the world. But there are some issues which need emphasis so that the real purpose of the wage employment schemes could be identified. This paper discusses the impact of MNREGA on society in terms of poverty reduction, agricultural production and how MNREGA is affecting the agricultural wage rate as well as cost of cultivation of field crops over the year. This study also tries to prove that there is a relationship between the agricultural crisis (labour crisis) and MNREGA Scheme.

Title: An Econometric Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Production in Karnataka
Abstract :

The study was conducted in Bengaluru rural and Ramanagara districts of Karnataka to assess the resource use pattern and efficiency in finger millet production. The sampling frame consisted of 30 rainfed and 30 irrigated finger millet producers in each district totaling to 120 farmers. Farm household survey was carried out to collect the primary information from the selected finger millet producers by using the pre-tested interview schedules. Cobb-Douglas type of production function (per hectare) was used to assess the resource use efficiency in finger millet production. Results indicated that, there was significant difference between rainfed and irrigated finger millet production in use of human labour, seeds and fertilizers. The regression co-efficient of human labour (0.11), bullock and machine labour (0.10) and fertilizer (0.15) were found to be statistically significant at one per cent in irrigated situation, whereas in rainfed situation, human labour (0.31), fertilizer (0.04) was statistically significant at one per cent, seed (0.08) was statistically significant at five per cent. The allocative efficiency was estimated by using the geometric mean levels of the output as well as inputs. The ratio of marginal value product (MVP) to marginal factor cost (MFC) under rainfed situation in case of human labour, bullock and machine labour, seed, FYM and fertilizer was 0.68, 0.05, 0.77, 0.07 and 0.46, respectively indicating that, there is no scope for using additional units of the factors and expenditure or use of inputs should be reduced to optimize the production system. Whereas, in irrigated situation,ratio of MVP to MFC was less than one in case of human labour (0.35), bullock and machine labour (0.39), seed (0.69) and irrigation (0.47), indicating that an expenditure of one rupee on human labour, bullock and machine labour, seed and irrigation gives only ` 0.35, ` 0.39, ` 0.69 and ` 0.47, respectively. It is evident from the study that, inputs are not optimally utilized in finger millet production. Hence, farmers should be educated regarding the sustainable use of recourses which helps in increasing the returns and reduces cost as most of the resources are over utilized in finger millet production.

Title: Influence of Allied and Non-farm activities on the Agricultural Transformation in Karnataka State: An Economic analysis
Abstract :

The study was carried to analyse the influence of emergence of allied activities (AA) and non-farm activites (NFA) on agricultural transformation across the dryland and irrigated regions of Karnataka. The multi-stage random sampling technique was used to identify the respondents. Four districts namely Chitradurga, Kolar, Hassan and Mandya, corresponding to four different agroclimatic zones in Karnataka were used as the study area. Agricultural transformation index was developed using the Principal component Analysis for the study. This index was used as dependent variable for working out the multiple regression analysis to study the cause-effect relationship between agricultural transformation and the economic parameters associated with emergence of AA and NFA. The study showed that irrespective of the irrigation pattern existing, the dry land as well as the irrigated regions showed a positive agricultural transformation with the emergence of NFA.

Title: Impact of Urbanization on Land Use Pattern of Rural-Urban Gradient of Bengaluru North: An Economic Analysis
Abstract :
Pressure on farm land is increasing at the periphery of the cities and the developmental pressures led by the urbanization process transforming farm lands into non-agricultural landscapes which is irreversible. Hence the study was conducted along rural-urban continuum of Bengaluru North to analyze the impact of urbanization on land use pattern and production systems. The results of the study revealed that the area under non-agricultural uses is growing significantly with positive trend in the Bengaluru urban and
Bengaluru rural districts and Bengaluru North and Devanahalli taluks where the influence of Bengaluru sprawl is more and in rural gradient its growth is insignificant. The net sown area has recorded significant negative growth in urban gradient and is insignificant in other two gradients. The correlation between area under non-agricultural uses and net sown area was significant and strongly negatively correlated in urban gradient. The extent of their correlation co-efficient decreases as the urban influences decreases.
Field crops have seen devastation in the last decade at urban and peri-urban gradients. Because of ground water shortage and frequent failure of bore wells, the area under vegetable crops and mulberry has reduced at farm level, where as the area of fruit crops under micro irrigation system has increased. Hence in the view of rapid growth of Bengaluru city, there is a need for measures to control irreversible damage of farm lands and agrarian community in the area.
Title: Assessment of Economic Losses due to Inadequate Post-Harvest Infrastructure Facilities for Marine Fisheries in Gujarat
Abstract :

The study examines the economic losses on account of inadequate post-harvest infrastructure facilities for the marine fisheries sector in Gujarat, India. The primary data were collected during month of October 2015 covering three periods spread in the year 2014 & 2015 (October 2014 to September 2015) from three fishing harbours i.e. Veraval, Porbandar and Mangrol of Gujarat. It was observed that the post harvest infrastructure in marine sector in Gujarat seems to have received less attention. It is also true that as the industry has been pre-occupied with the exports, no major initiatives have been made for the development of the domestic market, mainly due to less demand. By and large, fish is sold in the most unhygienic conditions and this area needs considerable intervention in the coming period. Fishing harbours are being developed at both major and minor ports. However, the condition of washing and cleaning facilities available at selected harbours was unsatisfactory at Porbandar and Mangrol while same was very poor at Veraval harbor. Also the facilities like clean landing platform and cold storage/chill plants within the harbour premises and availability of insulated storage boxes on board the fishing vessel need to be ensured. The harbors like Porbandar and Veraval are overcrowded due to less space in harbor region and large number of boats parked there than its capacity. Because of same, fish catch exceeds the capacity of harbor. On an average, the economic loss due to inadequate post-harvest infrastructure facilities was estimated to be ` 18 per kg of fish caught. The major reasons for losses at this stage were physical damage during fishing and spoilage due to improper icing, whereas very minimal share was loss due to fish being eaten away by birds. The motorized trawlers followed by gill netters are major causes for fish losses. Therefore, there is a need of expansion of harbor regions as well as constructions of more number of jetties/landing platforms, along with proper maintenance of those infrastructures for minimizing economic losses.

Title: Price Integration Analysis of Major Groundnut Domestic Markets in India
Abstract :
Market integration is a good proxy for measuring efficiency in the marketing system, whereby the underlying infrastructure is best put to use coupled with effective resource allocation. This way, the emerging price signals from the markets can be utilized to benefit both producers and consumers alike. The present study examines the performance of major groundnut domestic markets viz. Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh), Rajkot (Gujarat) and Villupuram (Tamil Nadu) in terms of market integration by using Engle- Granger bivariate co-integration test and Johansen multivariate co-integration test. The findings revealed the existence of long-run equilibrium between the markets in such a way that a 1% price rise in Kurnool market leads to 1.22% price rise in Villupuram market. Similarly, for every 1% price rise in Rajkot market, price in Villupuram market increases by 1.13%. Besides, causality test indicated the existence of feedback relationship between Kurnool and Rajkot market, Kurnool and Villupuram market and the presence of
unidirectional relationship between Rajkot to Villupuram market. The presence of short run disequilibria between market pairs was also captured using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and the findings revealed that almost 11 to 37% of the short-run fluctuations get corrected with a month. Overall, the results signified effective price transmission mechanism in the domestic markets and any further boost to the existing infrastructure will only help in improving both producer’s and consumer’s surpluses.
Title: Profitability Analysis of Broiler Farms: A Case Study of Sonitpur District of Assam
Abstract :
Present paper is an attempt to investigate production performance, cost and return structure pertaining to broiler farming and undertake investment appraisal in terms of PBP, NPV, IRR and BCR. The cost and return analysis of different sizes of broiler farms in Sonitpur District of Assam has been carried out based on the primary data collected from 100 broiler farmers for the period from March 2012 to May 2012. The study revealed that average meat production per bird per cycle was 2.18 kilogram. Average cost of production per bird was ` 134.66. Total fixed and variable cost per bird was found to be ` 9.11 and  ` 125.55 respectively. On an average gross return and net return per farm per cycle were ` 374518.14, and ` 68702.59 respectively for the sample as a whole. There was a positive relationship between per bird net return and farm size which increased from ` 19.82 in Group I to ` 33.21 in Group IV. On the basis of NPV, BCR and IRR, investment in broiler farming was found to be most profitable in large sized farms, than smaller farms, although investment was economically paying in all the farms. Sensitivity analysis revealed that small sized farms were more sensitive to increase in cost and decrease in returns.
Title: Consumption of High Value Agriculture Commodities in North Eastern Karnataka-An Economic Analysis
Abstract :

The present study analyzed the consumption pattern of the households in rural and urban areas of North Eastern Karnataka region based on the primary data obtained from 180 respondents belonging to Gulbarga and Raichur districts. Log Log Inverse (LLI) form of Engel’s equation was used to compute income elasticity. There was a significant difference in the consumption expenditure between rural and urban areas and across different income levels. The percentage expenditure share of HVAC was higher in rural area (21.56) in comparison with urban areas (13.69). The income elasticity was found to be higher in rural areas in comparison with urban areas and it has been found to vary across income classes. The magnitude of elasticity was found to be higher for lower income groups and these tend to decrease as income increased. The monthly expenditure on HVAC was influenced by monthly family income, family size and location. The study highlighted the influence of caste on consumption of non-vegetarian food items. The educated women included diverse vegetables in the daily diet and thereby improved the nutritional status of households.

Title: Indian Demonetisation Announcement and Insights from Public Reaction : An Exploratory Study
Abstract :

This investigation analyses the early reaction of general public on demonetisation announcement, wherein, an attempt has been made to examine how people from diverse background perceived the decision in terms of its pros & cons from the perspective of economy as well as from personal and business perspectives. A structured questionnaire survey is carried out via online and field survey mode during the period between 9th November, 2016 and 11th November, 2016. We utilise appropriate descriptive statistics and the ordinal regression model to get insights on our research objectives. The findings suggest that the demonetisation move is strongly appreciated by the citizens and considered it to be initiated at the right time despite the difficulties encountered by them with respect to procuring money from banks, post offices and ATM outlets in addition to the household and livelihood management during the initial three days. The results also prove that the younger generation, businessmen and professionals consider the demonetisation decision as the most appropriate as indicated by significant cumulative odds ratio. This implies that in the long run the decision India may witness more secure, brighter and prosperous economic and social growth.

Title: Exploring Agri Business Potential in Tripura through Fruits and Vegetable Production
Abstract :

The agro climatic condition of Tripura offers immense potential for production of number of tropical and sub tropical fruits and vegetables. Major horticulture produce comprises fruits (48.6%) and vegetables (48.3%) (2013-14). Fruit and vegetable are important component of the food items of the state. The production of fruits and vegetables provide gainful employment for small farmers and agricultural labour throughout the year. Foreign exchange can be earned by exporting the raw and processed form of fruits and vegetables. The production of both fruits and vegetables are increasing significantly at a growth of 3.86 and 13.36 per cent over the last decades. In this study an attempt was made to estimate the marketable surplus of fruits and vegetables for exploring the agri business potentiality. The secondary data on production of fruits and vegetable in the state over the decade (2001-2014) were collected from Economic Review of Tripura. Compound growth rate and regression analysis was done to achieve the objective. The supply of fruits and vegetables was estimated considering the future production using regression method of forecasting. Similarly, demand for fruits and vegetables were estimated considering the recommended amount of fruits (100gm) and vegetable (150gm) per person per day in the state. An amount of 10 per cent was assumed as post harvest loss. The results showed that there is significant marketable surplus of both fruits and vegetables in the coming four years (upto 2021) showing the possibility of value addition to this surplus amount through establishing processing units in the state that would help to boost farmers’ income and employment. However, government initiatives along with growers and processors interest needs to be developed for exploring the vast potentiality of this sector in the state.

Title: Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Rate of Different Agricultural Grade Steels and Associated Cost Economics
Abstract :
An investigation was conducted to study the effect of heat treatment processes on agricultural grade steels to enhance their life and associated cost economics. Three different types of agricultural grade steels (mild steel (MS), medium carbon steel (MCS) and medium carbon low alloy steel (MCLAS)) underwent heat-treatment processes. MS was carburized (950 °C for 720 min), MCS and MCLAS were austenised at 900 and 850 °C for 120 min. These steels were oil quenched and tempered at 200, 300 and 400 °C. The steel specimens were evaluated in laboratory condition using dry sand abrasion tester before and after heat-treatment. Effect of heat-treatments on abrasive wear, hardness and associated cost economics were studied. The results exhibit that under heat untreated conditions, wear rate of MCS and MCLAS were 13.10% and 32.33% less than that of MS. Whereas, under heat treated specimens wear rate reduced by 18.83%, 36.94% and 48.13% in MS, MCS and MCLAS, respectively. The hardness of all steels after heat treatment was found to increase more than two fold. Enhancement in the life of the selected steels were found to be 64.83% higher in case of MCLAS followed by 45.15% in case of MCS over MS. Maximum increase was seen in cost of ` 70/kg and ` 45 /kg in MCLAS and MCS at 200 °C tempering temperatures, respectively.
Title: Poverty Alleviation through Wage Employment: Synergies and Trade-off with Agricultural Productivity
Abstract :

Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity (according to World Bank). But according to a recent survey by an Indian government committee constituted to estimate poverty, nearly 38% of India’s population (380 million) is poor. This report is based on new methodology and the figure is 10% higher than the present poverty estimate of 28.5%. The committee headed by S.D. Tendulkar has used a different methodology to reach at the current figure. Such a high incidence of poverty is a matter of concern in view of the fact that poverty eradication has been one of the major objectives of the development planning process. The MNREGA is undoubtedly an innovative piece of legislation that has no parallel programme anywhere in the world. But there are some issues which need emphasis so that the real purpose of the wage employment schemes could be identified. This paper discusses the impact of MNREGA on society in terms of poverty reduction, agricultural production and how MNREGA is affecting the agricultural wage rate as well as cost of cultivation of field crops over the year. This study also tries to prove that there is a relationship between the agricultural crisis (labour crisis) and MNREGA Scheme.

Title: Resource Use Efficiency in Cultivation of Major Food Crops under Rainfed Conditions in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka
Abstract :
A study was conducted on the resource use efficiency of major food crops under rainfed conditions in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka (CDZ). The major crops of CDZ are ragi, maize and groundnut. The data
was collected from rainfed farmers of CDZ of Karnataka. Cobb-Douglas production analysis and Data Envelopment Analysis was used. The inputs used are human labour, bullock labour, machine labour, seed, fertilizer and farm yard manure (FYM). In rainfed ragi, the regression coefficients for bullock pair (1.27) and FYM (0.94) were positive and statistically significant. In rainfed maize, the elasticity of production for human labour was highest (1.18) followed by production co-efficient of seed (0.98) and fertilizers (0.63).
The elasticity co-efficient in rainfed groundnut with respect to seeds was 0.41, while that of fertilizers was 0.71 indicating the scope for higher use of these inputs from the present level to optimise returns. The ratio of MVP to MFC was differed from unity in all major crops, indicating scope for reallocation of expenditure among various resources. Among the crops technical efficiency, allocative efficiency and economic efficiency scored impressively in rainfed maize was 0.83, 0.69 and 0.6, respectively.
Title: Marketing Efficiency and Marketing Channels for Paddy Crop in the Eastern Region of Uttar Pradesh
Abstract :
The study was undertaken in Deoria district of Uttar Pradesh to examine marketed surplus, marketing surplus, disposal pattern and constraints which are faced by the paddy growers in the study area. A sample of 80 farmers of Deoria district (Uttar Pradesh) was selected from 6 villages of two blocks for the year 2009-10. According to this study, the average marketable surplus per farm was 43.26 quintals per farm and the highest marketable surplus was with the large farm household that is to the tune of 77.03
quintals per farm. The average marketed surplus across the farm size group was 44.38 quintals which was more than marketable surplus. Marketed surplus was lowest with marginal farmers i.e. only 25.92 quintals followed by small (28.85 quintals), medium (48.13 quintals) and large (74.65 quintals) farm households. The average on farm requirement across the farm size group was 15.12 quintals which was highest at large farm households. Due to improper infrastructural facilities farmers were forced to sale their crop produce in the local markets at lower prices. There was existence of distress sale on the marginal farms. Lack of suitable market was quite common problem. Poor storage facility also compelled the farmers to sell their produce just after harvesting. Monopoly of buyers /contractors was also quite common observation in the study area. Inadequate price information system was also found as an important marketing problem experienced by the producer-sellers in the study area.
Title: A Study on Dynamicity of Data on the Import of Fish to Tripura
Abstract :
In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the dynamicity of the data (1998-99 to 2015- 16) on imports of fishes from other states to Tripura. Some time series models such as moving average, exponential smoothing have been tried to capture the trend of imports over the years in order to smooth out short-term fluctuations and highlight longer-term trends or cycles. The appropriate time series model has been identified and it has been evaluated by the model accuracy parameters like bias, Mean Absolute
Deviation (MAD), Mean Squared Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE). It is revealed that the precision levels are much higher when the 2-interval simple moving average is used or the progressively lower values of smoothing constant is employed as it closely fits that actual data. The importance of such studies stems from the fact that the policy makers need the trend/pattern of imports of fishes/various items over the years in advance which helps to determine/regulate the trade policy of such items.
Title: Role of Agricultural Infrastructure and Climate Change on Agricultural Efficiency in Uttar Pradesh: A Panel Data Analysis
Abstract :

The present research paper has examined the process of agricultural infrastructure, climate change and agricultural efficiency in Uttar Pradesh at district as well as regional level from 2004-05 to 2015-16. Agricultural Infrastructure Indices (AII) have been estimated through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by taking eight variables related to agricultural infrastructure to identify the disparities within the district as well as regional level. Agricultural Efficiency Index (AEI) has also been estimated to identify the trends of agricultural efficiency and panel data regression analysis was employed to analyze the determinants of agricultural efficiency index at disaggregate level of Uttar Pradesh. The values of agricultural infrastructure index (AII) confirmed that rural infrastructure has been enhanced in all the districts and regions from 2004-05 to 2015-16 with some fluctuations. Moreover, the results of agricultural efficiency revealed that the pattern of efficiency at district and regional level has undergone a significant shift towards a higher level during the study period. However, this shift was not uniformly distributed across the districts/regions. The regional level result of UP indicated that WUP recorded highest AEI and AII followed by CUP, EUP and Bundelkhand respectively. The results of Random Effect Model confirmed that agriculture infrastructure index (AII); gross sown area per tractor, percentage of loan for agriculture and rainfall variability have been found the significant determinants of agriculture efficiency, while per hectare fertilizer, maximum temperature and minimum temperature have established insignificant relationship with agricultural efficiency. This paper suggests policy support in terms of enhanced agriculture infrastructure, mitigation of vulnerable climatic factors, appropriate use of agriculture inputs and suitable technology to achieve higher degree of agricultural efficiency and also generate higher income for farmers. Furthermore, the use of technological inventions by public--private participation in the cultivation methods of various crops needs to be encouraged for achieving agriculture efficiency at disaggregate level.

Title: Statistical Investigation of Production Performance of Cumin in India
Abstract :

Cumin is the dried, white fruit with greyish brown colour of a small slender annual herb. The surface of the fruit has 5 primary ridges, alternatively has 4 less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs. The flowers are white or rose-colored in small umbels. By and large there has been considerable expansion in area and production of cumin in Gujarat, Rajasthan and whole India. Considering the productivity of cumin except Gujarat remaining state Rajasthan and whole India registered the negative growth rate. Moreover, in states and whole India different factors are influencing productivity of cumin; by and large nitrogen is the major factor to significantly effect on the cumin productivity. Also forecasting has been done using comparing ARIMA and GARCH model for year 2020. Globally seeing the cumin seed demand this forecasting can be used policy implications and future trend of production and productivity of cumin in India and major states. This helps shows that cumin production reached 375 and 562 ‘000 tonnes in year 2020 for Gujarat and whole India respectively.

Title: Demographic synergies of North East India and Geo-temporal transformation in agriculture
Abstract :

The study was conducted based on available secondary published data collected from various sources pertaining from the period of 1991-92 to 2013-14. The study is an attempt to examine the demographic pattern and changes of cultivators and agricultural labourers in the states, changes of land utilization, shift in technology and state income. It was observed that the states of NE India were thinly populated except in Assam and Tripura. Migration was one of the factors of shift of population in the region. The increase of agricultural labourers was higher which might be due to marginalization and crowded pattern of agriculture. Stagnation of area for agricultural use indicated a slow progress of agricultural development in the states during the last twenty-five years. The cropping pattern as a group in the region inclined towards fruits, vegetables and oilseeds while it declined for spices. The percentage share of cereals did not change during this period; it was higher in Assam and Tripura while it was quite low in other states. Agricultural income did not grow faster and was found to decline in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Tripura which needs the attention of the planners. Agriculture in NE India is still subsistence in nature.

Title: Analysis of Prices and Arrivals of Apple Fruit in Narwal Market of Jammu
Abstract :

The present study was conducted with an intention to study the behavior of prices and arrivals of apple fruit in Narwal market of Jammu and also to estimate their trend. This study is based on the secondary data of one decade collected from Directorate of Horticulture, Planning and Marketing, Narwal, Jammu. Ten years monthly data i.e. from 2007-08 to 2016- 17 on prices and arrivals of apple have been utilized for modeling purpose. For analytical framework Linear Regression Equation were used to study the Trend of the time Series Data on prices and arrivals and seasonal indices were calculated to study the periodic movements in business activity which occur regularly every year and have their origin in the nature of the year itself. The results showed positive trend in both prices and arrivals of apple. Moreover the prices and arrivals are anticipated to increase at the rate of ` 220.06 per annum per quintal which is 15969.42 quintals of apple arrivals per year. The main season for arrivals of local as well as non-local apple from other regions and states in Narwal market was from August to January. Prices for apples were found lowest in the month of April (` 6707.00/qntls.) and contrary in the month of August with highest price rate (` 100892.50/qntls.). The seasonal indices of arrivals of apple in Narwal market were recorded maximum during the month of October (471.00) and minimum in the month of April (0.19). The seasonal index for prices being lowest in the month of April (0.19) and the highest in August (160.66).

Title: Narcotic Dilemma and Political Upheaval in Afghanistan
Abstract :

In Republic of Afghanistan international community is facing an unprecedented treat of Narcotic Production and Consumption. The Afghanistan is widely known as the largest producer of the world’s supply of heroin. The threat has gone to the extent that in 2016, it was estimated that 80% of the world’s Opium supply came from Afghanistan. Estimated production has risen by 43% in 2016 compared with 2015 levels, according to latest Afghan Opium Survey figures released by Afghan Ministry of Counter Narcotics and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Opium is Afghanistan’s largest cash crop. The Republic of Afghanistan is the country where the maximum production of Opium takes place. The problem is a serious concern in the future because it has a tendency to grow more and more as Afghanistan is about to complete the major project which will connect the South Asia, Central Asia and Middle East. This is of New Silk Route, one of the biggest reconstructions happening in Eurasian Content after the disorganisation of Soviet Union. In this context the study would attempt to access the problems of illicit drugs and Narcotic Production in Afghanistan and in what way planners of the country will undertake steps to prevent the illegal trade of Narcotic Business.

Title: Analysis of Marketing Efficiency of Wheat in Different Grade Regulated Markets in Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :

Marketers need to design creative solutions like e- marketing to overcome challenges typical of the rural environment such as physical distribution, channel management promotion and communication. The study has been undertaken to examine the facilities and services available and to analyse the marketing efficiency of wheat in different grade regulated markets of Madhya Pradesh. The present investigation is restricted to Sehore (A), MHOW (B), Kalapipal (C) and Katangi (D) grade regulated markets in Madhya Pradesh. The study reveals that A grade (Sehore) regulated market was found to facilitate more as compared to the other market but this particular market was found less price efficient than the other market. All the markets has poor market facilities with regards to post office, restaurant, fire extinguishers, bank, grading and analysing laboratory, extension unit, public address system, rest house for farmers, audio visual aid and garbage disposal system. Hence suggested that these facilities should be provided in each regulated markets with National e-agriculture market (e-markets) and bringing them all to one platform so that registered farmers will be able to sell their produce online in any of the markets where they can get the best price. The e-market also ensured that intermediaries (and money lenders) do not compel farmers to sell their produce at throw away prices and their produce should first be bought at the regulated market to be put for auction to sell, which will get them all a fair price, reduce the chances of middlemen by adding any extra cost or seeking double commission. This will also brought transparency in the system.

Title: An Economic Assessment of Cotton Production under Precision Farming in North Eastern Karnataka
Abstract :

Precision Farming is an old traditional farming in the modern way, which involves optimizing agricultural production by improving the precision of the existing agronomic management activities by implementing them at a subfield scale. Such an experimental implementation has been done in Karnataka as the project on precision farming in selected field crops. Hence, to analyze the economic benefits of precision farming in comparison with conventional farming the present study was undertaken. The study was conducted at Raichur district, Karnataka. The data were collected by personal interview method by the pretested schedule. The study results indicated that though the cost of cultivation was marginally higher (1.47 %) in precision farming than non-precision farming, the yield obtained under management practices of precision farming (38.03 q/ha) were much higher than (26.48 q/ha) conventional farming situations. Hence there was a net gain of ` 35,898.82/ha under the adoption of precision farming. Returns per rupee spent was 2.03. Considering its benefits there is a need to encourage and popularize this technology with the support of line departments, SAU’s and other extension agencies.

Title: Does Electricity Consumption affect Economic Growth in Bangladesh?
Abstract :

This research attempts to uncover the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Bangladesh adopting co-integration and causality analysis using time series data spanning from 1972 to 2011. It takes under consideration the variables Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Electricity Consumption (EC) and Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) to fulfill the research objective. Adopting Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests of unit root, it is observed that the first differences of all the three variables are stationary which indicates that the variables are co-integrated of order 1. The trace test and maximum Eigen value of Johansen co-integration test confirm that all the variables are co-integrated with one co-integrating vector. Besides, using Impulse Response Functions (IFRs) of Vector Auto-regression (VAR), the possible forecasting for the relationship of the variables has been performed. The empirical result based on Granger F-test reveals existence of unidirectional causality running from Electricity Consumption (EC) to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Electricity Consumption (EC) to Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) without having any reverse causation. Thus, it implies that Electricity Consumption (EC) affects both Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) drives only Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) in short run without feedback in the long run.

Title: Cluster Analysis of Wine Market Segmentation – A Consumer Based Study in the Mid-Atlantic USA
Abstract :

The U.S. wine market has been steadily increasing over the past 15 years. The number of wineries has increased from 2688 in 1999 to 8862 in 2016. About 7% of all those wineries are located in the Mid-Atlantic region, which includes New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. However, competition has been rising as the market is growing. Many foreign wine companies from Europe, South America, and Oceania, are either selling or planning to sell their products to the fast-growing U.S. wine market. It is important to promote local wine industry in the U.S. In this connection, this study has attempted to predict the segment of Mid-Atlantic wine market - based on purchasing behavior, attitudes, and social demographic attributes. A Cluster Analysis used to segment the Mid-Atlantic wine market into four clusters namely Class 1 Detractors, Class 2 Enthusiasts, Class 3 Neutral and Class 4 Advocators. Class 1. Detractors are the cluster that is the most unlikely to buy local wine. Neatly, 67.4% of Detractors indicated that they had never obtained local wine before. 2. Enthusiasts and Class 4 Advocators are the target market of Mid-Atlantic local wineries and hence we should pay more attention to these two market segments. 74.5% of Class 2 indicated that they had bought wine from the Mid-Atlantic wine region. About 60% of Class 4 Advocators stated that they had purchased local wine before. The characteristics of Class 4 are very similar to Class 2. The chance of Class 3 Neutral to buy local wine is 50/50. They drink and buy wine more frequently than consumers in other clusters. Typically, we do not recommend Mid-Atlantic wineries to target this market segment, unless they want to expand their market beyond Class 2 and Class 4. The assessment of perception of consumers will help the producers, wholesalers, and retailers to target ultimate consumers and specific market segments.

Title: Estimation of Total Factor Productivity and its Determinants of Maize in Telangana State
Abstract :
Total factor productivity (TFP) growth and its determinants of maize in Telangana state was estimated from 2000-01 to 2012-13 using parametric approach. The data on the quantity and price of the output of rice and various inputs were collected from the published documents of the “Cost of Cultivation of Principle Crops” scheme of Government of India. The data on the variables like government expenditure on agricultural research, extension and education was collected from the office of the Accountant General of the Government of Telangana, Hyderabad. Other required data were collected from various published documents of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Hyderabad. The study revealed that there was 51% improvement in the TFP of maize in Telangana state in 2012-13 when compared to the base year (2000-01) with an annual compound growth rate of 3.5%. Average rainfall in the state and percentage irrigated area under the crop were found to be the most important drivers of TFP growth of maize in the state with regression coefficients of 0.606 and 0.034 respectively. Governments’ expenditure on agricultural research, extension and education were also found to be positively influencing the TFP growth.
Title: Study on Marketing Cost and Margins of Cluster bean in Bikaner District of Rajasthan
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to analyze the marketing cost and margins of cluster bean. The study was conducted in Bikaner district, Rajasthan. It has been observed from the study that the marketing cost incurred by the producer, wholesaler, miller and retailer is varied extensively over the channels. It is also evident that channel-II comprising of Producer-Wholesaler-Retailer- Consumer is more efficient than the other two channels. The study concluded that subsidized transportation facilities during harvesting along with establishment of sound market intelligence system may be helpful for the cluster bean farmers to fetch remunerative prices for their crop.

Title: Rural Household Livelihoods, Non-farm Economy and Landless Workforce: Evidence from the Village Economy of Haryana, India
Abstract :

This paper examines household livelihoods patterns of the landless poor in a village of Haryana by applying sustainable livelihood approach rather than the reductionist approach of income-consumption paradigm. The attempt is made to investigate and analyse the contours of life of landless workers from the multiple perspectives: literacy rate among male and female in each household, education attainment, income-expenditure patterns, rural farm and non-farm occupational choice, housing conditions and the role of social and financial capital. It also explores the desperation and vulnerability among the working class in a village in the context of above indicators. The economic and social environment locates the landless workforce in the brutal and vicious circle of low literacy- unskilled and semi-skilled works- low income- poor living condition which is not pleasant to asset creation. Keeping these actualities in mind, the paper indicates towards the environment created by central planning system, various welfare schemes run by the state and central governments and specifically by economic reforms initiated in the last quarter of twentieth century. As a corollary, landless workforce is doomed to live in vulnerability and desperation.

Title: Measuring the Knowledge Level of Farmers Regarding Improved Rice Cultivation Practices and Ranking of Associated Constraints
Abstract :
The Production Oriented Surveys on paddy growing areas were conducted in the three plain districts of Jammu region namely; Jammu, Samba and Kathua during the years 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The information was gathered regarding the knowledge of farmers about improved practices of paddy cultivation, as recommended in package and practices. It is revealed from the study that the Knowledge Index of paddy growers was less than 50%, and majority of the respondents fall under the medium level category in terms of knowledge about improved practices of paddy cultivation. It was also observed that the knowledge of improved practices did not vary much between different districts and statistically were at par with each other. Lack of critical inputs at the right time and insufficient skill in dealing with diseases and pest control were the main constraints in achieving higher productivity. A number of steps are required to be taken to provide opportunities to farmers for adopting improved practices in paddy cultivation, either through the provision of training programmes or by making effective administrative decisions at the right time.
Title: Contents Vol. 63, No. 3, September 2018
Abstract :
Title: Contents Economic Affairs: Vol. 64, No. 1, March 2019
Abstract :
Title: Population Ageing in India and West Bengal among Scheduled Castes (SC) Population
Abstract :
The present study deals with the phenomenon of population ageing among SC population in India and West Bengal. Remarkable shrinkages of population pyramids on SC population for India and West Bengal over 2001–2011 indicates a decline in fertility leading to an increase in the proportion of elderly population. More per cent of elderly females are living in West Bengal than those in India. Per cent of working elderly among SC population is lesser than that among ST population in India and West Bengal. Per cent of working elders among SC population in West Bengal is very low compared to that in India. Per cent of currently married elderly among SC population is higher than that among ST population in both India and West Bengal. Prevalence of disabilities of elderly among SC population is almost similar to elderly among ST population both in India and West Bengal. Literacy rate of elderly among SC population in West Bengal is better than that in India. Literacy rate among elderly females of SC population is very low compared to that of elderly males. Elderly persons among SC population are in a better position compared to ST population both in India and West Bengal.
Title: Employment Status of Women in Rural Punjab: Dwindling Trends
Abstract :

Considerable participation of women in socio-economic, political and cultural set-up of the society is the pre requisite for the development of an economy. It is the fact that the economies which used the growth of agricultural sector as a base for their development path towards industrial and service sector growth shifted their surplus labour from agricultural sector to these sectors. Punjab has a different story regarding rural female employment. After green revolution, the state recorded tremendous agricultural growth. But this achievement in agriculture did not contribute in terms of female participation in economic activities and even this remarkable growth upto 1980’s in agriculture sector brought a sharp decline of female work participation in farm-sector. In the nineties when major economic reforms were introduced in Indian economy, the major sectoral shift was noticed in employment which in result brought a rapid shrink in the number of agricultural workers in the state. Census 2011 figures present a gloomy situation for the gender equality in work participation in Punjab. Punjab continued backward for providing equal employment opportunities for the women. High mechanisation of agriculture and low growth of a non-agriculture sector made the situation worse for women to get employment. It is high time for a gender sensitive employment generation strategy to secure the socioeconomic interests of females in the state.

Title: Study of Yield Gap Analysis among Paddy Growers in Plain Zone of Chhattisgarh State
Abstract :

The present study analyses the total yield gap in paddy crop in to three different gaps viz. yield gap-I, yield gap-II and total yield gap. The study based on primary as well as secondary data was carried out in three districts of plain zone namely Rajnandgoan, Mahasamund and Dhamtari districts. At the second and third stage of sampling, two blocks and two villages were selected from each district and each block, respectively to constitute a total of 6 blocks and 12 villages. Primary data were collected from a sample of 240 paddy farmers (20 from each village) through personal interview method and secondary data were collected from respective districts of K.V.K in crop year 2016-17. Most of the sample farmers were growing Rajeshwari (IGKV R -1) variety of paddy crop. Yield gap analysis shows that 13.22 per cent yield gap was estimated between potential and potential farm yield where as yield gap between potential farm yield and actual yield was estimated overall 20.00 per cent. Index of realized potential farm yield was observed 71.78 per cent on marginal farms to 89.44 per cent on large farms with an overall average of 80.00 per cent. It may be inferred from the study that the use of important variable has to be carefully extended by the paddy farmers to minimize the yield gap. Besides, the input supply of quality inputs viz. seeds, farm yard manure, irrigation and plant protection measures on different categories of farms may help to reduce the yield gap of the crop on the one hand and raise the income of the cultivators on the other.

Title: On Labour Migration in India: Trends, Causes and Impacts
Abstract :
The paper considers the issue of labour migration which is very significant for economic development of any nation. It presents in a nutshell the trends and patterns of migration in India, its causes and impacts as discussed in the literature so far. After doing a rigorous survey of the literature we observe that the issue is, in some sense, neglected and its importance is underestimated. Hence, the paper would serve as a useful guide to the future research on this area.
Title: Gender Based Comparative Analysis of Workers Participation in Agriculture in Rural Areas of Uttarakhand: A Study of Sahaspur Development Block
Abstract :

Amidst the huge migration of the males tough working and living working conditions, the females of the Hill Rural regions of Uttarakhand largely share the burden of the economy of these regions. Many studies depict that female participation is decreasing in the rural areas. Amidst the low declining work force participation of women in India, a few changing patterns can be observed. The first is a shift away from agriculture over the last decade 1999-2000 to 2011-12, and the second is the gain in education of regular employment even during the period 2004-2012, when the overall work force participation rates are declining. The study of the workers participation in Uttarakhand state as per 2011 census shows that female work participation rate is 26.7 percent, which has decreased from the year 2001 when it was 27.3 percent and the same is noticed in the rural areas of the state. The present study conducted in the rural region of Uttarakhand do not totally corroborate these facts and indicates that female work participation in agriculture which is largely carried out for meeting the subsistence level of household demand is still higher under various conditions. The comparison of male-female participation in pre and Post harvest agricultural activities reflect the fact that even after higher rate of participation of females in agriculture, males have larger role in key agriculture activities that require decision making (Ploughing, selection of seeds, and spraying of chemical fertilizers-Pre-harvest; Marketing- post harvest). The overall analysis of the male-female participation in pre and post harvest activities clearly shows that females have higher participation rate in agriculture than males. The study further highlights the factors which lead towards higher preference for female agriculture labour and hence deals with their higher participation rate in agriculture activities in these regions.

Title: Socio-personal and Economic Analysis of Apiculture Enterprise in Hadauoti Region of Rajasthan
Abstract :

This study was undertaken with the objective to study the socio-personal profile of the successful bee-keepers and the economic analysis of stationary and migratory apiculture in the Hadauti region of Rajasthan. The average size of migratory apiary units was found to be 192 hives and in case of stationary apiary units on an average there were 78 hives. The analysis of the socio-personal characteristics of the respondents revealed that the majority of the successful bee-keepers were in young age group, farming as major occupation along with bee keeping, high level of extension contact and maximum bee keepers were from other backward category background. The results depicted that the majority of bee keepers were from farming background and they took beekeeping as subsidairy occupation. However, unemployed youth were engaged with migratory apiculture and they adopt bee keeping as their main occupation. The five year average of honey production from migratory apiary units was 40.97 kg/ hive, where as it was only 28.33 kg/ hive for stationary apiary units. The cost-benefit of both migratory and stationary apiary units was found to be 2.61 and 4.00 in the year 2014-15 respectively. Overall, five year average, cost benefit ratio was workout 2.34 for stationary and 3.36 for migratory bee keeping entreprise during the year 2011-2015. It was evident from the results that the net return of bee keepers increased with the increase in the number of colonies.

Title: Marketing and Constraints Analysis of Pomegranate in Solapur District of Maharashtra
Abstract :

Increased production of agricultural commodities would be of no worth, if efficient marketing does not follow it. Marketing of agricultural products usually signifies their physical transfers as well as the commercial terms on which the transfers are made. The pomegranate produce in the study area was marketed through three different channels from producers to ultimate consumer’s viz., Channel- I: Farmer- Pre-harvest contractor -Commission agent cum wholesaler - Retailer –Consumer, Channel-II: Farmer- Distant Market wholesaler- Retailer –Consumer and Channel-III: Farmer – Exporter. Channel- I was the most popular channel of marketing in the study area, since in this channel the net price received by the producer was higher than other channels. Also due to the presence of harvest contractor in channel– I, time and transportation cost of the producer were saved and moreover advance payment by the pre-harvest contractor before taking the delivery of the produce was also the reason for the popularity of Channel-I. Garrett ranking technique has been used to analyze the marketing problems faced by the pomegranate farmers. Majority of the farmers opined that they did not get remunerative price for the produce and are also cheated by the middlemen, higher transportation costs when fruits are sold outside the local area, high commission charges, lack of market information and low price paid to farmers.

Title: Patterns of Informality in the Ship Breaking Industry of Bangladesh
Abstract :

The relationship between economic growth and formalization of industrial sectors has not been unidimensional as several studies have brought different aspects of it from diverse contexts. This paper tries to evaluate the persistence of informality in the ship breaking industry of Bangladesh by setting it against the proclaimed formality of the sector. In addition, the paper also seeks to support the argument that informal patterns of employment can persist, if not grow, within a formal system. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been collected by questionnaire survey and key informant interviews. Analysis of the findings reveal a strong presence of informality within labor market dynamics of ship breaking industry in Bangladesh while several administrative aspects of the industry remain formalized. Study findings support the notion that growth as well as institutional development cannot necessarily transform informal conditions of labor market in developing country context.

Title: Armed Forces and Disaster Management in India
Abstract :

Currently, involvements of armed forces to aid civil authority in various events are continuously rising. Given their professional training and spirit to deliver and assist the communities, the armed forces always become the first choice of any state civil authorities in the event of disasters. The role of the armed forces in disaster management is globally well recognized. Their ability to work under adverse ground and climatic conditions is an unusual attribute to help to civil authority during disasters. Government, civil society and all other stakeholders have incredible faith and believe that all types of disaster can be efficiently handled by the armed forces. The Indian armed forces are one of the most dedicated professional and modernized armed forces in the world. They are always in a state of operational readiness to move quickly to any disaster affected area. Besides, NDRF also played an important role in rescue and relief operation in all major disasters in the country; in fact their service during the disasters reduces the pressure on the armed forces. The armed force will continue to play a vital role in disaster response as they are the core of the government’s response capacity in major disaster situations.

Title: Economic Analysis of Pecan Nut Production: An Application of Input Oriented DEA Model
Abstract :

The economics of pecan nut production in Poonch district of Jammu & Kashmir state was assessed using input oriented DEA model. The NPV and profitability index were positive and the internal rate of return (IRR) was 14 per cent, which shows that investing in pecan nut orchard will be a profitable venture until the market interest rate remains below 14 per cent. The results of input oriented model revealed that growers were efficient in terms of pecan nut production at the given level of inputs, with mean overall technical efficiency of 0.922, mean pure technical efficiency of 0.961 and mean scale efficiency of 0.959. The mean allocative and cost efficiencies were 0.718 and 0.665, respectively. The level of input use in pecan nut was extremely low and if inputs are increased, the output would increase more than the use of inputs. The average allocative and cost efficiency of pecan nut growers was less than the average technical efficiency, which shows that pecan nut growers were relatively more technical than cost efficient.

Title: Labour Energy Requirements for Farm and Non-farm Activities in Hills: A case study of paddy growers of Manipur
Abstract :

The objective of the study was to work out the change in total human labour energy requirement on farm and non-farm activities during climate change. Primary data was collected from 60 randomly selected paddy growers of Senapati district of Manipur. Thirty-nine years (1975-2013) state level daily gridded rainfall (0.25Ëš×0.25Ëš) and temperature (1Ëš×1Ëš) data were obtained from India Meteorological Department (IMD). The study revealed that after 1994, Manipur experienced eight years of deficit monsoon rainfall. The labour requirements increased for weeding and transplanting operations during drought period. The additional burden during the drought period was comparatively more on female member of the households. The energy requirement to produce one kg of paddy was significantly higher under drought condition. The increased burden for fuel wood collection was on both male and female during droughts. The male shared the burden of fodder collection whereas, female shared the burden of fetching the drinking water. Therefore, research on developing of farm implements should be prioritized; supply of irrigation and safe drinking water should be addressed urgently by the State Government.

Title: Chickpea Production through Diverse Technologies in Khargone District of Madhya Pradesh: An economic appraisal
Abstract :

A study was conducted in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh in the year 2016-17. A three stage random sampling technique was used for drawing the primary data from 60 farmers. On the basis of input use pattern, farmers were divided into three categories i.e. chickpea cultivation with use of improved chickpea production technology (progressive farmers), as per their own decision in adoption production technology (general farmers) and with least adoption of improved technology (poor technological farmers). Cost concept, simple ranking and adoption index was used for the study. It resulted that the high adoption practice yield on an average 13.74 q/ha followed by moderate 12.15 q/ha and least adoption 11.00 q/ha. High yield gap found in progressive farm and least adoption farm about 24.91 % and least in progressive and moderate adoption is 13.10. Highest adoption found in case of family labour followed by bullock power, machinery and least in case of irrigation in all farm adoption level. Highest expenditure on farm is seen in case of high level adoption farm followed by moderate and low. Highest B.C. ratio is found in case of high level adoption farm followed by moderate and low i.e. 1.21, 1.19 and 1.17. Major problems in the study area is incidence of disease, pest, erratic rain fall, lack of input, lack of knowledge, crop failure etc. It is concluded that the chickpea productivity can be increased through the judicious use of improved inputs and practices. It was revealed that as chickpea require higher initial investment and to reduce the risk; an attractive crop insurance scheme needs to be implemented.

Title: Economics of Sugar Production of Cooperative Sugar factories in North Eastern Karnataka
Abstract :
Economics of sugar production was measured by considering the three cooperative sugar factories using different parameters like costs and returns from sugar production, sugar sales and revenue, by-products sales and revenue in Bidar district of North-Eastern Karnataka (NEK) region. Thus, the calculated sugar sales, revenue accrued and price of sugar revealed that, the average total sugar sales under both open and levy quota was 3722 metric tonnes, while average revenue of sugar sales under levy quota was ` 163 lakh, but the average price of sugar was ` 2275 per quintal over the study period. In order to reduce the losses in the factory, an effort towards the integration and coordination of various sections of the factory must be converged so that the factories can run on a profit basis.
Title: Growth and Instability in Cotton Cultivation in Northern India
Abstract :

The cotton industry has witnessed many technological breakthroughs as well as policy changes. Setbacks such as disease and pest infestation and erratic rainfall patterns continuously confront cotton cultivation. These continuous changes and confrontations invariably affect the trend, growth and stability of the economic performances of cotton. Hence, based on secondary data from 1966-67 to 2013-14, the study assessed the trends, growth and instability in area, production and yield of cotton in Haryana using semi-log linear function, compounded annual growth rate and Cuddy Della Valle Index. The study revealed a positive significant (P<0.01) trends with low annual growth rates of area of harvest (2.00%), production (3.99%) and yield (1.66%). Instability was high and also inclined at an annual rate of 30.96% in area, 25.76% in production and 28.04% productivity in the same order. The study, therefore, recommended the development and spread of innovations at an affordable price to farmers. Effective disease and pest control measures should be developed to check the perennial pest infestation of cotton in the state.

Title: Vulnerability to Climate Change: Review of Conceptual Framework
Abstract :

The paper presents a conceptual framework on vulnerability to climate change. Vulnerability is a multi-dimensional process and is calculated by identifying the indicators of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Among the components of vulnerability, exposure followed by sensitivity has the highest contribution but they cannot be controlled directly as the climatic factors that influence vulnerability like temperature, rainfall and natural disasters were beyond the immediate control of policy makers. The only option to reduce vulnerability is to increase adaptive capacity. Hence, policy makers should make arrangement for increasing adaptive capacity so as to reduce vulnerability.

Title: MUDRA: Strengthening Institutional Finance for Micro Enterprises
Abstract :

The MSME plays a vital role in providing large employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital than large scale industries. It also helps in industrialization of rural and backward areas and assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. However this sector is continuously facing many challenges and the biggest bottleneck to this sector is the weak institutional financial support. Therefore, in order to provide more institutional finance to the sector, “funding the unfunded” and promote entrepreneurship and self employment in the country government need a specialized financial institution. Thus, Government has created MUDRA. The main objectives of MUDRA are to create an inclusive, sustainable and value based entrepreneurial culture for achieving economic success and financial security and more income and employment opportunities which are the preconditions for inclusive growth. Through establishment of MUDRA, this sector can be used an important tool to achieve financial inclusion and inclusive growth. MUDRA provides refinance support to banks and MFIs for lending to micro units having loan requirements up to ` 10 lakh.

Title: Content
Abstract :

Vol. 63, No. 2, June 2018

Title: Economic Efficiency of Input Use in Peach Cultivation in North Western Himalayas
Abstract :

Peach is the most important stone fruit in temperate and sub-tropical areas. Among the stone fruits, peach crop accounts for 49.54 per cent in area and 60.82 per cent production in Himachal Pradesh. A sample of 60 farmers cultivating peach was selected using multistage simple random sampling. Results of the study revealed that literacy rate in the study area were worked out to 82.57 per cent with literacy index of 2.23 indicating low quality of education. Average operational area was found 1.26 ha, out of which orchard area was 0.83 ha and peach plantation accounts for 52.38 per cent. The cultivation of peach component was also seem to be quite important; with its contribution to total household income was 45.54 per cent. It has been observed that fertilizer, FYM and Labour were significantly affecting the production but plant protection chemical was not found significant. It has been observed that Fertilizer, FYM, Plant Protection Chemicals and Labour were found to be significantly under-utilized resources and increase the use of these inputs will increase production. The findings of the study strongly recommend the optimum use of the resources in order to attain desired growth in peach cultivation and ultimately the productivity.

Title: Relationship between Profile Characteristics with Knowledge and Adoption of Transplanting Method of Pigeon Pea Cultivation Practices
Abstract :

The research study was conducted in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka during the year 2014-15 by using ex-post-facto research design. The total sample of 120 was derived from three taluks of a district by using random sampling method. It is concluded from the present study that, transplanting method of pigeon pea cultivation practices is well known among the respondents. It is seen that education, farming experience, land holding, annual income, risk orientation, scientific orientation, extension participation and sources of information showed positive and highly significant relationship at one per cent level, Whereas, innovativeness and mass media utilization showed positive and significant relationship at five per cent level. One variable i.e., age showed non-significant relationship with knowledge level of transplanting pigeon pea farmers. Farming experience showed positive and highly significant relationship at one per cent level, whereas, education, land holding, annual income, innovativeness, risk orientation, scientific orientation, extension participation, mass media utilization and sources of information showed positive and significant relationship at five per cent level. One variable i.e., age showed non-significant relationship with adoption level of transplanting pigeon pea farmers.

Title: An Econometric Analysis of Consumer’s Willingness to Buy Locally Produced Wine: A Study in the Mid-Atlantic U.S.
Abstract :

US wine sales approached $60 billion in 2016, of which, an estimated $39.8 billion was generated from domestic wine sales and the remainder from imports. On average, 120 million Americans, age 21 and older, drink wine, which is approximately 36% of total population (330 million). Wine consumer demographic characteristics play a significant role in the wine consumption decisions. Results from a logit regression show that the following groups more likely to buy local wine than their counterparts for example: New York residents; consumers between 45 and 64 years of age old; males; those with annual household incomes between $76,000 and $200,000; participants with a bachelor’s degree or higher; those who drink wine once a week or two to three times a week; those who purchase wine to consume during different occasions; those who purchase wine for everyday purposes to be consumed in their home; those who purchase wine to be added to their collections or to be consumed at a later time are more likely to buy local wine; those who often drink wine with food, when at a social gathering with family and friends, or at the end of the day to relax, are more likely to purchase local wine. The assessment of consumers’ willingness to buy locally produced wine will help producers, wholesalers, and retailers target likely buyers based on segments.

Title: An Exploration of the Emergence of Coordinated Domestic Supply Chain for Exotic Vegetables in India: A Case Study of Baby corn
Abstract :

This study based upon primary data had been carried out to explore the domestic supply chain for baby corn as well as to examine the investment and sales pattern of baby corn of the market agents. The study indicated that the entry of corporate sector in the non-traditional agricultural sector has paved a way for a small segment of the market agents at each level along the commodity specific entire supply chain for an upward mobility. Production thereby of the sales of baby corn was relatively concentrated during the months of October and November. Its average monthly sales from the primary wholesalers were about 14% higher to the secondary wholesalers in Punjab when compared to West Bengal. Its average monthly sales to the organized sector compared to the traditional retail sector stood 7.51% higher in the primary wholesale market whereas 33.01% higher in the secondary wholesale market of Ludhiana city. However, traditional i.e. unorganized retail sector like the sales of seasonal fruits and vegetables also predominates in the sales of this exotic vegetable item. It seems that the sales of this exotic item from the organized retail sector might have been concentrated from particular stores/localities.

Title: Critical Analysis on Role of Women in Sericulture Industry
Abstract :

Women constitute more than fifty per cent of the world’s population, one third of the labour force, and perform nearly two thirds of all working hours. Women are also mostly engaged in the unorganized sector (Mehta and Sethi, 1977). This is more in the case of agriculture and allied activities. Sericulture is one of the important potential labour intensive agro- based rural industry in the world. No wonder women are playing a very important role in the sericulture industry. Their qualities like maternal instincts and loving care of those under their charge prove to be very helpful in the successful breeding of silk worms. The sericulture industry has opened up phenomenal employment avenues and has helped women to become important players in the decision-making process—whether in the household or in the community at large. The active involvement of women is very essential for the success of any community development initiative. This has been proved on many occasions all over the world—more so in the developing countries. This paper analyzed that impact of women workers’ dominance in sericulture sector upon the process of inclusive development in the rural household sectors of West Bengal. Women has patience, perseverance, caring attitude and adaptability to new technologies have made her activities more dominant in sericulture and silk production. The present study reveals that Women are engaged with about 60% (about 57% in 1st year and about 64% from 2nd year onwards) work in various sector in Sericulture i.e. from Mulberry cultivation to Silk weaving etc. and women are doing their works successfully in every sector.

Title: Economics of Cabbage Cultivation and Post-harvest Losses in Phek District of Nagaland
Abstract :

The study was undertaken during 2015-16 on cabbage cultivation in Chizami block, Phek district in Nagaland to identify the economics of production of cabbage and to estimate post harvest losses. With the region being high in altitude, with remote access, and tribal farmers engaged in organic farming, it was crucial to scientifically study the cabbage farming enterprises. Two stage sampling technique was employed to sample farmers from three villages and information were gathered by using a structured interview schedule. From the study it was found that the average yield was 154.27 quintal per hectare, and the total cost per hectare was ` 75,615.58. The cost component, cost A for marginal and small farmers was ` 51,087.41 and ` 55,312.42 per hectare respectively and ` 58,365.95 per hectare for medium farmers. Post harvest loss at farmer’s field was 17.14 per cent for medium farmers and the losses for small and marginal farmers were lower at 14.20 and 11.94 per cent respectively. The ratio of return per rupee invested (RPR) ranged from 1.75 in medium to 1.96 with marginal farmers. In case of post-harvest loss of cabbage, a purposive sampling of 10 retailers and 5 wholesalers revealed the loss percentage at 25.37 per cent at retail level and 15.86 per cent at wholesalers point. Major constraints faced by farmers were lack of knowledge about plant protection measures, storage facilities and limited working capital. Traders of cabbage and other vegetables in the block reported lack of cold storage facilities, transportation facility and improper handling of produce as the major constraints.

Title: Facet of Food Security under NREGA in Sikkim
Abstract :

NREGA became operational from February 2006 in Sikkim. An effort has been made in this paper to identify the factors determining the participation of people in NREGA scheme and to see whether NREGA has been successful in ensuring better food security to the beneficiaries. It has been found that there is considerable amount of variation across the households in the consumption of food and non-food items between beneficiary and non-beneficiary households under NREGA. The average household consumption expenditure is lower than household income both for beneficiary and non-beneficiary households. There are however variations in income and consumption across the households and the extent of variation being greater for non-beneficiary households. There is relatively greater inequality in the income earned in case of non-beneficiary households, which is indicative of the fact that non-beneficiaries have derived income from occupations diversified in nature. The level of education and sex are positively related to NREGA participation.

Title: Growth, Economic Instability and Popular Aspirations in South Asia: Some Leads for Public Policy
Abstract :

Global dynamics in the economic front have undergone several noteworthy changes in recent decades. At one hand, there is an increasing interest of the global finance capital in some prominent and emerging economies of South (emphasis ours). We see an increasing systemic resilience in these emerging economies towards shocks and economic fluctuations that have frequented the developed part of the globe more often than ever before. Many ascribe this resilience to an increasing recognition of the national governments of the Southern economies towards popular aspirations reflected in the manifestos of the ruling forces as well as formulation of pro-people policies than ever before. While this is something that needs attention, we also observe some contradictions of the growth process within the so called ‘emerging south’. While the income of the nations is on the rise, the regional imbalances also are growing. At the same time, the deficit in some key development indicators such as health and education are also widening. Such a scenario is more so true in the context of countries of the South Asian region. Some flagship programmes and policies in the most South Asian countries clearly reflect the popular aspirations and development needs in these countries. The political forces in these countries have also become proactive in raising issues of development more prominently in their election campaigns and political literature. The present paper attempts to explain some such contradictions in the context of South Asia and based on the analysis of country specific data on income, health, education and other indicators from the global database of world development indicators (WDI) and with the help of vector auto-regression (VAR) method of analysis, the paper seeks to establish some linkages in these variables in the changing global scenario.

Title: Dynamics of Goat Milk Production in Different Agro-Climatic Regions of Rajasthan
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted to make critical examination of change, variation and growth of milk production of goat in various agro-climactic zones during period of study (1998-2012). Goat milk production in Rajasthan increased to 1656 thousand tonnes (current year) from 726.33 thousand tonnes (base year) showed 127.99 per cent change with a variation of 31.87 per cent during the study period (1998-2012). The production of goat milk increased with 6.43 per cent per annum of growth rate significantly with a magnitude of 67.79 thousand tonnes per year. The maximum growth and magnitude of goat milk production increased significantly in Arid Western Plain (8.97 per cent) and growth rate of goat milk production was found highly significant in Arid Western Plains.

Title: Disbursement of Credit by KSFC to Agro and Non-Agro Industries in Karnataka: A critical economic analysis
Abstract :

KSFC is providing financial assistance to the priority sector with maximum emphasis on food processing industries. The purposive sampling technique was adopted in designing sampling frame for the study. The Hyderabad -Karnataka region was purposively selected, which is industrially a backward region of the state. The secondary data were collected from KSFC branch offices of selected districts and states as a whole for a period of 14 years from 2000-01 to 2014-15. Compound growth rate analysis indicated that growth in number of units sanctioned and loan amount disbursed for agro-industries were 0.16 and 13.08 per cent per annum and were significant in H-K region. Similar trend of growth was observed in disbursement of loan to non-agro industries. The share of agro based industries in the total number of units sanctioned and credit disbursed by KSFC in H-K region was 35.39 and 44.96 per cents respectively. However, share of ABI’s was very low with 16.39 and 12.91 per cents for number of units sanctioned and credit disbursed at the state level during the study period. The total number of micro, small and medium enterprises(MSME) of the sanctioned agro based industries indicated that H-K region accounted 33.78 and 12.31 per cents of total ABI’s and non-ABI units sanction by KSFC in the state.

Title: Financial Feasibility of Fig Cultivation (Ficus carica Linn.) in North-Eastern Karnataka, India
Abstract :

The paper presents the costs and returns, economic and financial feasibility of fig cultivation in North Eastern region of Karnataka, India. Data collected from 60 fig cultivators by adopting multistage sampling design were analyzed using tabular analysis, economic and financial feasibility measures like Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benifit Cost (BC) ratio and Pay Back Period (PBP). The results revealed that, per acre total establishment cost was ` 1,23,626.73 of which, ` 55,607.30 (44.98%) were variable cost and ` 68,019.40 (55.02%) were fixed cost. Further, the analysis of investment in fig orchard suggests that, the investment made in fig cultivation in the study area was economically viable with BCR greater than unity (3.01), positive NPV (` 749986.40) and IIR higher than prevailing rate of interest (12.00%). The payback period (3.44 years), was also desirable considering the total economic life of fig orchard. There is higher initial investment in fig orchards, therefore there is a need to provide financial assistance through enhanced scale of finance to the fig cultivators by institutional agencies to enhance the income of the farmers.

Title: Movement of Real Wage Rate and Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Sector in India: The Role of Contract Labour
Abstract :

The present study attempts to find out the relationship between real wage rate and labour productivity as well as the wage share and labour’s terms of trade in the manufacturing sector in India at both aggregated and disaggregated levels, during the post reform years. The empirical analysis reveals that in the organized manufacturing industry the declining wage share neutralizes the effect of increasing labour productivity resulting in stagnant wage rate growth. This absence of a link between productivity and real wage may be largely due to lower bargaining power and structural problems, including high unemployment, low wages, growing contractualisation of labour force and the large share of the informal sector in the Indian manufacturing sector. To bring back the economy to a stable growth path, efficient policy efforts on the part of the government are necessary to link productivity with real wage growth.

Title: Assessing Coping Costs of ‘Unreliable’ Public Tap-Water Supply in Residential Typologies of Gurugram (India)
Abstract :

This paper attempts to understand the households’ coping/monetary costs associated with ‘unreliable’ public tap-water supply (quality and quantity) in various residential typologies identified in Gurugram. The study is based on the primary survey done through the technique of purposive or non-random sampling of 270 households in residential areas of Gurugram from 2014 to 2016. The study found that the residents or the water consumers of the Haryana Urban Development Authority supplied piped-water in Gurugram, in light of intermittent and unreliable piped-water supply, are consistently in practice of devising multiple domestic household methods/sources to meet their day-to-day domestic water needs. The study indicates that the domestic arrangements of water procurement have appreciably higher monetary costs than what the water consumers would have been paying for making the official supplied water reliable in form of monthly water bills. The results of the study suggest certain policy solutions so as to make public tap-water supply reliable in Gurugram.

Title: Women’s Participation in Agricultural Employment with Special Reference to Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India
Abstract :

Role of women employment is a vital indicator of development showing the proportion of the working population in Indian economy. In spite of high economic growth and significant upsurge in gender equality there is gender gap in economic participation in India. This research paper shows an analysis of women’s participation in agricultural employment with special reference to Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India. Although the female population is higher in U.P. but female work participation is higher in Uttarakhand. The growth of female work participation almost remains constant. The level and nature of female labour force during the study period is not so good.

Title: Inter-Relationship of Major Sectors of Indian Economy: Co-Integration and Granger Causality Analysis
Abstract :

The study has investigated country’s GDP integration across five major sectors of Indian economy, viz. agriculture, service, industry, manufacturing and mining and quarrying by adopting Johansen’s multivariate co-integration approach. The study has confirmed the presence of co-integration, implying the long-run GDP association among the Sectors. To get the additional evidence as to whether and in which direction GDP transmission is occurring between the sector pairs, Granger causality test has been used, which has confirmed agriculture and service has the bidirectional cause, service has unidirectional cause on manufacturing, industry has unidirectional cause on service and agriculture has unidirectional cause on manufacturing so this sector has the significant effect. The major implication of the study is for the designing of a network of GDP interaction among the major sectors of Indian economy and to know in which direction one sector is influencing another.

Title: Economic Evaluation of Poplar based Agro-forestry System in Punjab
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in Punjab to examine the financial viability of poplar based agro-forestry system. The data were collected for the year 2015-16. The total sample of 70 farmers was selected which grew poplar as block plantation. BC ratio, NPV and annuity value were estimated. Two types of agro-forestry systems AFS-1 (wheat + khariff fodder during first four years) and AFS-2 (sugarcane for first two years and wheat during 3-4 years) were identified. AFS-2 (NPV ` 164998/acre) gave marginally higher returns than AFS-1 (` 155489/acre) at 12% discount rate at fourth year of harvesting. The study revealed that net returns from poplar cultivation were at par with pure cropping system as the returns from paddy-wheat rotation were ` 46833/acre in 2015-16.

Title: A Dynamic Model of Forestry for the Dryland Areas of West Bengal
Abstract :

A dynamic model of forestry has been developed for the dryland areas of West Bengal. Harvest of both timber and non-timber forest products are considered and it has been assumed that a part of harvest of non-timber forest products is a function of harvest of timber products. Sensitivity analysis has been done by perturbating various parameters like change in the proportion of timber harvest obtained as non-timber forest products, change in the intrinsic growth rate of forest stock and also change in the discount rate. The model shows that the stakeholders associated with forestry in our study area are very much concerned about sustainability of forests due to lack of alternative livelihood opportunities. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, the paper shows that an increase in the proportion of timber harvest obtained as non-timber forest products reduces the optimal harvest of timber and also reduces the welfare of foresters.

Title: A Study on Irrigation and Agricultural Productivity in Odisha
Abstract :

Irrigation is a critical component in the agricultural production as rainfall is inadequate, uncertain and uneven in an agrarian state like Odisha. The intensity of irrigation is an important determinant of the cropping pattern and agricultural productivity. The present paper studies the impact of irrigation on agricultural productivity in Odisha. The 30 districts of the state are grouped on the basis of their irrigation intensity and agricultural productivity. For the purpose Kendall’s Ranking Coefficient method and Skewed distribution are used. It is found that the district of Puri tops the list with an irrigation intensity of 80.79 followed by Bhadrak district with 71.91. The Balasore district is at the third position (66.85) while the district of Bolangir has lowest intensity value i.e 20.64. Similarly, considering the agricultural productivity, it is observed that Kendrapada district is at the top with coefficient value of 25.14 followed by Boudh and Sambalpur with coefficient of (19.42) each. The relationship between irrigation intensity and agricultural productivity establishes that irrigation plays a vital role in enhancing the productivity. Sincere involvement of government, policy makers, planners, farmers and NGOs can achieve the goal of self sufficiency in agricultural production through promotion of irrigation.

Title: Knowledge and Adoption levels of Respondents about Transplanting Method of Pigeon Pea Cultivation Practices in Kalaburagi District of Karnataka
Abstract :

The study was conducted to know the knowledge and Adoption level of transplanting method of pigeon pea cultivation practices in Kalaburagi district of North Eastern Karnataka, during the year 2014-15. The total sample of 120 was derived from three each taluks of a district using random sampling method. The study revealed that the maximum (47.50%) respondents had medium level of overall knowledge about transplanting method of pigeon pea cultivation. Whereas nursery management practices majority (100.00%) of the respondents had high level of knowledge regarding BSMR-736 Variety. With respect to main field management practices, majority of the farmers had high level knowledge regarding transplanting time June (81.67%). The overall adoption level of respondents about transplanting method of pigeon pea cultivation had medium level of adoption (45.00%). Whereas nursery management practices majority (70.83%) of the respondents had fully adopted BSMR-736 Variety. With respect to main field management practices, majority of the farmers had fully adopted five tonne/acre FYM application (61.66%).

Title: Emerging Dimensions of Women Entrepreneurship: Developments & Obstructions
Abstract :

Women entrepreneurship has been recognized as an important factor of economic development. Women entrepreneurs can originate new jobs for themselves and others. However, they still represent a minority of all entrepreneurs. Women is an essential part of key economic activities and for nation development. Women entrepreneurs often face gender-based barriers to starting and growing their businesses, like discriminatory property, matrimonial and inheritance laws and or cultural practices, lack of access to formal finance mechanisms, limited mobility and access to information and networks, etc. Women’s entrepreneurship can make a particularly strong contribution to the economic well-being of the family and communities, poverty reduction and women’s empowerment, thus contributing to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Thus, governments across the world as well as various developmental organizations are actively undertaking promotion of women entrepreneurs through various schemes, incentives and promotional measures.

Title: Cost of Cultivation and Economic Returns Analysis of Cashewnut in West Garo Hills of Meghalaya
Abstract :

Adoption of new technology and sustainable utilization of resources can help cashewnut growers in minimizing the cost of production. New paradigm and challenges are needed for cashewnut growers of Meghalaya in solving the problem like recurrent price fluctuation, high inputs costs, marketing, storage and transportation cost, non-availability of adequate storage facilities, post harvest losses and lack of competitive marketing system. Cashewnut production plays a pivot role in fostering and sustaining the tempo of rural development in the study area. Meghalaya has become very popular in organic farming which gives very good returns from the Garo Hills region as well as export market. As the low input intensity of agriculture in Meghalaya and makes cashewnut ideally suited for organic produce is expected to boost up in near future due to the steps initiated under National Horticulture Mission for doubling the farm incomes. The study signifies and confirms the economics of cashewnut production for sustainable resource management, enhanced income generations and enlarged employment opportunities on a long term prospective.

Title: Testing Weak Form of Efficient Market Hypothesis: Empirical Evidence for Bullions and Base Metal Segment of Indian Commodity Market
Abstract :

With the advent of higher level of trading in commodities, investors’ focus has moved towards commodity market in recent years. Efficiency of the markets is the main area of concern for market players and always considered a valuable addition to the body of knowledge on investment management. Among all the commodities traded in Indian commodity market, bullions and base metals have emerged as a bigger area of interest for the investors. Industrial usage of these commodities with their participation in individual’s investor portfolio as an investment avenue, increases their relative importance among other commodities. This paper examines the weak-form of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) for both the segments. The period of study is 8 years, commencing from 2009, daily spot prices of commodities have been used to test the market efficiency in weak form. The weak form efficiency is thoroughly scrutinized with the help of graphs, runs test, augmented dicker fully and variance ratio test. The results of all the tests deployed in the study are consistent with each other and confirms the weak-form inefficient behavior of bullions and base metals.

Title: Production and Marketing Analysis of Knol-khol under Sub-Tropical Conditions of Jammu Region: A case study
Abstract :
The numbers of small farms are increasing over time mainly due to division and subdivision and sale and resale of farms. These small farms are inefficient for growing crops such as wheat, cotton, sugarcane and rice, since a lot of money resource is prerequisite for growing these crops. With such circumstances, crops that are short duration and fetch high returns are suitable for such farms. Such crops are vegetables that not only give high returns but they are also a cheap source of essential nutrients. The present study has analysed the cost and return analysis as well as technical efficiency of knol-khol producing farms of Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir state. Three districts Jammu, Udhampur and Samba are selected for the said study. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) have been used for the estimating the technical efficiency. Farmers in the study area used purchased as well as home produced inputs. The costs of home produced inputs were calculated in monetary terms on the basis of opportunity cost principle i.e., the market price. The cost of cultivation is found to be ` 7796.65 /acre (overall) with ` 7743.27/acre for Bhalwal block and ` 7850.02/acre for Marh block for Jammu district, in Samba district, the overall average was ` 6855.57/acre with ` 6416.38/acre for Vijaypur block and ` 7294.76 for Samba block and it was ` 7999.68/acre (overall average), ` 8166.21/acre (Udhampur block) and ` 7833.15/acre (Chenani block) in Udhampur district. The gross returns were ` 25250.00/acre, ` 31500.00/acre, ` 27720.00/acre, ` 34560.00/acre, ` 27000.00/acre and ` 36300.00/acre for Bhalwal, Marh, Vijaypur, Samba, Udhampur and Chenani blocks whereas the overall average for Jammu, Samba and Udhampur districts were ` 28325.00/acre,
` 31050.00/acre and ` 31500.00/acre, respectively.
Title: Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY): The Biggest Financial Inclusion Initiative in the World
Abstract :

The present study seeks to review the current status of the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) and financial inclusion in India. For the sustainable development of the Indian economy, the Government of India launches Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) on 28th August 2014. Financial inclusion is an innovative idea which empowers the alternative techniques to encourage the banking traditions and acts as an enabler in reducing the poverty. A total of 18.28 crores accounts have been opened in rural areas by public sector bank, Regional Rural Bank (RRB) and private sector bank by 7th Feb 2018. Thus, 31.07 crores accounts have been opened in rural and urban areas. An amount of ` 74534.79 crores was in accounts which were opened under PMJDY. Household coverage was 100% in the district wise account opening report of Haryana state, while household coverage found 100 per cent in North Zone of India except J&K (99.71%). We can say that PMJDY scheme is playing a significant role in creating a universal platform for financial services for every citizen of India.

Title: Economic Assessment of Lemon Production in Ukhrul District of Manipur
Abstract :

Lemon production is a profitable enterprise as it improves the economic life of the farmers. The study was conducted in three villages of Lungchong Maiphei block in Ukhrul district of Manipur. Samples of 90 respondents were selected randomly by using Proportionate Random Sampling method. The Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of area is positive for all the districts. The highest growth rate at 38.85% was recorded in Tamenglong followed by Senapati (23.68%) and Ukhrul (18.12%). Total cost of cultivation for lemon was ` 98301.31/ha. The total net farm income was ` 206886.67/ha. Net present value and payback period were found to be ` 61816.36 and 7.5 respectively. The Benefit Cost ratio (BCR) over total cost was equal to 1.23 indicating lemon production was economically viable.

Title: Fiscal Decentralization in Rural Drinking Water Supply Sector in Madhya Pradesh
Abstract :
The paper examines the fiscal decentralization in rural water supply sector in MP (Madhya Pradesh), covering the period from 2001-02 to 2017-18. Three types of examinations have been made in the study. The first is to find out devolvable funds in rural water supply sector, and its percentage in total rural
water supply expenditure in the state. The second is to find out devolved funds in rural water supply sector and its percentage in total rural water supply expenditure, devolvable funds and plan rural water supply expenditure in the state. Finding indicates that share of devolvable funds in rural water supply expenditure is increasing continuously. All devolvable funds are revenue expenditure; it means that state government is decreasing their funds for capital expenditure and not increasing its assets in rural water supply sector. On an average during 2001-02 to 2017-18 share of devolved funds into rural water supply expenditure is just 9.5 percent. Planning Commission suggested 30-40 percent of a state’s plan can be devolved to local bodies. However, on an average during 2001-02 through 2016-17, only 9.5 percent of total rural water supply budget, and only 12 percent of total planned funds of rural water supply was devolved. It has been seen in the analysis that rural water supply, despite being an important area of functional devolution; managed a financial devolution of barely one third of the lower limit of devolution prescribed by the planning commission. In the last five years during 2013-14 to 2017-18 annual growth rate of devolved funds in total rural water supply expenditure is negative (-30 percent per anum).
Title: Impact of Agricultural Technology Management Agency on Different Enterprises for the Enhancement of Production and Income to the Rural Economy of Nagaland
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in Mokokchung and Peren Districts of Nagaland. A sample of 160 respondents (out of the total, 80 were beneficiaries and 80 were non-beneficiaries of ATMA programme) were selected from both the districts from blocks and further from 8 villages based on proportionate simple random sampling method. The study shows an impact on crops, livestock as well as other selected enterprises on production and productivity of the beneficiaries of ATMA programme it may be concluded that it is due to the adoption of good varieties / species and management skill developed by them in the study area with especial reference to selected field crops, cereals, pulses, oil seeds, vegetables, animal husbandry, fishery and plantation crops by the adoption of production techniques and available technology adopted in the study area, further to access the impact on income level z-test being adopted, which justified the study to have an positive impact on the different selected enterprises.

Title: Demonitizaton and its Effects on Digital Payments
Abstract :

Demonetization refers to an economic policy where certain currency units cease to be recognized as a form of legal tender. The Indian government had demonetized bank notes on three times 1946, 1978 and October-2016. In order to evaluate the impact of demonetization on digital payments, data was collected from May-2016 to October-2017 from NPCI web portal. Exploratory data analysis indicated debit card users increased by 414 percent followed by NEFT by 155 and RTGS by 122 percent. The mobile transaction was seen to have highest CAGR of 3.40 percent. A similar trend followed in case of the value of transactions i.e., the highest growth was in a debit card with 205 percent followed by mobile and NEFT by 193 and 178 percent respectively. Overall, the study concluded that there was a significant effect of demonetization on digital payments.

Title: Economic Resources among the Urban Oldest-Old Females: Anthropological Study in Midnapore Municipal Town, West Bengal
Abstract :

Ageing is a natural fact in a life where social, cultural, economic and health issues attached to study of aging. The oldest old or Super Senior Citizen subpopulation in India is growing much faster than any other age group and due to their physical incapability they fall in peril situation which make them more dependent on others for their needs of financial support, medical assistance and social services etc. However, anthropological perspective on aging study is based on evolution of human aging as well as working incapability, economic dependency, sources of income and others. Therefore, authors of the present paper aim to highlight economic resources of the oldest-old female residing in different wards under Midnapore Municipal town of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. The areas, which were explored, include some basic economic features such as different sources of financial support, sources of pension and amount of pension which deals with the economic resources of the Oldest Old. For the present paper data has been collected from about 500 oldest old female populations (using systematic random sampling table) living in urban areas of Medinipur Municipal Town. Therefore, the finding presented in this paper is that, the oldest old female under study area are seriously in economic disadvantageous position in many respects, which may be illustrated with the following facts: economically more dependent; most of them are non-worker; a very good number of them do not get/receive any pension from any sources.

Title: An Economic Analysis of Marketing of Potato from Shimla Hills of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract :

Potato is an important cash crop of Himachal Pradesh. Although, potato production in the state is very less, it fetches higher price than potato from plain areas due to its off seasonality. The study of potato marketing in hilly region is necessary to find out the share of profit made by farmers and other intermediaries in the marketing channel. Therefore, current study was attempted to find out marketing cost, margins, price spread and marketing efficiency of potato produced in Shimla hills. The interview schedule was used to collect primary data from 40 potato growers from Shimla and wholesalers as well as retailers from Chandigarh market. The collected data were analyzed by using suitable tools of statistics and economic measures. The findings indicated that majority of potato was sold to wholesalers at Chandigarh market through commission agent. The marketed surplus of potato was nearly 80 per cent of total produce and 15 per cent was retained by farmers for seed purpose. The average cost of marketing of 1 quintal of potato was found to be one fourth of consumer price. More than half of total marketing cost was borne by the farmer. The producers share in consumer rupees was found to be 66 per cent. The marketing efficiency was estimated to be 1.95 by Acharya and Agrawal method. Higher transportation cost and shortage of labour for post-harvest operation were major constraints. In order to reduce marketing cost borne by farmers, cooperative marketing should be initiated in Shimla hills. Farmers need to be grouped as Farmer Producer Society (FPOs) to increase their share in consumer rupees.

Title: Nutrient Content in Leaves of Shoot Bearing Healthy and Malformed Panicle under High Density Mango Orchard (Mangifera indica L.) cv Amrapali as Influenced by Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients
Abstract :

A two-year field trial was conducted from 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Horticulture Complex, Maharajpur, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.). Application 520: 160: 450 NPK g plant-1 and Vermicompost (25 kg) + Oil cake (2.5 kg) + Azotobacter + VAM + TV + PSB (100g each) registered higher concentration of N (2.59 and 2.78%), K (62.90 and 77.82 mg kg-1), Zn (27.33 and 230.03mg kg-1), Cu (9.53 and 10.51 mg kg-1), Fe (196.93 and 213.10 mg kg-1) and Mn (88.57 and 98.03 mg kg-1) was in leaves of shoot bearing malformed panicle than healthy once. Whereas, higher concentration of P (0.37 and 0.34%) was in leaves of shoots bearing healthy panicle. Similarly, higher dry accumulation was with malformed panicles over healthy one. The minimum severity and intensity (1.8m2 and 9.42%) of malformed panicle was noted when plant nourished with 100% RDF of chemical fertilizer (415: 130: 360 NPK g plant-1) or (2.2m2 and 12.15%) organic sources of nutrient (Vermicompost (25 kg) + Oil cake (2.5 kg) + Azotobacter + VAM + TV + PSB (100g each) or its combination registered (1.2m2 and 5.56%).

Title: Seasonal Labour Migration: A Case Study of Leh-Town, Ladakh
Abstract :

This paper deals with seasonal migration of labour in the high altitude Leh town. Ladakh region has emerged as an attractive spot for investment due to tourism, strategic importance and cultural diversity which subsequently generated employment in the informal sector and seasonal jobs. Low population density but high labour demand in this region has led to the labour in-migration from within the state, other developing Indian states (like Bihar, UP, Odisha, Jharkhand etc.) of India as well as from Nepal. Due to extreme climate, access barrier and high transport cost, labourers are compelled to move there in the ‘summer’ only, where there are comparatively higher income opportunities. This paper aims to understand the migrant labour dynamics, their negotiations and the policy and actions gaps towards beneficial of the labour rights. This study was conducted with the mixed method approach of social research with the data collection techniques of participant observation, focused group discussion, in-depth interview and collection of secondary data from various government offices. Findings reveal the precarious conditions of the seasonal labours in their workplace and staying, violations of labour rights, lack of organisation, local bias towards them.

Title: Cost of Cultivation and Profitability of Agriculture in West Bengal: A Study with Special Reference to Backward Region of West Bengal
Abstract :

Cost of cultivation is an important factor affecting the profitability of agriculture in West Bengal. We have considered here cost of production of six major crops, namely paddy, jute, mustard, potato, til and pulses. Cost of cultivation increased over the years for paddy, potato, jute, mustard, pulses and til. There occurred a decline in percentage of family labour cost (imputed) to total cost of cultivation. It reflects that family labourers are not interested in cultivation of these crops while being devoted to other means of economic livelihood and the cultivators depend more and more on casual labourers for cultivation of those crops. Percentages of fertilizers cost and rental value of owned land also registered increase during this period for these crops. The production cost and returns of different size of landholdings in different crops cultivation have been calculated based on field survey data in the backward region of Paschim Medinipur district. The farmers are getting relatively high net returns or profit from vegetables, mustard and potato cultivation and relatively low returns from paddy cultivation. Higher net income was the main driving force for shifting towards vegetables cultivation. Net return per unit of labour and unit cost of production has been compared with those of cereals and other crops. It was noted that most of the vegetables were more profitable than cereals and other crops.

Title: Effect of Pre-monsoon Rainfall on Maize Yield in Manipur
Abstract :

The study examines the impact of pre-monsoon rainfall deviation on maize yield in Manipur. Secondary data on rainfall was extracted from high resolution 0.50×0.50 daily gridded data obtained from India Meteorological Department for the period of twenty-eight years (1980-2007). The annual yield of maize was regressed on time trend and rainfall (January, February, March, April, May). Different regression models were worked out using different explanatory variables and functional form and the log-lin model turns out to be the best model based on logistic (sign and coefficients), statistical (p-value) and econometric (value of R-square) criteria. The regression model shows that time trend has positive and significant (1% level of significance) impact on yield of maize and March rainfall deviation has negative and significant (5% level of significance) impact on yield of maize. This is because, in Manipur, the tasseling and silking stage (critical stage of maize) falls during March. Hence, 1 per cent increase in March deviation leads to 5.6 unit decrease in yield of maize. The study recommended planting of drought-tolerant maize variety in the study area.

Title: Male Out-Migration and its Impact on Women Empowerment in West Bengal
Abstract :

In this paper, an attempt has been made to measure the empowerment of women in terms of sustained increase in income earning capacity accompanied by a freedom of choice in families which have come across out-migration of male members. This measure of empowerment of women is mainly based on three indicators, viz. restrictions placed on them, their decision-making powers and their mobility. This study shows that out-migration of male members has not generated any significant impact on the empowerment of women members of those families. The most general factors which increase mobility of women, the decision-making power and relatively less social restrictions placed on them are age, their education, marital duration, residential status and occupation.

Title: Economic Affairs: Vol. 63, No. 4, December 2018
Abstract :
Title: Productivity and Resource Use Efficiency in Wheat: A Stochastic Production Frontier Approach
Abstract :

Farm level technical efficiency and its determinants in wheat production in the state of Bihar has been studied using stochastic frontier production function model. The average productivity of wheat was reported 28.43 q/ha which was below the national average of 30.33 q/ha during 2016-17. The resource inputs were found inelastic and not being properly utilized. All the resource inputs were found positive and significant at 1 per cent and 5 per cent level of probability except machine labour used which was negatively significant, indicating overuse of machine labour or costly machine labour. The mean input efficiency in production of wheat in the state was estimated to be 94 per cent, emphasizing that efficiency may be enhanced by 6 per cent. The factors influencing efficiency were identified as education, family size and landholding size. The mean technical efficiency was found to be 0.94 indicted that optimal and sustainable use of resource inputs may further raise the input use efficiency in wheat production by 6 per cent and consequently boost up the income of the wheat cultivators in the state.

Title: An Economic Analysis of Onion Cultivation in Giridih District of Jharkhand
Abstract :

The study was carried out in Giridih district of Jharkhand with the objectives to work out the cost and return structure of onion cultivation and to identify the major constraints confronted by the farmers in onion cultivation. For the selection of respondent’s multistage sampling design was employed. Primary data was collected from sample of 120 onion growing farmers. The data so collected pertained to the Rabi season of the agricultural year 2016-17. The study concluded that, the average cost of cultivation of onion in Dhanwar block was ` 57687.95 per acreage which was higher than ` 50374.3 in case of Birni. The total variable cost per acre in Dhanwar was ` 45325.16 and in Birni it was ` 41691.40. The output per acre in Dhanwar was 65.52 quintal and in Birni it was 46.00 quintal/acre. The return per rupee investment was around ` 1.71 and ` 1.34 over variable and total cost respectively in case of Dhanwar block. In Birni block it was ` 1.65 over variable cost and ` 1.37over fixed cost. The major problems in cultivation of onion were lack of water for irrigation, high cost of seeds, pest and diseases, awareness on optimum use of fertilizers, high cost of labour etc.

Title: Marketing Efficiency between Traditional and Modern Supply Chains of Fruits and Vegetables
Abstract :

The upcoming modern retail store for fruits and vegetables have a very pronounced impact on its market and have led to the emergence of new supply chains all across the country. The present study was undertaken in Hisar and Karnal district of Haryana to compare the marketing efficiency of fruits and vegetables supply chain. For the present study a sample size of 200 respondents and two supply chains for fruits and vegetables were chosen purposefully. The findings of the study revealed that the modern supply chain (MSC) for fruits and vegetables was more efficient than the traditional supply chain (TSC) for both the fruits and vegetables. The percentage of physical losses at traditional supply chain was found to be 20.6 per cent while in the modern supply chain it was only 6.66 per cent. The index of marketing efficiency was found to be 1.06 in MSC of vegetables as against the 0.77 in TSC, whereas for fruits the marketing efficiency index was found to be 2.49 in MSC as compared to 1.99 in TSC. The share of the producer in consumer’s rupee was found to be 52 and 43 per cent in MSC and TSC respectively for vegetables. However, producers share in consumer’s rupee was found to be 70 and 66 per cent in MSC and TSC of fruits. The major factors contributing to the efficiency of MSC were found to be a short length of the supply chain, packaging and less physical loss in the MSC.

Title: Land and Caste: A Case of Gudiwada Village in Telangana State
Abstract :

This paper attempts to examine the change in the occupational distribution of workforce and access to land with special reference to marginalized groups in the post-independence period considering a case study of Gudiwada village of Nalgonda district in Telangana state. From our analysis of the data on land distribution among the households shows that, huge inequality exists among the social groups. In the village SCs and STs are deprived from having the land. Over the period land has been transformed from the others to OBCs but not to the SCs and STs. There is small increase in the land holding situation of SCs over the 40 years and there is no change in the STs land holdings situation. There exists a clear discrimination in accessing the land. Over the 1830 acres of the village land, only 28 acres of land on the name of the female in the 2016-17. Gender discrimination is visible both in landholdings and in wage. Only in case of MGNREGA female labour are getting more or less equal wage along with male labour. Within the households gender equality in terms of decision making is observed among the SC and ST households. It is also found that the gap between marginal farmers and agricultural laborers and rich farmers in terms of monthly per capita consumption is wide. Hence, special measures like strict implementation of land reforms, redistributing surplus land, waste lands among marginalized agricultural laborers and marginal farmers required to be taken up on priority while implementing the programmes, which improve their economic asset base and skills particularly education as it enables them to shift to non-farming employment.

Title: Economic and Environmental Impact of Pesticide Use in Conventional Cotton and Bt Cotton
Abstract :

The present study studies the environmental and health effects of chemical pesticide use and quantified by using the Environmental impact quotient method (Kovach 1992). In order to compare the Environmental impact quotient (EIQ) a study was made on Bt and conventional cotton farmers in Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu. The study revealed that bollworm incidence was highly reduced in Bt cotton cultivation especially in fruiting stage of American bollworm and Pink bollworm. The quantity and frequency of pesticide application was also reduced in Bt cotton cultivation especially the quantity with a proportion of 93.61 per cent. The expenditure for the pesticides was high in conventional cotton as compared to Bt cotton by 77.19 per cent. The perception of farmers towards economic, environmental and social aspects favoured Bt cotton. The total environmental impact for conventional cotton with EIQ field rating was 157.76. The total environmental impact for Bt cotton with EIQ field rating was 16.23. Total environmental impact for pesticides in Bt cotton was low by 89.52 per cent as compared to conventional cotton due to the reduction of pesticides used for controlling Bollworm in Bt cotton. Hence farmers have to be educated about the ill effects of over use of plant protection chemicals in conventional cotton and to adopt the Bt farming technology to reduce the effect of pesticides on environment and ecosystem by conducting awareness programmes and crop seminars by the Agriculture Department.

Title: Fruit and Vegetable Processing Sector in Bengal: Opportunities, Status and Challenges
Abstract :

Fruit and vegetable processing sector is one of the core segments under food processing in Bengal. Development of this sector is critically important to the expansion and diversification of state’s agricultural sector. It provides vital linkages and harnesses synergies between the two pillars of our economy, industry and agriculture. Bengal has huge potentials for the growth of this sector in the state. But such growth potentials are constrained by several factors. The processing of fruit and vegetable is still at a very low level in Bengal (2.8 per cent) as well as in India (2.2 per cent) against the highest post harvest losses (27 per cent). The main constraint lies behind this with infrastructure, technology, quality measurement and lack of farm-firm linkages. In view of the above facts this paper tries to examine the streangths of this particular sector in the state and highlighting on its existing constraints. The paper also made suggestions to achieve the future progress of this sector in Bengal.

Title: An Analysis of Problems and Constraints Faced by Farmers in Marketing of Agricultural Produce in Punjab
Abstract :

Agriculture as an economic activity is subjected to serious risk of natural conditions and price risk. Some of the important constraints of agricultural marketing system in the country are lack of infrastructure like storage, transportation, quality control, packaging, price risk management, cool chains, market led extension, and condusive framework for promotion of contract farming. The present study was undertaken in the state of Punjab to study the problems of farmers in the marketing of paddy, wheat, maize and cotton. A total sample of 180 farmers from 12 villages of six districts was selected for the study. The sample farmers were further categorized, based on their operational holding, as marginal, small, semi-medium, medium and large farmers. The results from the study indicated that the most important problem identified by the farmers in the marketing of paddy and wheat was the delay in procurement of paddy in the markets followed by the deduction of payments by commission agents due to higher moisture content in the grains. However, the major problem during marketing of basmati was the exploitative practices by the intermediaries followed by lack of public procurement. The problem faced by majority of farmers in the marketing of maize and cotton was the lack of public procurement of the produce and lack of remunerative price of the crop respectively

Title: A Geographical Study of the Ground Realities of Rural Safety Net in India: A village level study of MGNREGS
Abstract :

Rural safety nets are indispensable ingredients of boosting economy of a developing country like India. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is one of the most discussed safety net of the vast Indian subcontinent. NREGA act was passed by Union Government in 2005 which was later renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in year 2009. This Act results for the initiation of MGNREGS which came into existence on February 2, 2006. It was implemented in a phase wise manner. At first stage, 200 most backward districts of the country were covered, phase II included 130 additional districts and the final phase covered the remaining rural districts of the country. The spread and provisions of MGNREGS has made the scheme a pillar of Indian rural development. This is the landmark scheme of Indian Government which provides employment to the job seekers with a right based approach. Though the initial aim of this scheme was to provide employment to the unemployed rural youth, a strategy of sustainable livelihood is hidden under the policy. Much highlight has been given to the employment generation aspect of the scheme, as this was the prime focus of the Act. Financial year 2015-2016 accounts for the generation of 286497320 employment days in West Bengal in total with 9157780 MGNREGS workers. The aspect of generation of common property resources through MGNREGS is not much discussed and evaluated by the researchers. The quality and sustainability of rural Common Property Resources (CPRs) is significant for generating sustainable rural livelihood. This paper provides an attempt to see the realities of MGNREGS generated CPRs on an empirical basis. The gap of theoretical overview and real implementation is evaluated in this paper with empirical observation.

Title: Economics of Potato Production in Northern Hills of Chhattisgarh
Abstract :

Potato plays a very significant role in the agriculture economy. It is most important tuber crop in Chhattisgarh. The present study was conducted in Northern hills zone of Chhattisgarh. Two districts were selected and one block from each selected districts was selected. Further, clusters of villages from each selected block were selected and finally, a sample of 100 potato growers comprising 40 marginal, 32 small, 17 medium and 11 large farmers were selected with the help of probability proportion criteria from selected villages. Tabular analysis was used to achieve the objectives. The study revealed that the overall cost of potato cultivation was ` 47408.91/ha. The major cost component was labour cost. The cost of producing one quintal of potato was ` 625.56. It was also observed that cost of cultivation, cost of production, gross returns, net returns, yield and marketed surplus of potato was increasing with the increases in the size of holdings land. The gross returns and net returns from potato cultivation were found to be ` 92766.74 and ` 45357.83, respectively. The overall input-output ratio was 1:1.96. The overall yield of potato was 75.71 qtl./hectare. Out of this, 97.37 per cent was marketed surplus. Majority of potato was marketed through wholesaler followed by retailer, village trader and only about one per cent was marketed through consumer directly.

Title: Impact of Climate Resilient Practices under NICRA Project in Ri Bhoi District of Meghalaya
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to identify the technological and socio-economic impact of the climate resilient technologies demonstrated at National Innovation for Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Kyrdem village at Ri Bhoi district of Meghalaya. To assess the impact, the ex-post-facto research design, where before and after comparisons on different aspects of NICRA project were done. The statistical tools like chi square and Cramer’s V were applied for analysis of the collected information for jalkund and vermicompost to draw the meaningful and logical conclusions. Findings reveal that the average cultivable land area and productive parameters for crops and livestocks of NICRA farmers after the project interventions was significantly higher than that of before the implementation of the interventions all through in kharif and rabi seasons. Findings of cropping intensity, annual savings, expenditure pattern and crop yield were significantly higher in comparison to before implementation of the intervention. Findings of the study exhibited an encouraging impact of the demonstrated technologies in various spheres of farmer’s life of NICRA village.

Title: Futures Markets and Farmers Welfare: Are They in Sync?
Abstract :

Commodity derivative markets, are expected to be alternative markets to physical or spot markets where producers including farmers will be able to foresee market prices of the commodities they are about to produce much in advance of the actual production takes place. The recently introduced commodity options trading instruments are expected to provide a further boost to the hedging and risk management capabilities of commodity derivative markets in India, as option contracts, unlike futures contracts, work on the criteria of unlimited gains with limited losses opportunity. Nevertheless, the risks associated with primary agricultural production are long-term in nature and the current system of commodity derivatives trading instruments available in India needs an improvement to address these long-term aspects so that farmers will be able to take advantage of the system.

Title: Comparing Performance of Various Crops in Rajasthan state based on Market Price, Economic Prices and Natural Resource Valuation
Abstract :
The study has assessed the performance of different crops and cropping pattern in the state of Rajasthan using alternative price scenarios like market prices; economic prices (net out effect of subsidy) and natural resource valuation (NRV) considering environmental benefits like biological nitrogen fixation and greenhouse gas costs. The study has used unit-level cost of cultivation data for the triennium ending 2013-14 which were collected from Cost of Cultivation Scheme, MPUAT, Udaipur (Raj.) for the present study. It has analyzed crop-wise use of fertilizers, groundwater, surface water and subsidies. The secondary data of cropping pattern was also used from 1991-95 to 2011-14 from various published sources of Government of Rajasthan. The study that even after netting out the input subsidies and effect on environment and natural resources, the cotton-vegetables cropping pattern was found more stable and efficient because of the higher net return of ` 102463 per hectare with the next best alternate cropping patterns like clusterbean-chillies (` 86934/ha), cotton-wheat (` 69712/ha), clusterbean-wheat (` 64987/ ha) etc. under the set of marketing infrastructure, minimum support prices, agricultural technological know-how, climatic conditions in the various zones, available irrigation facilities. The study has pointed out that the grower farmers may not move towards the diversification until incentivized by economically attractive alternate cropping patterns.
Title: Economic Evaluation of Front Line Demonstrations on Black Gram in Birbhum District of West Bengal
Abstract :

The present study indicated that in 1997-98, the numbers of demonstrations, area covered, average percentage of yield increase over the local check variety and numbers of farmers adopting the new variety except the already existing FLD partner farmers reached a point of high. However, the B: C ratio was highest in 1995-96. From then the performances of the demonstrations on black gram took a downhill trend till 2010-11. This situation prevailed mainly due to presence of improved high yielding local variety lowering the average increase of yield of the demonstrated variety over the local variety, increased cost of cultivation and stagnant market prices mainly due to absence of local dal milling units. From 2013-14 and especially after the launch of the cluster FLD programme, the performances are being brightened up. This achievement has been possible mainly due to choice of the high yielding improved varieties like WBU – 108 and WBU – 109 which are less than 10 years old after its official release, disseminating the pulse production technology through an integrated approach involving improved seeds, micro-nutrients and Rhizobium inoculations and integrated plant protection technologies and establishment of mini-dal processing units throughout the district with central sector assistance and enhanced minimum support price as announced by Government of India.

Title: Sustainable Agroforestry Systems for Livelihood Security and their Economic Appraisal in Indian Himalayas
Abstract :

Sustainable indigenous agroforestry systems are mainstay of rural agrarian economy coupled with livestock rearing in mountains of Himalayas. A 2B4D6-watershed was selected in Central Himalayas to investigate economic returns from agriculture based agroforestry systems. A detailed structured analysis revealed four types of agriculture based agroforestry systems are prevalent in the 2B4D6-watershed of Indian Central Himalaya. These agroforestry systems are profitable to farmers and can obtain more than two-fold returns from agriculture based agroforestry systems. The net return from these systems decreased in the order: Agrihorticulture > Agrihortisilviculture > Agrisilvihorticulture > Agrisilviculture. The highest benefit cost ratio from agroforestry systems was obtained at higher elevation E5 and it decreased with decrease in elevations in the order: E4 > E3 > E2 > E1. Thus, we conclude that agroforestry systems are not only sustainable but also are imperative for livelihood security of local inhabitants of Indian Central Himalayas.

Title: Public Indebtedness in Punjab State of India: A Critical Review
Abstract :

A neoteric phenomena which has put the Indian economy under unbearable pressure is ballooning borrowings because of unceasing expenditure by the governments. In India, rising debt to GDP ratio has accentuated the problem of outpacing revenue expenditure which led to the implementation of FRBM Act, 2003 and after that indebtedness among states has declined. So, this paper focuses on the analysis of public indebtedness of non special category states of India and to access the level of indebtedness, debt to GDP ratio is taken. The state that has emerged as one of the weakest in tackling with the situation of growing indebtedness is Punjab over the period of 2000-2017 along with West Bengal because of rise in revenue expenditure especially the non-development component, stagnant growth in state’s own tax revenue and sliding non-tax revenues. States like Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar have low Debt to GSDP ratio and are spending more on developmental activities whereas the Punjab state is spending very less amount on developmental activities and more interest payments which can lead to the further deteriorate the financial health of the state.

Title: Use of Electronic Payment Instruments and Effect on Cash Management: A Micro Analysis
Abstract :

The emergence of innovative electronic payment modes in the financial sector has changed the payment dynamics of transactions across countries. The two important modes of card payments offered by the commercial banks are the debit and credit cards in India. This study is an attempt to examine at the micro level the Baumol Tobin model of demand for money in light of the adoption of electronic payment instruments via debit and credit cards among the select households of Coimbatore City for 2017. The estimated results revealed that from across the range of transactions, more than 50 per cent of the respondents chose the mode of cash payment for values lesser than ` 10,000. This indicated that cash was preferred more in the case of low-value transactions. Garrett’s Ranking technique was used to find the impact of usage of debit and credit cards on the financial parameters of the respondents. The results showed that among the respondents usage of debit and credit cards had the highest impact on the “level of indebtedness”, which indicated that the usage of cards for retail purchases substituted cash significantly.

Title: Growth and Instability Analysis of Cauliflower Crop in Punjab
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to show the statistical investigation of growth and instability in area, production and productivity of cauliflower in Punjab. The study was based on the data collected from the secondary sources like www.indiastat.com. The results revealed that area as well as production of cauliflower in Punjab and India had increased over the last 27 years but the yield of the crop was found to be decreased over the year in Punjab while in India it had increased over the year. The instability index of productivity was very low and stable in Punjab as compared to the whole over India. This was happening due to higher amount of assured irrigation facilities available in Punjab. Proper concentration should be paid on the improvement on production as well as marketing also.

Title: Cost and Return Analysis of Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with the Foliar Application of Potassium and Plant Growth Regulators
Abstract :
Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) belongs to family Rutaceae. In India, Kinnow is being grown in Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh. To evaluate the most profitable treatment, economic analysis of treatments was worked out in terms of net return and Cost benefit ratio (C: B) ratio. The cost incurred on basin preparation per tree (` 40), Cost of FYM per tree (` 60), Cost of Urea per tree (` 3), Cost of DAP per tree (` 12.60), Cost of MOP per tree (` 30) and
miscellaneous charges (Irrigation, plant protection measures, harvesting of fruits etc.) per tree (` 150) was found to be same in all the treatments. The cost incurred on the preparation of different solutions of potassium nitrate (KNO3) in various treatments was found to be ` 18.60 for 3.0 % KNO3 per tree followed by ` 12.40 for 2.0 % KNO3 and ` 6.20 for 1.0 % KNO3 and in preparation of different solutions of potassium sulphate (K2SO4) it was found to be ` 9.90 for 1.5 % K2SO4 per tree followed by ` 6.60 for 1.0 % K2SO4 and ` 3.30 for 0.5 % K2SO4. In case of preparation of ethrel in different treatments was found to be ` 6.75 for 450 ppm ethrel followed by ` 4.50 for 300 ppm ethrel and ` 2.25 for 150 ppm ethrel and the cost incurred for preparation of 75 ppm GA3 was found to be ` 22.60. It was found that 75 ppm GA3 treatment was best and showed highest net returns per tree ` 916.35. Thus, Kinnow mandarin trees treated with GA3 75 ppm was found to be best treatment combination as evidenced by cost: benefit ratio of 1: 3.88.
Title: Economics of Production of Ginger in Wayanad District of Kerala, India
Abstract :

The present study was aimed to find out the input use levels and economics of ginger cultivation in Wayanad district of Kerala, during the crop year 2015-16. Total four villages which are leading in the area of ginger cultivation were selected and twenty farmers from each village i.e. total 80 farmers were chosen randomly as sample size. The study indicated that cost of cultivation and gross returns were positively related with size of the holding. The overall cost of cultivation was ` 4, 54,991.62 and ` 4, 94,501.03 per hectare on small and large farms. The expenditure on seed was found to be maximum constituting about 35.01 per cent of total cost followed by human labour, and machine power. All the farm income measures exhibited a positive relationship with the farm size. Returns per rupee of expenditure were found to be ` 0.60 and 0.67 per hectare on small and large farms respectively

Title: Livelihood Diversification Scenario in Hill State, Meghalaya: Impact and Determinants
Abstract :

Livelihood diversification is a norm in every economy, particularly in rural India, where farming alone rarely provides sufficient income. The study was conducted at Mawpran village in the hilly terrain, Meghalaya, India in the year 2017, with the objective to analyze the extent of livelihoods diversification among rural farm families, the impact of livelihood diversification and its determinants. Ninety respondents were selected by simple random sampling. The study found that majority of the farmers diversified from on-farm traditional crops to on-farm high-value crops (strawberry) while a majority of landless respondents had to do diversifying livelihood activities. Using the Wilcoxon sign rank test, it was observed that diversification had a significant impact on material possession and income level of the respondents. Diversification index was measured with the help of Simpson Diversification Index (SDI) and it conferred that fifty percent of the respondents belong to the high level of diversification (more than 0.43) and the average diversification index of the respondents was 0.32 which implied that the majority of the respondents had diversifying livelihood activities. Variables like education and cosmo-politeness were found to be significantly related to their degree of livelihood. Thus, diversification of livelihood is an important feature of rural survival and improving income level.

Title: A Factor Analysis on the Determinants of Industrial Sickness in Small Scale Enterprises
Abstract :

The study was conceptualized across the emerging small scale industry clusters and locations in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. As evident, the SSI (small scale industry) plays a crucial role in macro and micro economic development in context of developing economy like India, yet the sector is not aloof from problems, challenges and threats evident as industrial sickness. The research posits across the socially constructed origins of the phenomenon and calls for the identification and classification of the factors that contribute towards industrial sickness in Andhra Pradesh SSI sector. The current research identifies the factors that contribute (directly and indirectly) towards the small scale industrial health(survival or decay) in Andhra Pradesh. At the same time, research seeks to quantify the cross factorial impact on organizational survival or sickness in small scale enterprises and analyze the relationships amongst the factors that shape survival or sickness as well as revival. A sample of 300 ownerscum entrepreneurs or promoters was assumed for the current research from across the three districts of Andhra Pradesh; which was subjected to likert based measurement instrument. The data hence collected was analyzed with aid of SPSS based explorative factor analysis and reliability was established with cronbach alpha estimation. The empirical and statistical analysis across AMOS lead to confirmatory factor analysis and enabled the identification of factors as “internal” and “external” contributions to the “market orientation” development, leading to changes and influences on the “ability to pay” and “threat from sickness”. The sickness was hence attributed to internal, external as well as market orientation based factors that collectively shape the revival or the sickness across the incumbent units.

Title: Transaction Cost in Irrigation Tank Management: An Institutional Economic Analysis
Abstract :

Irrigation tanks formed the lifeline of village economy. The Government of Karnataka amended its Irrigation Act in 1965 and Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) was brought under the domain of Cooperative Act and Water Users Cooperatives were formed to managed and operate the tanks. The present study was undertaken to assess the transaction cost in irrigation tank management in central dry zone of Karnataka. Two tanks Bukkarayanakere (farmers managed) and Ayyanakere (Minor Irrigation Department managed) were considered for the study. The results revealed that, total transaction cost incurred was high in Minor Irrigation Department managed tank or defunct water users association (` 1,06,085 per year) than farmers managed tank or active water users association (` 61,480 per year). This is because of free riding problem that prevailed in the Minor Irrigation Department managed tank command. Educating the farmers regarding the benefits of collective action is necessary to reduce the transaction cost.

Title: Economic Evaluation of Kinnow Cultivation under Different Irrigation Systems in Rajasthan
Abstract :

The present study was conducted in Sri-Ganganagar and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan. Kinnow cultivation under different irrigation system viz.; solar, diesel and electric irrigation system was found to be popular in the state. Therefore, study on economic evaluation of kinnow cultivation under different irrigation system in Rajasthan has been conducted to evaluate kinnow orchard orchards under different irrigation system. Total 240 respondents were selected for the study. Standard techniques like NPV, BC ratio, IRR, Break-Even point and Payback period were employed. The investment in kinnow orchard has been seen as profitable business. In the study area, the net present value was work out to be ` 842521 per ha under solar irrigation system ` 798964 per ha electric irrigation system and ` 762808 per ha under diesel irrigation system. Internal rate of return was found to be 38 per cent, 37 per cent and 35 per cent under solar irrigation, electric irrigation and diesel irrigation system. Benefit-Cost Ratio was at 2.36, 2.23 and 2.08 under solar, electric and diesel irrigation system. Break–Even point was 5.82 ton, 4.79 ton and 6 ton under solar, diesel and electric irrigation system. Payback period estimated to be 7.1 years, 7.2 years and 7.3 year under solar, electric and diesel irrigation system. Hence, the kinnow orchard with solar irrigation system has been found to be very economic feasible and it should be realized to the farming community for attraction towards use of renewable energy in fruits production in the state.

Title: Labour Employment and Income Generation from Agro-forestry System in U.S. Nagar District of Uttarakhand, India
Abstract :

The paper has examined the labour employment generation of the prevailing agro-forestry system. Two block of Udham Singh Nagar was selected for study purpose in which two spacing was followed by sample farmers i.e. 7m×3m and 5m×4m. Study was conducted by taking in to labour engaged in the Agro forestry System. Aggregate measures were used to determine the labour employed in agro-forestry system in different years of plantation. The result indicated that Agro-forestry with spacing 7m×3m require less labour to be employed in comparison to spacing 5m×4m. The result of study has suggested that policy support in terms promotion is to provide some incentive to agro-forestry farmers.

Title: Fiscal Tribal Dilemma: Imbalance in Protectionism and Optimum Resources Utilization Policies in North Eastern States of India
Abstract :
The paper is an attempt to assess the fiscal performance of eight north eastern states of India over a period of sixteen years (2000 – 2016). The paper constructs a composite index to measure the level of fiscal performance across the states based on their indices where each index is constructed based upon three fiscal related variables. Based on the composite fiscal performance index the study observes that the fiscal performance of most of the NE states is inconsistent and deteriorating over the years due to increasing deficit burden, poor own revenue capacity and high expenditure-debt serving ratio. The peculiar situation in the North Eastern states and the inherent restrictions implies that these states are faced with hurdles in the implementation of policies. NE states are favored states, getting large tax preferences, exempted from paying direct taxes; enjoy a number of subsidies, have rigid/undefined property rights regime, which hinders the identification of the potential of the economy. We believe that it is not protectionist policies rather it is the failure to harmonize protectionism with policies geared towards efficient resources management policies that undermines the fiscal health of the states, resulting in depressed developmental outcomes. Therefore, the institutional arrangement which vitiates fiscal health of the North Eastern states and adversely affects economic development is the outcome of the incongruity between protectionism and policies aimed at resources utilization. JEl Classification: H21, H62, H68, H83, P35
Title: Assets Creation and Employment Generation under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act: A Study of Kalaburagi District in Karnataka
Abstract :

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is not exclusively intended to provide employment in rural areas. Its objective of employment guarantee is linked with the creation of durable and sustainable assets. With this, MGNREGA has long run objective to enhance livelihood security of rural households. To achieve this, list of permissible works are clearly stipulated in the Act itself. So far, MGNREGA has successfully completed over a decade of journey in the countryside. In this long voyage, it is quite important to understand how far MGNREGA has become successful in creating sustainable assets through employment generation. The unevenness of economic development across the regions, MGNREGA implementation may not be same. So demand for employment varies across the regions. As result, employment generation and assets creation obviously differ from region to region. In addition, its performance depends upon financial resources, administrative mechanism, planning, monitoring and supervision, etc. In general, need for MGNREGA arises mostly in drought-prone, unirrigated and rain-fed rural areas. The present study attempts to explain the relation between employment generation and assets creation in drought-affected regions. For this study, Kalaburagi region of Karnataka is chosen where droughts occur frequently. Under MGNREGA, employment generation is relatively high in Kalaburagi when compared with state and national level. Work completion rate was increased from 44 percent to 79 percent for first three years and declined drastically thereafter. This work completion is relatively better in the works like rural connectivity, water conservation and rural sanitation. During 2006-17, just 13 percent of works were completed out of total undertaken works. The correlation between employment generation and work completion rate is too weak. From a decade of MGNREGA implementation, assets creation remained to be unsatisfactory.

Title: Generalized Mathematical Expressions for Various Repayment Plans and Long Term Cost Comparison
Abstract :

The financial systems of the day demand greater speed and accuracy which has been provided by digitalization delivered though computers. However, iterative programmes are no better than generalized formulae in saving time and money. This necessitates efforts in finding generalized mathematical formulae. This paper attempts to derive mathematical expression for various repayment plans in general. The generalized expressions derived have been further made use in comparing the cost effectiveness of repayment plans in long run. The straight end repayment plan remains the costliest plan with partial repayment plan being less costly regardless of interest rate and repayment term involved. The cost effectiveness of other plans depends on rate of interest and term of repayment.

Title: Problem Analysis of the Contract Farmers and the Contracting Firm under Contract Farming of Bottle Gourd
Abstract :

The present investigation was undertaken with a view to study the problems faced by the contract farmers and the contracting firm under contract farming of bottle gourd in the Jaipur district of Rajasthan. The contracting firm Rajasthan olive cultivation limited was selected, as it was only contracting firm in the Bassi tehsil which was engaged in the contract farming related to cucurbits and other vegetables. A list of 26 villages having contract farming in bottle gourd was obtained from the tehsil headquarter. From that list three villages were selected randomly. From these villages, 30 contract farmers were selected randomly and 20 non-contract farmers resembling to the contract farmers except contract component were also selected to make a comparative study of the contract farming vis-à-vis non-contract farming. Primary data were collected for the agricultural year 2015-16. The conventional budgeting technique and multiple regression functions were used to analyze the data. In the production of bottle gourd, contract farmers and contracting firms face many problems like transfer of technology, supply of quality seed, arrangements of institutional credit, fertilizers and other inputs, market arrangements, timely payments, violation of terms and conditions, lack of proper management by the company, frequent price fluctuations in markets, lack of transport facilities during peak periods, etc. For solving such problems it is necessary to first identify the problems and reasons thereof so that corrective measures may be resorted to tackle them. However this study was conducted on simulation conditions that involves the construction of the artificial environment (under control conditions) within which relevant information and data can be generated like in green house, poly house and shade net house for the future scholars.

Title: An Assessment of Impact of GST on India’s Online Retail Sector
Abstract :

The online retail market in India is relatively new and still adapting to the global business environment. Also, conventional tax regime was neither able to cover all e-commerce transactions nor give it a proper space to flourish. The launch of Goods and Services Tax (GST) changed the taxation scenario in India from a very complex tax structure comprising of around 500 different kinds of taxes to a simpler tax regime with just 3 broad tax categories while having both positive and negative impacts on industries operating in organized and unorganized manner. The objective of this exploratory, qualitative, and non-empirical paper is to explore and present the consequences of the introduction of GST on the Indian Economy with special reference to the online retail industry in India. Researchers reviewed the reports of various departments of Government of India (such as the Central Board of Excise and Customs); the GST Council reports up to 30th meeting held on September 28th 2018; Honorable Finance Minister’s speech on GST; and interviews of government officials. This paper may provide useful insights to the online retailers, suppliers and most importantly, the common buyers in understanding the changes brought by GST and help the GST Council in making further amendments in the Act.

Title: Role of Skill India Initiative in Indian Food Processing Industries
Abstract :

Indian food processing sector has shown promising growth with wider scope to accelerate agricultural economy of the country. It has given level playing to the multinational corporate to excel direct retailing of the food products. This study has tried to explore the factors affecting the quality delivery in the food processing industry. The conceptual framework has been developed on the basis of existing literature and finds nine responsible factors to deliver quality in the food processing industry. Statistical tests are used to examine the quest, based on the inputs from 50 food processing entrepreneurs. A survey based on structured questionnaire was conducted in three districts of Uttar Pradesh. The finding reveals that availability of educated and trained workers are the most challenging task for food processing players. The study further explores the potential and prospect of Skill India initiative in resolving the scarcity of qualified manpower. It is found that PMKVY (Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana) is giving the meaningful result by adding expertise to employed and unemployed individuals. This initiative is producing competent workforce in almost every zone in India. It is needed to include industrial participation for delivering training so that the needs of both parties were fulfilled.

Title: MGNREGA and Economic Empowerment of Women - Study of Indian Women
Abstract :

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) was enacted in India in 2005.It guarantees 100 days of work and ensures at least 33 per cent of the women participation. Even though MGNREGA has played a substantial role in economically empowering women, it faces major challenges that restrict their participation. This essay dwells into the complexities faced by women in India and exposes various factors that limit the success of MGNREGA. The study finds that tenacious social norms, continued illegal presence of contractors, lack of proper childcare facilities and delayed payments are the crucial factors that restrict women participation. Policy implications for Indian Government are also put forward.

Title: Contents Vol. 64, No. 2, June 2019
Abstract :
Title: The Impact of Microfinance: Helping to Improve Donor Effectiveness in Microfinance
Abstract :

Microfinance as a financial tool has also seen ups and downs. During 2011, market commentators predicted the end of India’s microfinance market but as on 31 March 2014, there were more than 74.30 lakh savings-linked SHGs, covering over 9.7 crore poor households. The total savings of these SHGs with banks amounted to ` 9897.42 crore. The number of credit-linked SHGs under the programme was 41.97 lakh. In 2011, the government of the state of Andhra Pradesh was seeking to prohibit the microloans business. After the crisis, RBI has handled the sector very vigilantly, carefully and very thoughtfully. The National Bank continued to provide 100 per cent refinance assistance to banks for financing SHGs. The SHG–Bank Linkage Programme (SHG–BLP) has expanded substantially since it was first launched on a pilot scale in 1992. The geographical spread of the movement has also been quite impressive from an essentially Andhra Pradesh – Karnataka phenomenon in the beginning now spreading to even the most remote corners of India. This paper tries to address impact of microfinance on women self help group members in comparison with non-beneficiaries of the microfinance schemes. Study found that the impact of microfinance on rural women economic condition is positive and microfinance is reforming their life.

Title: Globalization, Agro-Based Industry and Unemployment: A Three-Sector General Equilibrium Model
Abstract :
This paper explains how different interconnected measures of globalization, namely, tariff reform, labour market reform and capital account liberalization influence different sectors of the economy, unemployment and flexible wage of unskilled labour in the informal sector. In so doing we depart from the conventional Harris-Todaro type of model of open urban unemployment. The different comparative static exercises performed in a three-sector general equilibrium clearly indicate that globalization is not a panacea for the multitude of problems of an emerging market economy. JEL Classification- E26, F16
Title: Empowering Women through SHGs – Evidence from a case study of SHGs in Imphal East District, Manipur
Abstract :

In recent years, traditional literature implies that women are empowered when they can exercise choices and are aware of alternatives, microfinance being one of the most important catalysts. However, doubts about the long term viability of SHGs as a model for supply of micro credit to low income groups of women have risen, as for SHGs-Bank linkage model to remain viable as long as long term key support and maintenance services must be provided to individual community group-level bodies, and their costs recovered. It is found that even though women have experienced an increase in income and consumption, they have very little control over resources, assets and do not participate equally in major household decisions. However, they have significant influence on the choices that their children make. The paper made an empirical study of SHGs in Imphal East, Manipur as a case for illustration. The study shows that microfinance and SHG is very closely related and is considered as two sides of the same coin. This study attempts to understand the impact of microfinance on women empowerment through a case study in study of SHGs in Imphal East, Manipur as a case for illustration. The success and failures of SHGs to achieve the goal of socio-economic empowerment of women have been evaluated and lessons and evidences learnt have been incorporated in the paper. The study has covered the specific constraints and challenges of SHGs, and policy prescriptions to address the specific problems are suggested.

Title: A Probe into Rural Households’ Food Accessibility Scenario: A Micro Level Study in West Bengal
Abstract :

Food security is recognized as a basic human right and in the ‘Sustainable Development Summit’ of 2015, achieving ‘Zero Hunger’ by 2030 has been set as one of the 17 sustainable development goals. The incidence of hunger is very much region or context-specific. India remains at ‘serious’ category in Global Hunger Index Severity Scale, 2017. Food accessibility being the most important pillar of food security, in this paper we attempt to assess the incidence, depth and severity of food inaccessibility at the household level in three villages of the district of Birbhum, West Bengal. The study, based on primary data covering 257 households, also intends to examine food accessibility of the households classified by their primary source of income. We have taken monthly per capita consumption expenditure (MPCE) on food as the indicator of food accessibility. The MPCE on food as per the minimum food basket set by the Planning Commission in 2014 and the mean MPCE on food for rural West Bengal as determined by the NSSO in 2011 are considered as two threshold levels. The study reveals the alarming reality that a significant percentage of households with zero operational land and marginal farmers do not have food accessibility. An inquiry into the sources of income of the households reveals that there exists (i) a negative relation between wage income and food accessibility, (ii) an inverse relation between income generated from farm activity and food accessibility and (iii) a positive relation between income from regular service, trade, business and food accessibility.

Title: Groundwater Depletion and Role of Direct Seeded Rice in Water Saving: A Move Towards Sustainable Agriculture of Punjab
Abstract :

Presently, out of 20 million tube wells in the country, almost 1.3 million are in Punjab, contributing to fast-paced groundwater extraction and its depletion. Direct seeding of rice has a great potential for optimizing the water-use efficiency in paddy cultivation without any disturbing and harmful effect on its productivity, if weeds are controlled properly. A significant saving of 18 per cent was achieved for irrigating one hectare of the DSR farm in basmati and non-basmati varieties as compared to non-DSR farm. The mean overall technical efficiency was more in DSR farms as compared with non-DSR farms, with difference of about 12 per cent in basmati and 5 per cent in non-basmati fields. However, this difference was 7 per cent in basmati and 14 per cent in non basmati while calculating the average technical efficiency w. r. t water-use. Popularization of this technology among farmers in a participatory mode on a comprehensive scale needs a focused attention through capacity building of farmers.

Title: Pluralism in Agricultural Extension in India: Imperatives and Implications
Abstract :

Indian extension system is said to be pluralistic in nature with number of agencies involved in delivery of extension services. There are public, private and third sector actors along with information communication technology (ICT) based initiatives proactively involved in information and technology dissemination in agriculture and allied sectors. Some of the actors are involved in the provision of support services also. It has brought added responsibility to public extension like quality assurance along with provision of technical backstopping, and ensuring coordination between different actors in pluralistic extension system. This article tries to reflect on the imperatives for and major actors of pluralistic extension system in India as well as its implications.

Title: Imbalanced Sex Ratio in Haryana: Rural and Urban Dimensions
Abstract :

Haryana has the most severe shortage of girls compared to boys and stand bottom among all states of India. The discrimination against girl’s child and strong son preference over daughters is well known in Indian society which is largely responsible for resulting decisive sex ratio. The issue of gender unfairness with the girl from womb to real-world compel to think that despite the mounting modernization and societal development why this significant segment of society is treated with double standards. The present study is coupled with the state Haryana which is recognized not only for its economic development but also far behind in sexual characteristics. The main motive of the work is to analyse the regional variations in sex ratio in Haryana during different time periods. There is no doubt that the state has questioning distinction of having the worst male-female ratio which is really an unprofessed adversity having its cavernous and horrifying impacts upon society in future. Several reasons are ascribed to the deteriorating numeral of females in proportion to males. It is very surprising that slaughter of girl child both before and after birth is still experienced in the state in spite of legal prevention and many policies and programmes that support girls like ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padao’, ‘Haryana Kanya Kosh’, ‘Apki Beti Hamari Beti’ etc. It has been found that male-female ratio in the state is imbalanced and continuously going to decline from 1981 to 2011 except a little improvement and both urban and rural areas are facing severe scarceness of females over males.

Title: Impact of Monetary Policy on Bank Credit since Reforms Period
Abstract :

Does Bank Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) affect the bank credit? This question always comes in the mind of researchers, economist, academicians, and policymakers and to get the answer to it, many research activities and projects are carried out by them. This study is also on the same line. The study intends to examine the impact of monetary policy on bank credit since reforms period. The study uses multiple regression models to test the selected banking variables by using the time series data collected from RBI. The study found that there is an inverse relationship between CRR and bank credit, SLR and bank credit but there is no association between bank rate by RBI and bank credit by the scheduled commercial banks in India since reforms period.

Title: Democratic Values, Freedom, Control and Life Satisfaction
Abstract :
The present study tries to measure the level of life satisfaction for individuals from Asia & Australasia and capture the determinants in deciding one’s satisfaction level. The study hypothesized that whether democratic values and ethics play a significant role in determining one’s level of life satisfaction and for testing the same on econometric tools the study presents the methodology and conceptual framework in subsequent sections. The study uses the latest wave (wave six) of World Value Survey which was conducted during 2010-14. Results show that democratic values affect SWB most significantly and found to be the strongest predictor of SWB, however, this relation is insignificant with positive signs for Hybrid democracies. Importance to politics and religion results in decreased odds of SWB for Full and Flawed democracies but here too the relationship is opposite in case of Hybrid democracies resulting in increased SWB for every scale increase in importance to politics and religion. Tax cheating attitude is found to be negatively accounting for SWB in case of Full and Hybrid democracies where trust on national institutions (particularly in Full democracies) is a virtue and results in increased odds of SWB, this relation is very opposite in case of Flawed democracies where cheat on tax is associated with increased odds of SWB and increased trust in national institutions results in decreasing SWB. The study suggests that contemporary governments should engage common people in policy decision making, give freedom for creativity and controlling their own life as they want and revitalize the education system to have a better future generation who takes care of these values and feel happy being obedient.
Title: Analysis of Technical Efficiency in Mustard Production in Different Agro-Climatic Zones of Haryana and Punjab
Abstract :
This paper help in analyzing Technical Efficiencies (TE), in different agricultural production stages for growing mustard, adopted by the farmers of Punjab &Haryana in smallholding farming communities following the fast-track agricultural reform of the year 2014 with a view of highlighting key entry points for policy in the context of “Doubling of Farmers Income”. Using a randomly selected sample of 350 smallholder mustard producers in the districts of south western Punjab and north western Haryana, a stochastic frontier production model was applied, using a linear Cobb–Douglas production function to determine the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, technical efficiency and the determinants of efficiency. The TE can be proved immensely helpful to avoid the situation of indebtedness, low yield and farmer’s suicides in other Indian states. The study finds that mustard output responds positively to the increases in inorganic fertilizers, seed quantity, the use of labour and the area planted. The analysis for mustard growers depict 90 per cent of farmers in the study area, are technically efficient between 70 and 85 per cent, with an average of 77 per cent. The crucial factors of technical efficiency were the gender of head, size of family and frequency of extension services and visits, size of farm and the farming region. This paper represents a case study of south western Punjab and western Haryana to conclude the advanced middle stage farmers of both the state transforming the income generation from agricultural production by making possible use of efficient technology in production for High Yield Varieties (HYV) of mustard. JEL Codes: O21, O33, Q12, Q18
Title: Economics of Milk Production in Belagavi District of Karnataka: A Comparative Study on Women Dairy Self-Help Group Members and Non-members
Abstract :

The present investigation was conducted in the Belagavi district of Karnataka to compare the economics of milk production with member and non-members of Women Dairy Self-Help Groups (WDSHGs). The primary data was collected from 90 members and 90 non-members of households from two seasons i.e. rainy and summer in the year 2015-16. The gross cost for maintaining local cow, crossbred cow and buffalo was found to be ` 91.75, ` 146.22 and ` 128.29 for member is more as against ` 88.11 for local cow, ` 142.36 for crossbred cow and ` 124.67 for buffalo in case of non-members. The cost per litre of milk of local cow (` 28.15), crossbred cow (` 20.73) and buffalo (` 26.82) was found to be slightly less for members in comparison to non-members ` 28.91 for local cow, ` 21.10 for crossbred cow and ` 27.08 for buffalo. The net returns per liter of milk was found to be ` -1.74 for local cow, ` 3.76 for crossbred cow and ` 2.45 for buffalo in members were slightly higher as compared to ` -2.57 for local cow, ` 3.18 for crossbred cow and ` 2.02 for buffalo in non-members. Here, net return per liter of milk for local cow is negative because, less productivity of local cow overall the net returns from dairy farming is higher for members as compared to non-members.

Title: Estimation of Growth Trends and Impact Assessment of National Food Security Mission on Chickpea Production in India
Abstract :
The present study has been attempted to analyse the growth trends and impact assessment of NFSM-P on area, production and yield of chickpea in major states in India. The study was based on the secondary data pertaining to the year 1970-71 to 2014-15. To estimate growth trends, compound growth function was fitted and change in area, production and yield of chickpea during NFSM-P period (2008-09 to 2014-15) has been compared with preceding period (1990-91 to 2007-08) for impact assessment of NFSM-P on chickpea in the country. The results of the study indicated that chickpea area in India over the period has almost been stagnating (0.12%, statistically non-significant). The production of has increased at an annual rate of 1.12 per cent owing to the significant annual increase (1.00%) in chickpea yield. The results further highlighted emergence of niche area such as Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka in chickpea production while area shrinkage from Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh was also observed. The yield of chickpea in all the major states of India has shown positive growth during the study period. The effort of the government in the form of NFSM-P has positively impacted area, production and yield of chickpea in the country but increase in production was supported by area addition rather than yield
improvement indicating need of technological advancement, improved yield varieties for enhancement of chickpea production in the country.
Title: Advances in Statistical Forecasting Methods: An Overview
Abstract :

Statistical tools for forecasting purpose started using smooth exponential methods in 1950s. These methods were modified depending upon the trend followed in the data sets, based upon the evaluation purpose. From simple additive to multiplicative effects and then automated functions were used to evaluate the complexity in data for forecasting purpose. In this review we summarized the various statistical methods used for forecasting purposes starting from the basic function to complex function in order to evaluate various data sets viz-a-viz time series data of different components, like agricultural products, business outcomes, and stock market exchange rates. In order to evaluate the data sets for forecasting purpose to accuracy or near accuracy, various statistical methods will give different predictions depending up on the range of data sets whether daily, weekly, monthly or yearly, number of observations in the data set, seasonality in data sets, number of missing observation in data sets, and more importantly the variation in data sets to interpret the results.

Title: Diversification and Specialisation of Punjab in Growing Various Crops: A District Level Approach
Abstract :

The paper examines the nature and extent of crop diversification, crop specialization and inter-district diversity in cropping pattern in the most advanced agricultural state Punjab during the period of 2000-01 to 2014-15. The study has used the index of crop diversification, location quotient, crop versatility and district versatility index for analysis. The study has revealed that both wheat and rice crop is grown by all the districts, so none of the district was found to be very highly specialised or very less specialised than state. However, for cotton and maize, four districts acquired specialization. The district versatility results shows that Hoshiarpur is the more versatile district and Patiala is less versatile district in 2014-15. The insights from the paper suggests that the government should enhance region-specific diversification on the basis of district specialization along with infrastructure and assured marketing of new crops through contract farming and supermarkets procurement.

Title: Credit Subsidy Policy and the Moral Hazard of Loan Waivers in the Non-Traded Agriculture Sector in Presence of Credit Market Dualism: A Three- Sector General Equilibrium Model
Abstract :
The paper is an attempt to unveil the growth-development tradeoff in the Indian agriculture sector in light of some selected recent policy measures in presence of dualism in both agriculture sector and credit market. Segmentation of the agriculture sector is addressed as traded export agriculture and non-traded agriculture sector. The dualism in the credit market is the coexistence of the formal and informal credit market. In this paper, we construct a three-sector general equilibrium model which may apply to a large class of emerging market economies. The results of the paper reflect contradictions of an emerging economy which is essentially hybrid economics in which capitalist nucleus has a conditional-conditioning relationship with an archaic structure.
 
Title: Economics and Constraints of Large Cardamom Cultivation in Zunheboto District of Nagaland
Abstract :

The present paper studied the economics of large cardamom cultivation using primary data collected from a sample of 80 large cardamom growers of Zunheboto district. It has been found that investment in large cardamom is a profitable business. Total cost of cultivation for large cardamom was ` 83188.29/ha and net farm income was ` 251559.65/ha. The values of economic parameters, viz, NPV, BCR, IRR and PBP was worked out to be ` 98129.31/ha, 1.66(over total cost), 35 per cent and 4.3 years respectively, thus, confirmed the economic viability and certainty of investment in large cardamom plantation. Non availability of planting materials on time was the major constraint reported in the study area. The study has emphasized on the need of participatory quality planting material production at village level which will facilitate in effective supply of seedlings at proper time.

Title: An Appraisal of Performance of Primary Agricultural Co-operative Societies (PACS) in Nadia District of West Bengal
Abstract :

Primary Agricultural Cooperative Societies (PACS) – the age-long rural institutions were set up mainly focussing credit aspects of farming community. However, with the passage of time PACS have undergone many changes in terms of their modus operandi as well as objectives. Of late they have been mobilizing financial resources from rural households in the form of savings etc. Additionally, they are now promoting Self-Help-Groups (SHGs), particularly women-groups who were untouched earlier. In this paper, attempt is being made to examine performance of PACS in terms of its coverage, inclusion, economic efficiency, social responsibility and prudence in financial management. The study is based on secondary data relating to the period 2007-08 to 2016-17 referring to randomly selected seven PACS of Nadia district, West Bengal. Finally the authors point out to the weaknesses and pitfalls of societies and conclude with some suggestions for strengthening PACS. It has been observed that PACS have broadened their base in terms membership growth and quantum of loan-disbursement. However, they have showed poor performance in recovery and decelerating NPA growth. The reasons for growths in Overdue and NPA need critical observations at ground level. An exhaustive evaluation is needed whether overdue or NPA are owing to growth of wilful or non-wilful defaulters.

Title: Assessment of Repayment Performance of Agriculture Credit by Farm Households across Rural Urban Interface of North of Bengaluru
Abstract :

The study was undertaken in North of Bengaluru to Assess the Repayment performance and factors affecting repayment capacity of agriculture credit by farm households across rural urban interface. The required primary data was collected from randomly selected 50 farmers each under rural, peri-urban and urban transacts. The results revealed that the farmers availed more credit from formal sources compared to informal sources across all transacts. Repayment was more in urban areas (50.36 %) compared to peri-urban (43.05 %) and rural (34.52 %) areas. The farmers were categorized based on the extent of repayment across rural urban interface and the results indicated that, 42 per cent of rural farmers, 40 per cent of peri urban and 34 per cent of urban farmers fall under the category of 75 to 100 per cent repayment. Low price, crop loss and higher household expenditure occupied the major reasons for indebtedness of farm households in all the three transacts. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to know the factors affecting repayment capacity and regression results showed that Amount borrowed and interest rate were the factors which significantly affected the repayment capacity of farm households.

Title: Social Costs and Benefits Analysis of Drip Irrigation System in Northern Maharashtra
Abstract :
Water is going to be increasingly scarce and thereby limits the agricultural development in almost all the corner of entire world. Efficient development with proper management of the scarce water resources is the key determinants for achieving food security not only for India, but for the entire world. This paper has analyzed and assessed the associated social costs and benefits with drip irrigation system. The adoption of drip irrigation has significant bearing on the society as a whole and generates various positive and negative externalities. The different components of social benefits are value of energy saved, value of water saved and off-farm employment generation. On the other side, cost of subsidy to the government and forced investment on well are the two components of social costs. The value of electricity saved in monetary terms was observed to be ` 20.3 and 11.01 thousand per ha in sugarcane and banana crops, respectively. Economic value of water used under drip and flood irrigation was computed using Cobb-Douglas production function. Economic value of water used in sugarcane was 19.90 `/m3 and banana cultivation was observed to be 19.13 `/m3. The quantity of water saved by adoption of drip irrigation, in monetary terms was found to be ` 1.1 lakh and ` 69.9 thousand rupees per ha of sugarcane and banana, respectively. As the life span of a drip system is around 10 years, the social costs and benefits have been discounted for 10 years to get the actual social benefit cost ratio. The social benefit cost ratio is found to be 2.08 at 10 per cent discount rate.
Title: Impact of Public Policies on Women Health in India: An Empirical Study
Abstract :

An effort has been made in this study to measure the impact of public policies on women health in Indian. This Paper has been divided into three parts: first part of the study shows the trend and pattern of the public policies on women health from 2004 to 2015. Secondly, this paper explored the effectiveness of the health policies and in order to find out the effectiveness, we have used Anova with post hoc test. Lastly, we have used regression analysis to find out the impact of public policies on women health in India.

Title: The Socio-economic Status of Cotton Farmers and their Attitude Towards Pesticide Use
Abstract :

Cotton accounts for the maximum share of pesticide consumption. Over the past decade, the perplexities in pest management intensified more insect species developing resistance to insecticides which was a consequence of excessive use of insecticides on the crop. For the study, multistage sampling procedure was adopted to select the respondents. Twenty cotton farmers from each village were post-stratified into small, medium and large farmers proportionately making a total sample of 120. The total costs as well as returns incurred were highest for large farmers as compared to medium and small farmers, but pesticides cost was more in case of small farmers. Around 54 farmers (45%) had spent ` 4500 to ` 5500 per ha for pesticide application. Most of the farmers do not know how to read literature on pesticide containers. It was astonishing to notice that 73.33 per cent of the farmers were exposed to or not using protective masks/coverings during pesticide application and farmers were found careless in handling pesticides.

Title: Marketing Behavior of Banana Grower in Bhagalpur District of Bihar
Abstract :

The study was conducted on primary data, collected from a sample of 60 banana growers, consisted of 26 (43%), 25 (42%) and 9 (15%) marginal & small, semi-medium and medium & large category. The data were collected from the sample growers with the help of specifically prepared pre-tested schedules through Survey Method by interviewing them, selected through Multi-Stage Sampling Technique from a cluster of 3 villages of Nawgachhia block of Bhagalpur district. The growers in general (76.67%) were found selling banana in ‘local market’. The semi-medium and medium & large category (36.0 and 56.0 per cent) growers were also found selling it to ‘distant markets’. The ‘contract sale’ was pre-dominantly prevailed as ‘mode of sale’ in the area. The ‘cash sale’ as-well-as ‘credit sale’ was prevailing in the area. The marginal & small category growers sold banana to the pre-harvest contractors.

Title: Problems faced by Selected Small Business Units in Coimbatore city due to Demonetization
Abstract :

Small scale industries has been considered as device of economic growth and development in many developing countries and this constitute the backbone of an economy in maintaining a significant growth and in generating employment opportunities. The Government of India declared that ` 500 and ` 1000 notes will be no longer legal tender from midnight, 8th November 2016. This move is expected to cleanse the formal economic system, discard black money and counterfeit notes. The small business units who largely depend on Cash related transaction on daily basis witnessed more disturbances. Therefore an attempt has been made to identify the problems faced by the small business units and give suggestions to improve the working of small business units which were affected by demonetization in Coimbatore city. The study revealed that most of the respondents were unhappy about the implementation of demonetization because they faced loss due to cash crunch and had a great impact on their small business activities and their standard of living.

Title: Growth Performance of Rice in West Bengal Agriculture: A Spatio temporal Analysis
Abstract :

The present study was conducted to analyze the rice cultivation scenario in West Bengal from 1994-95 to 2015-16. The study was based on secondary data collected from various sources. Study showed that production, yield, area under high yielding variety (HYV) and area under irrigation had a positive and significant growth rate, whereas area had negative and significant growth rate in overall period i.e., period III (1994-16). North 24 parganas, Cooch behar, Jalpaiguri showed highest growth rate in terms of area, production and yield respectively in period III. Among the traditional rice growing districts Midnapore showed higher growth rate in terms of production and yield than Bardhaman in period III. Midnapore and Bardhaman were among the top three districts in terms of area and production. Variable like rainfall (R) had negative and significant effect in growth of area and production showing unpredictability of monsoon caused the farmers to show reluctance in rice cultivation. Other variable like literacy rate (LR) and fertilizer consumption (FC) had positive and significant effect on growth rate of yield and gross irrigated area (GIA) in terms of growth of area under rice cultivation.

Title: Ground Water Lowering and its Adverse Effect on Agriculture in some Productive Villages of Paschim Medinipur District of West Bengal
Abstract :
Ground water is an important source of water supply throughout the world. Its use in irrigation, industries and households continues to increase. Storage of ground water is to be estimated accurately and proper planning is required to ensure continued availability of water supply. Some parts of my study area that is under Daspur I block in the district of Paschim Medinipur of West Bengal registered comparatively low ground water level and which has started to create problems in agricultural activity in these productive land areas especially in pre-monsoon period. So here a study has been made on the six villages of Basudebpur Gram Panchayet of Daspur I block, characterized with comparatively low ground water level. Various uses of ground water have been discussed here. The environmental influence on ground water has been analysed based on meteorological information (Temperature and rainfall data) and secular, seasonal and short term variations of ground water are also been discussed over the study villages. A comparative study is made between pre